Browsing by Subject "obesity"

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  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major, rapidly increasing global public health challenge. The major risk factors for T2D include overweight and obesity, lifestyle-related factors and genetic factors. Early life exposures shape the developmental trajectories and alter susceptibility to T2D. Based on epidemiological studies it has been suggested that fetal undernutrition plays a role in the etiology of T2D. A low birth weight has been considered a proxy for fetal undernutrition. A meta-analysis reported that a 1 kg increase in birth weight is associated with a roughly 20% lower risk of T2D. Although fetal life is of major importance for future health, the period spanning the first 1000 days of life, is characterized by great plasticity and largely influencing later health. Different growth trajectories during this time period have also been associated with an increased risk of T2D. Studies assessing the association between age at BMI rebound in childhood and later risk for T2D have reported a fivefold difference in T2D according to age at BMI rebound. Developmental and epidemiological cohort studies focusing on T2D have major public health implications supporting a paradigm shift; a shift from focusing upon risk factor modification in adult life to adopting a life course perspective when studying T2D. This paradigm shift will not only help us in getting a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying T2D, but it will also open new possibilities and opportunities in the prevention of T2D and related disorders.
  • Kaartinen, Niina E.; Knekt, Paul; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Rissanen, Harri; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Männistö, Satu (2016)
    Background: The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL), and obesity remains unsolved. Sugar intake and obesity represent a timely topic, but studies on sugar subcategories are scarce. We aimed to study whether total carbohydrate, sucrose, lactose, fibre, dietary GI, and GL are associated with obesity in 25-79-year-old Finns. Methods: Our pooled analysis included three cross-sectional population-based studies: the DILGOM Study (n = 4842), the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n =1979), and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 5521). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were collected by standardised protocols. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the model, which included sex, age, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy intake, the likelihood of being obese (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) appeared lower in the highest quartiles of total carbohydrate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.74; P for trend <0.0001), sucrose (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.47-0.61; P <0.0001), and dietary GL (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P <0.0001) compared to the lowest quartiles. In contrast, dietary GI did not associate with obesity. Fibre intake associated inversely with abdominal obesity (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; P <0.001). The inverse sucrose obesity relationship appeared stronger in high fruit consumers compared to low fruit consumers (P for interaction 0.02). Conclusions: Although most of the studied carbohydrate exposures were associated with a diminished likelihood of being obese, prospective studies are needed to assess temporal relations to support causal inference.
  • Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana (2012)
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index >= 25kg/m(2)). Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (>= 90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey. The models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of long-term sickness absence for overweight compared to normal-weight participants was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.53]. An increase in physical activity among overweight compared to normal-weight individuals was estimated to reduce this HR to 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.48). In pseudo-trial analysis including only the persistently overweight, initially physically inactive participants, the HR for long-term sickness absence was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.94) for individuals with increased physical activity compared to those who remained physically inactive. The results for disability pension as an outcome were similar. Conclusions These findings suggest that the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals would drop by 3-4% if they increased their average physical activity to the average level of normal-weight people. However, overweight individuals who are physically inactive would reduce their risk of work disability by about 20% by becoming physically active.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Honkamäki, Jasmin; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Backman, Helena; Lundback, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    Background Difference in dyspnea mMRC >= 2 between Finnish speaking and Swedish-speaking populations in Finland has not been previously studied. Methods In February 2016, a respiratory questionnaire was sent to 8000 randomly selected subjects aged 20-69 years in western Finland with a response rate of 52.3%. The registered native language of each subject determined whether questionnaire in Finnish or Swedish was applied. Multiple logistic regression was performed to calculate Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% CI for the simultaneous effects of independent variables on dyspnea mMRC >= 2. Results Of all participants, 2780 (71.9%) were Finnish speakers and 1084 (28.1%) were Swedish speakers. Finnish speakers had a higher prevalence of dyspnea mMRC >= 2 (11.1% vs 6.5% p <0.001) when compared to Swedish speakers. Finnish speakers smoked more often, had higher BMI, spent less time moving during the day, had more often occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts or fumes (VGDF), and had lower socioeconomic status based on occupation. Significant risk factors for dyspnea mMRC >= 2 were COPD (OR = 10.94), BMI >35 (OR = 9.74), asthma (OR = 4.78), female gender (OR = 2.38), older age (OR = 2.20), current smoking (OR = 1.59), and occupational exposure to VGDF (OR = 1.47). Conclusions Swedish speakers had less dyspnea mMRC >= 2 which is explained by a healthier lifestyle. Smoking, obesity, and occupational exposures should be in focus to improve respiratory health.
