Browsing by Subject "morphology"

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  • Maijanen, Heli; Junno, Juho-Antti; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Niskanen, Markku; Wessman, Anna (2021)
    Levanluhta, an Iron Age water burial site in Finland, and its material consisting of commingled skeletal remains and artifacts, has been studied by several researchers over the past 100 years, resulting in multiple interpretations of the people and the site. Previous skeletal analyses have concluded that the majority of the individuals represented in the remains were females and children and were of relatively short stature, so possibly nutritionally deprived. This study re-analyzed the commingled adult human remains with updated methods. The methods applied in this study to estimate sex and stature were based on more representative European reference samples than the previously applied methods. The methods included morphology, osteometrics, and computed tomography (CT) scans. Our results indicated that depending on the reference data, the majority of the individual adult bones including os coxae (73%, n = 45) and long bones (humerus 83%-89%, n = 52; radius 72%-89%, n = 47; ulna 50%-65%, n = 58; femur 92%-100%, n = 25; tibia 77%-85%, n = 26) were classified as females based on their size and morphology. The cross-sectional bone properties of humerii, femora, and tibiae visualized using CT scanning also supported these findings. However, the cranial morphology did not show as clear female-biased sex ratio as other methods (42% females, 33% males, 24% undetermined, n = 33). In females, the mean stature based on the tibia (155.3 cm, n = 10) was within the range of the coeval European females and did not necessarily indicate nutritional deprivation, which is in line with previously published stable isotope findings from the site. The mean stature based on the tibia suggested that the Levanluhta males were short (164.0 cm, n = 3), but final interpretations were limited due to the small number of male individuals. The current study affirmed that the Levanluhta skeletal assemblage was female biased and gave new insights into interpretation of the stature.
  • Nupponen, Kari; Sihvonen, Pasi (2022)
    The taxonomy of South American Scythrididae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) is revised, based on external morphology, genitalia, male abdominal segment VIII, and DNA barcodes using genetic distances, BINs, and a tentative molecular phylogeny. Data include both historical and fresh specimens from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru. Thirty-four species are recognised as valid, and the fauna classified in three genera. Type specimens and morphology of all species are described and figured in detail. DNA barcode sequences of the COI gene were successful for 22 species, the average genetic divergence between species being 5.1%. A key to Neotropical Scythrididae species is provided, based on the male genitalia and abdominal segment VIII, which show most and easily accessible interspecific differences. Our study revealed that the Scythridae fauna of South America is more or less completely unknown. As a result, 22 new species are described, increasing the number of South American Scythrididae species from 13 to 34. All new species are authored by Kari Nupponen (incertae sedis means the genus combination is uncertain and needs further research, country of the type locality is given in parentheses): Rhamphura subdimota sp. nov. (Argentina), R. pozohondaensis sp. nov. (Argentina), R. spiniuncus sp. nov. (Argentina), R. angulisociella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), R. curvisociella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), R. tetrafasciella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), Landryia ankylosauroides sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), L. chilensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Chile), Scythris directiphallella sp. nov. (Argentina), S. furciphallella sp. nov. (Argentina), S. manchaoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S. salinasgrandensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S. angustivalvella sp. nov. (Argentina), S. caimancitoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S. lequetepequensis sp. nov. (Peru), S. sanfriscoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S. tigrensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S. bicoloristrigella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S. saldaitisi sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S. wikstromi sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S. andensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S. mendozaensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina). The following new combinations are proposed: Scythris depressa Meyrick, 1931 and Scythris dimota Meyrick, 1931 are transferred from Scythris Hübner, 1825 to Rhamphura Landry, 1991, comb. nov. Three species classified in Scythris earlier are now classified as Scythris (incertae sedis): Scythris dividua Meyrick, 1916, S. medullata Meyrick, 1916 and S. notorrhoa Meyrick, 1921. The taxon Syntetrernis neocompsa Meyrick, 1933, recently classified in Scythrididae: Scythris, is excluded from Scythrididae and it is now classified in Cosmopterigidae incertae sedis.