  • Berntzen, Bram J.; Jukarainen, Sakari; Bogl, Leonie H.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2019)
    We aimed to study the eating behavioral traits that associate with body mass index (BMI) among BMI-discordant twin pairs. This cross-sectional study examined self-reported eating behaviors in 134 healthy young adult twin pairs (57 monozygotic [MZ] and 77 same-sex dizygotic [DZ]), of whom 29 MZ and 46 DZ pairs were BMI discordant (BMI difference >= 3 kg/m(2)). In both MZ and DZ BMI-discordant pairs, the heavier co-twins reported being less capable of regulating their food intake optimally than their leaner co-twins, mainly due to 'frequent overeating'. Furthermore, the heavier co-twins reported augmented 'disinhibited eating', 'binge-eating scores' and 'body dissatisfaction'. The twins agreed more frequently that the heavier co-twins (rather than the leaner co-twins) ate more food in general, and more fatty food, in particular. No significant behavioral differences emerged in BMI-concordant twin pairs. Overeating - measured by 'frequent overeating', 'disinhibited eating' and 'binge-eating score' - was the main behavioral trait associated with higher BMI, independent of genotype and shared environment.
  • Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Abubaker, Jehad (2021)
  • Komulainen, K; Pulkki-Raback, L; Jokela, M; Lyytikäinen, LP; Pitkänen, N; Laitinen, T; Hintsanen, M; Elovainio, M; Hintsa, T; Jula, A (2018)
    Objectives:The life-course development of body mass index (BMI) may be driven by interactions between genes and obesity-inducing social environments. We examined whether lower parental or own education accentuates the genetic risk for higher BMI over the life course, and whether diet and physical activity account for the educational differences in genetic associations with BMI.Subjects/Methods:The study comprised 2441 participants (1319 women, 3-18 years at baseline) from the prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. BMI (kg/m 2) trajectories were calculated from 18 to 49 years, using data from six time points spanning 31 years. A polygenic risk score for BMI was calculated as a weighted sum of risk alleles in 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Education was assessed via self-reports, measured prospectively from participants in adulthood and from parents when participants were children. Diet and physical activity were self-reported in adulthood.Results:Mean BMI increased from 22.6 to 26.6 kg/m 2 during the follow-up. In growth curve analyses, the genetic risk score was associated with faster BMI increase over time (b=0.02, (95% CI, 0.01-0.02, P
  • Ollila, Meri-Maija; Kiviniemi, Antti; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Tulppo, Mikko; Puukka, Katri; Tapanainen, Juha; Franks, Stephen; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Piltonen, Terhi (2019)
    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies of women in their 20s and 30s have reported impaired autonomic function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study, for the first time, whether PCOS is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic function independent of metabolic and hormonal status in their late reproductive years. DESIGN: A prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) study including 5889 women born in 1966 and followed through the age of 46. At that age, n=3706/5123 women (72%) answered the postal questionnaires and n=3280/5123 women (64%) participated in the clinical examination. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included women presenting both irregular menses (oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea) and hirsutism at age 31 (n=125) or with formally diagnosed PCOS by age 46 (n=181) and women without PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n=1577). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate variability parameters: the root mean square of successive R-R differences (rMSSD), spectral power densities (LF: low frequency and HF: high frequency) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). RESULTS: We found that parasympathetic activity (assessed by rMSSD: 19.5 (12.4; 31.9) vs 24.3 (16.1; 34.8) ms, p=0.004 and HF: 172 (75; 399) vs 261 (112; 565) ms(2), p=0.002) and BRS (6.13±3.12 vs 6.99±3.52 ms/mm Hg, p=0.036) were lower in women with PCOS compared with the controls. However, in the multivariate regression analysis, PCOS, body mass index and the free androgen index did not significantly associate with rMSSD, whereas blood pressure, insulin resistance and triglycerides did. CONCLUSIONS: We report here for the first time that late reproductive-aged women with PCOS display impaired cardiac autonomic function manifested as decreased vagal activity. Metabolic status, rather than hyperandrogenaemia and PCOS per se, was the strongest contributing factor. Given the link between cardiac morbidity and impaired autonomic function, the findings underline the importance of screening and treating metabolic abnormalities early on in women with PCOS.