  • Vujic, Ante; Likov, Laura; Radenkovic, Snezana; Tubic, Natasa Kocis; Djan, Mihajla; Sebic, Anja; Perez-Banon, Celeste; Barkalov, Anatolij; Hayat, Rustem; Rojo, Santos; Andric, Andrijana; Stahls, Gunilla (2020)
    The phytophagous hoverfly genus Merodon Meigen, 1803 (Diptera, Syrphidae), which comprises more than 160 species distributed in Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions, can be differentiated into multiple groups of species that harbor high levels of hidden diversity. In this work, the serrulatus species group of Merodon is revised, providing an illustrated key to species, a detailed discussion on the taxonomic characters and a morphological diagnosis, including also the first data about the preimaginal morphology of this species group. The study includes characteristics of the 13 species of the M. serrulatus group, along with the available distributional data. Moreover, descriptions are provided for seven new species, namely M. defectus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. disjunctus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. medium Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. nigrocapillatus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov., M. nigropunctum Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. opacus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov., and M. trianguloculus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov. In addition, the taxa M. serrulatus (Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822), M. bequaerti Hurkmans, 1993, M. birsutus Sack, 1913, M. kawamurae Matsumura, 1916, M. sacki (Paramonov, 1936) and M. sophron Hurkmans, 1993 are redefined and redescribed. Following a detailed study of the type material sourced from different entomological collections, the status of all available taxa related to M. serrulatus is revised and a new synonymy is proposed: M. tener Sack, 1913 syn. nov. (junior synonym of M. serrulatus). The identity of M. trizonus (Szilady, 1940) could not be assessed as the type specimens are lost. Thus, the name M. trizonus is considered as nomen dubium. The monophyly and composition of this species group are assessed through Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA gene sequences.
  • Grünthal, Riho (2010)
    Syncretism and the overlapping of morphologi- cally distinct units or entire categories have different influences on morphosyntactically cumulative and less cumulative forms. The Finnic languages, in comparison to the more eastern Finno-Ugric languages, mainly display morphologically less complex forms. Morphologically there is a clear distinction in the way syncretism is manifested in the Finnic languages that, consequently, is one of the most distinct features in the inflectional system despite the close ge- nealogical affinity. This can concretely be seen in the differences in the case inflection of the southern, such as Livonian, Estonian and Votic, and northern Finnic languages, most notably Finnish, Karelian and Veps. The comparison of syncretism in these languages shows both cross-linguistic regularity and language-specific rules that determine syncretic forms. Diachronic change and the erosion of suffixal ele- ments are closely involved in the rise of syncretism. The paper exam- ines the symmetries and asymmetries in the occurrence of syncretic forms in Finnic case paradigms.
  • Portinha, Ines M.; Douillard, Francois P.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindstrom, Miia (2022)
    Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin that causes botulism, a rare but potentially lethal paralysis. Endospores play an important role in the survival, transmission, and pathogenesis of C. botulinum. C. botulinum strains are very diverse, both genetically and ecologically. Group I strains are terrestrial, mesophilic, and produce highly heat-resistant spores, while Group II strains can be terrestrial (type B) or aquatic (type E) and are generally psychrotrophic and produce spores of moderate heat resistance. Group III strains are either terrestrial or aquatic, mesophilic or slightly thermophilic, and the heat resistance properties of their spores are poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed the sporulation dynamics in population, spore morphology, and other spore properties of 10 C. botulinum strains belonging to Groups I-III. We propose two distinct sporulation strategies used by C. botulinum Groups I-III strains, report their spore properties, and suggest a putative role for the exosporium in conferring high heat resistance. Strains within each physiological group produced spores with similar characteristics, likely reflecting adaptation to respective environmental habitats. Our work provides new information on the spores and on the population and single-cell level strategies in the sporulation of C. botulinum.
  • Lähteenaro, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Twisted-winged parasitoids (Insecta: Strepsiptera) are parasites of other insects, which are characterized by complex life cycles and extreme sexual dimorphism. They have three endoparasitic larval stages. In most Strepsiptera only the motile first instar larvae and adult males are free living whereas the adult females are endoparasites during their entire life. The winged males slightly resemble flies, while females are neotenic. Around 630 extant Strepsiptera species are known but this is probably an underestimation since many species are cryptic. The genus Stylops, parasitoids of mining bees of genus Andrena, is one of the biggest genera of Strepsiptera. Until recently it was thought that only one species, Stylops melittae, occurs in Europe. Studies using DNA-methods revealed that it is in fact a species complex of 30 species. This study investigated which of these species occur in Finland. In addition, it was examined if the female morphology of the species could be used in species identification, since males are rarely found. Andrena host specimens were examined from three major entomological collections and the collecting data of the observed Stylops was recorded to a database. Suitable specimens were DNA barcoded and the acquired DNA barcodes were compered for the ones in databases (BOLD, GenBank). The females were separated from their hosts and photographed for the morphological examination using different imaging methods (focus stacking, SEM). Based on this study there are five species of Stylops in Finland instead of one as previously thought: S. thwaitesi, S. ater, S. japonicus, S. nevinsoni and S. spreta. In addition, there is one species, which is most likely undescribed. All females of these species can be identified based on their morphology. The results include summaries of each species containing information about their morphology, ecology, distribution and abundance. This study gives valuable new information about the twisted-winged parasitoids in Finland. The occurrence of the genus Stylops in Finland based on current taxonomy was examined for the first time. The study gave novel information about the distributions of Stylops-species. Deviating from previous information Stylops japonicus is also found in Europe. Furthermore, the study revealed new information about the host-parasite relationships of the species. Many of the Andrena host species had not been associated with certain Stylops species before. There has not been research focusing on Strepsiptera in Finland for a long time. The material collected for this study works as a good foundation for the possible future studies in Finland. The results were used in the 2019 Red List assessment and two of the Stylops species were in the Red List of threatened species.