  • Tan, Xiao; Alen, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin (2016)
    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
  • Tischmann, Lea; Drummen, Mathijs; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Raben, Anne; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Mensink, Ronald P.; Joris, Peter J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.; Adam, Tanja C. (2019)
    Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 +/- 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p <0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p <0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p <0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.
  • Ylinen, Vappu; Valaja, Jarmo; Peura, Jussi; Mohaibes, Maarit (2020)
    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a decrease in feed energy content would prevent extreme body weight (BW) gain and fatness in blue foxes in the late growing-furring period, without compromising pelt quality or pelt size. BW gain, body mass index (BMI), body condition score (BCS), and pelt characteristics were studied in 60 blue foxes divided into four equal-sized groups from mid-October until pelting (50 days). Experimental diets in were “high energy – high protein”, “high energy – low protein”, “low energy – high protein”, and “low energy – low protein”. High-energy diets contained 19.3 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) in kg dry matter (DM) and high-protein diets contained digestible crude protein (DCP) 20% of ME. Low-energy diets contained 16.3 MJ ME in kg DM and low-protein diets DCP 17% of ME. Feeding was gradually increased towards ad libitum. Reduced ME intake had no effect on pelt size or pelt quality. High-energy feeds resulted in heavier animals with higher BMI. However, the final BW exceeded 20 kg and BCS was “fat” or “extremely fat” in all groups.
  • Menting, Malou D.; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Rono, Kristiina; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk; Painter, Rebecca C.; Girchenko, Polina; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Raikkonen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heinonen, Kati (2019)
    Obesity is a major public health problem. Children of women who were obese before or during pregnancy are at increased risk for neurobehavioral developmental problems. Whether a maternal lifestyle intervention conducted before and during pregnancy in obese women affects child neurobehavioral development is unknown. This study reports on the follow-up of a subsample of two randomized controlled trials, the Finnish RADIEL (n = 216) and Dutch LIFEstyle (n = 305) trial. Women with a pre-pregnancy BMI >= 29 kg/m(2) wishing to conceive or who were already pregnant (
  • Vähäaho, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background and objectives: Currently in Finland, there are over 66 000 women living with breast cancer. The five-year survival rate is 90.6 %. Breast cancer and its treatments are known to impair patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study is a part of an open prospective randomized Breast cancer and exercise (BREX) -study in Finland conducted to investigate whether supervised exercise training shortly after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer patients could prevent osteoporosis and improve patient’s quality of life. This master thesis examines cross-sectional and prospective associations between the sense of coherence (SOC) and the HRQoL of breast cancer survivors. Methods: 537 long-term breast cancer survivors and controls who participated in a prospective randomized physical exercise intervention with twelve months of supervised exercise training were followed up five years. 406 participants who finished the 5-year follow-up and filled the SOC questionnaire were included in the final analyzes. The SOC was measured by 13-item Finnish and Swedish short forms of Orientation to life Questionnaire (SOC-13) at 3 years. Cancer-specific HRQoL was measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) version 3 and general HRQoL by the 15D. Associations between the SOC and the HRQoL were studied by logistic regression analyze. Results and conclusion: The SOC was associated with the cancer-specific and the general HRQoL at the 3-year (p < .001) and at the 5-year follow-up (p < .001). The relationship was the most significant for the general HRQoL, global health / quality of life and emotional and cognitive functions. Weak SOC increases the risk of low cancer-specific and low general HRQoL after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer. Strong SOC as an inner resource may serve as a protective psychological factor in the adaptation process of breast cancer survivors. The SOC-13 questionnaire might be useful in targeting patients vulnerable to decrease in the HRQoL and in planning psychosocial interventions.