  • Flores, Jorge R. (2020)
    Estimating how fast or slow morphology evolves through time (phenotypic change rate, PR) has become common in macroevolutionary studies and has been important for clarifying key evolutionary events. However, the inclusion of incompletely scored taxa (e.g. fossils) and variable lengths of discrete arbitrary time bins could affect PR estimates and potentially mask real PR patterns. Here, the impact of taxon incompleteness (unscored data) on PR estimates is assessed in simulated data. Three different time bin series were likewise evaluated: bins evenly spanning the tree length (i), a shorter middle bin and longer first and third bins (ii), and a longer middle bin and shorter first and third bins (iii). The results indicate that PR values decrease as taxon incompleteness increases. Statistically significant PR values, and the dispersion among PR values, depended on the time bins. These outcomes imply that taxon incompleteness can undermine our capacity to infer morphology evolutionary dynamics and that these estimates are also influenced by our choice of discrete time bins. More importantly, the present results stress the need for a better approach to deal with taxon incompleteness and arbitrary discrete time bins.
  • Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich (2015)
    A new series of notes on distribution, taxonomy, morphology and nomenclature of some vascular plants in Kyrgyzstan is presented. Carex subphysodes Popov ex V.Krecz., Astragalus sogdianus Bunge, Oxytropis ferganensis Vass. and Iris maracandica (Vved.) Wendelbo (all native), and also Delphinium orientalis J.Gay (alien) are reported as new to Kyrgyzstan. Sedum tetramerum Trautv. is new to Northern Tian-Shan, and Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Soják is new to Chatkal Range and Western Tian-Shan within Kyrgyzstan. The distribution area of Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link is revised and expanded, and the distribution of Eremurus zoae Vved. (endemic to Kyrgyzstan) is verified and mapped. New names and combinations, Betonica sect. Foliosae (Krestovsk. & Lazkov) Lazkov, Eriophyton anomalum (Juz.) Lazkov & Sennikov, Kudrjaschevia sect. Jacubianae Lazkov, Lagochilus sect. Chlainanthus (Briq.) Lazkov, Leonurus sect. Panzerioidei (Krestovsk.) Lazkov, Phlomoides sect. Pseuderemostachys (Popov) Lazkov, and Scutellaria sect. Ramosissimae Lazkov, are provided as a result of the forthcoming monographic revision of Lamiaceae. Two hybrids are described in Eremurus, E. fuscus × E. cristatus = E. nikitinae Lazkov and E. cristatus × E. zoae = E. gypsaceus Lazkov. Places of valid publication and the authorship of Iris svetlanae (Vved.) T.Hall & Seisums and Erianthera anomala Juz. are corrected. Iris svetlanae is synonymized with I. maracandica. A new colour form (with pinkish flowers) of Betonica betoniciflora (Rupr. ex O.Fedtsch. & B.Fedtsch.) Sennikov is described. English-language designations are provided for the map of biogeographic provinces of Kyrgyzstan.
  • Lakka, Hanna-Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Lepidurus arcticus (Pallas, 1793) is a keystone species in High Arctic ponds, which are exposed to a wide range of environmental stressors. This thesis provides information on the ecology of this little studied species by paying particular focus on the sensitivity of L. arcticus to acidification and climate change. Respiration, reproduction, olfaction, morphology, salinity and pH tolerance of the species were studied in the laboratory and several environmental parameters were measured in its natural habitats in Arctic ponds. Current global circulation models predict 2–2.4 °C increase in summer temperatures on Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. The L. arcticus respiration activity was tested at different temperatures (3.5, 10, 16.5, 20, 25 and 30 °C). The results show that L. arcticus is clearly adapted to live in cold water and have a temperature optimum at +10 °C. This species should be considered as stenothermal, because it seems to be able to live only within a narrow temperature range. L. arcticus populations seem to have the capacity to respond to the ongoing climate change on Spitsbergen. Changes can be seen in the species' reproductive capacity and in the individuals' body size when comparing results with previous studies on Spitsbergen and in other Arctic areas. Effective reproduction capacity was a unique feature of the L. arcticus populations on Spitsbergen. L. arcticus females reached sexual maturity at a smaller body size and sexual dimorphism appeared in smaller animals on Spitsbergen than anywhere else in the subarctic or Arctic regions. L. arcticus females were able to carry more eggs (up to 12 eggs per female) than has been observed in previous studies. Another interesting feature of L. arcticus on Spitsbergen was their potential to grow large, up to 39.4 mm in total length. Also cannibalistic behaviour seemed to be common on Spitsbergen L. arcticus populations. The existence of different colour morphs and the population-level differences in morphology of L. arcticus were unknown, but fascinating characteristic of this species. Spitsbergen populations consisted of two major (i.e. monochrome and marbled) and several combined colour morphs. Third interesting finding was a new disease for science which activated when the water temperature rose. I named this disease to Red Carapace Disease (RCD). This High Arctic crustacean lives in ponds between the Arctic Ocean and glaciers, where the marine environment has a strong impact on the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The tolerance of L. arcticius to increased water salinity was determined by a LC50 -test. No mortality occurred during the 23 day exposure at low 1–2 ‰ water salinity. A slight increase in water salinity (to 1 ‰) speeded up the L. arcticus shell replacement. The observations from natural populations supported the hypothesis that the size of the animals increases considerably in low 1.5 ‰ salt concentrations. Thus, a small increase in water salinity seems to have a positive impact on the growth of this short-lived species. Acidification has been a big problem for many crustaceans, invertebrates and fishes for several decades. L. arcricus does not make an exception. Strong acid stress in pH 4 caused a high mortality of mature L. arcticus females. The critical lower limit of pH was 6.1 for the survival of this acid sensitive species. Thus, L. arcticus populations are probably in danger of extinction due to acidification of three ponds on Spitsbergen. A slight drop (0.1–1.0) in pH values can wipe out these L. arcticus populations. The survival of L. arcticus was strongly related to: (1) the water pH, (2) total organic carbon (TOC) and pH interaction, (3) the water temperature and (4) the water salinity. Water pH and TOC values should be monitored in these ponds and the input of acidifying substances in ponds should be prevented.
  • Koskenniemi, Kimmo (University of Helsinki. Department of General Linguistics, 1983)
    This dissertation presents a new computationally implemented linguistic model for morphological analysis and synthesis. The model incorporates a general formalism for making morphological descriptions of particular languages, and a language-independent program implementing the model. The two-level formalism and the structure of the program are formally defined. The program can utilize descriptions of various languages, including highly inflected ones such as Finnish, Russian, or Sanskrit. The new model is unrestricted in scope and it is capable of handling the entire language system as well as ordinary running text. A full description of Finnish inflectional morphology is presented in order to validate the model. The two-level model is based on a lexicon system and a set of two-level rules. It differs from generative phonology in the following respects. The rules are parallel, as opposed to being sequentially ordered, as is the case with the rewriting rules of generative phonology. The two-level model is fully bidirectional both conceptually and processually. It can also be interpreted as a morphological model of the performance processes of word-form recognition and production. The model and the descriptions are based on computationally simple machinery, mostly on small finite state automata. The computational complexity of the model is discussed, and the description of Finnish is evaluated with respect to external evidence from child language acquisition.
  • Guzow-Krzeminska, Beata; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; van den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, A. Maarten; Launis, Annina; Lubek, Anna; Kukwa, Martin (2019)
    Six new Micarea species are described from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses, based on three loci, i.e. mtSSU rDNA, Mcm7 and ITS rDNA and ancestral state reconstructions, were used to evaluate infra-group divisions and the role of secondary metabolites and selected morphological characters on the taxonomy in the M. prasina group. Two main lineages were found within the group. The Micarea micrococca clade consists of twelve species, including the long-known M. micrococca and the newly described M. microsorediata, M. nignz and M. pauli. Within this Glade, most species produce methoxymicareic acid, with the exceptions of M. levicula and M. viaikprosa producing gyrophoric acid. The M. prasina dade includes the newly described M. azorica closely related to M. prasina s.str., M. aeruginoprusina sp. nov. and M. isidiopnzsina sp. nov. The species within this Glade are characterised by the production of micareic acid, with the exception of M. herbarum which lacks any detectable substances and M. subviridescens that produces prasinic acid. Based on our reconstructions, it was concluded that the ancestor of the M. prasina group probably had a thallus consisting of goniocysts, which were lost several times during evolution, while isidia and soredia evolved independently at multiple times. Our research supported the view that the ancestor of M. prasina group did not produce any secondary substances, but they were gained independently in different lineages, such as methoxymicareic acid which is restricted to M. micrococca and allied species or micareic acid present in the M. prasina clade.
  • Viranta, Suvi; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha (2021)
    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized felid, with a tendency to hunt for prey larger than itself. We studied the lynx hindlimb musculoskeletal anatomy in order to determine possible anatomical adaptations to hunting large prey. In our previous work, we had found characters of both large and small felids in the lynx forelimb. The crouched limbs, typical of all felids, increase the energy demands for the antigravity muscles during locomotion. As a powerful pounce is required for the smaller felid to bring down large prey, strong hindquarters may be needed. We hypothesized that the muscle attachments are more mechanically advantageous and muscles heavier in the lynx as compared to other felids to compensate for the energy requirements. In support of this, we found unique patterns in the hindlimb musculature of the lynx. Insertion of the m. gluteus medius was large with a short moment arm around the hip joint, providing mechanical disadvantage, but rapid movement. The musculus vastus medialis was relatively heavier than in other felids emphasizing the role of the m. quadriceps femoris as a powerful stifle extensor. The extensor muscles support the crouched hind limbs, which is crucial when tackling large prey, and they are also responsible for the swift powerful pounce brought by extending the hindlimbs. However, we cannot rule out the possibility the characters are shared with other Lynx spp. or they are adaptations to other aspects of the locomotor strategy in the Eurasian lynx.
  • Virpioja, Sami Petteri; Lehtonen, Minna; Hultén, Annika; Kivikari, Henna; Salmelin, Riitta; Lagus, Krista (2018)
    Determining optimal units of representing morphologically complex words in the mental lexicon is a central question in psycholinguistics. Here, we utilize advances in computational sciences to study human morphological processing using statistical models of morphology, particularly the unsupervised Morfessor model that works on the principle of optimization. The aim was to see what kind of model structure corresponds best to human word recognition costs for multimorphemic Finnish nouns: a model incorporating units resembling linguistically defined morphemes, a whole-word model, or a model that seeks for an optimal balance between these two extremes. Our results showed that human word recognition was predicted best by a combination of two models: a model that decomposes words at some morpheme boundaries while keeping others unsegmented and a whole-word model. The results support dual-route models that assume that both decomposed and full-form representations are utilized to optimally process complex words within the mental lexicon.
  • Kaila, Lauri; Nupponen, Kari; Gorbunov, Pavel Yu; Mutanen, Marko; Heikkila, Maria (2020)
    Ustyurtiidae Kaila, Heikkila & Nupponen, a new family of Urodoidea is introduced. The family is based on the genus Ustyurtia Kaila, Heikkila & Nupponen, gen. n. The genus includes the type species U. zygophyllivara Kaila, Heikkila & Nupponen, sp. n. and U. charynica Kaila, Heikkila & Nupponen, sp. n., both from Kazakhstan. These two species, in particular the immature stages, have morphological attributes apomorphic of Urodoidea. The close affinity is also supported by DNA data based on several markers. We consider this new family warranted due to its sister group position to the remaining Urodoidea and a number of significant morphological differences in wing venation, male genitalia and the structure of the cocoon, apomorphic for Ustyurtiidae on the basis of an earlier published phylogeny. All other recognized genera of Urodoidea belong to the family Urodidae. The closest relatives and phylogenetic position of Urodoidea are not firmly established, but Urodoidea and Schreckensteinioidea have morphological similarities which, in the light of genetic analyses appear synapomorphic and possibly uniting these groups, rather than homoplasious as assumed earlier. The affinities of these superfamilies are discussed.
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (University of Sofia "St. Kliment Ohridski", 1981)
  • Rueter, Jack (Издательский центр Историко-социологического института, 2020)
    This paper addresses the issue of a national corpus for language documentation of the Moksha and Erzya literary languages in coordination with dialect archives comprising over 80 years of fieldwork (inclusive Shoksha, Karatai). It shows necessary development in computer-assisted research tools and ongoing research aligned with a consistent and systematic open research project.