  • Prescott, Susan L.; Hancock, Trevor; Bland, Jeffrey; van den Bosch, Matilda; Jansson, Janet K.; Johnson, Christine C.; Kondo, Michelle; Katz, David; Kort, Remco; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Logan, Alan C.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Nanan, Ralph; Poland, Blake; Robinson, Jake; Schroeck, Nicholas; Sinkkonen, Aki; Springmann, Marco; Wright, Robert O.; Wegienka, Ganesa (2019)
    inVIVO Planetary Health (inVIVO) is a progressive scientific movement providing evidence, advocacy, and inspiration to align the interests and vitality of people, place, and planet. Our goal is to transform personal and planetary health through awareness, attitudes, and actions, and a deeper understanding of how all systems are interconnected and interdependent. Here, we present the abstracts and proceedings of our 8th annual conference, held in Detroit, Michigan in May 2019, themed "From Challenges, to Opportunities". Our far-ranging discussions addressed the complex interdependent ecological challenges of advancing global urbanization, including the biopsychosocial interactions in our living environment on physical, mental, and spiritual wellbeing, together with the wider community and societal factors that govern these. We had a strong solutions focus, with diverse strategies spanning from urban-greening and renewal, nature-relatedness, nutritional ecology, planetary diets, and microbiome rewilding, through to initiatives for promoting resilience, positive emotional assets, traditional cultural narratives, creativity, art projects for personal and community health, and exploring ways of positively shifting mindsets and value systems. Our cross-sectoral agenda underscored the importance and global impact of local initiatives everywhere by contributing to new normative values as part of a global interconnected grass-roots movement for planetary health.
  • Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena (2014)
  • Mörtengren, Ariel (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The field of stem cell research is hotter than ever, because still today, the goal for easily achievable stem cells for the use of tissue engineering and stem cell therapies, is yet to be achieved. Also, human stem cell based test systems are potential replacements of present animal test models. The ongoing obesity epidemic creates pressure for scientists to resolve the causes behind it. One way of approaching the problem, is the study of adipogenesis with the use of a in-vitro cell model. This have already been done for a while, with rodent based cell models, but the present study took the human obesity research a bit closer to its subject by using humane adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC). Also, the adipogenic induction is executed with a human adipose tissue extract (ATE). Epidemiologically, the rise in obesity rates correlates at some level, with the occurrence of known endocrine disrupting chemicals in our environment. These include e.g. some pesticides and plasticizers, such as tributyltin (TBT), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA). In the present study, the effects of a variety of concentrations, ranging from 50nM to 100µM of BPA, on ATE induced adipogenesis of hASCs, was studied. The accumulation of triglycerides - a key parameter for adipogenesis - is evaluated with the use of oil-red-o (ORO) staining and photometric measurements. A set of tests was executed to find out if BPA possesses adipogenic, synergistic or antiadipogenic properties in this particular test system. No significant antiadipogenic, nor synergistic effects were seen. Some antiadipogenic effects were seen throughout the study, but without any dose-dependence. This study also showed need for further development of the test. ORO staining needs to be further standardized to increase accuracy, different batches of ATE may cause variation in the results. All and all the test system is relatively easily modified and when fully functional, it is a great tool for screening for substances affecting our adipose tissue, and also for enhancing our knowledge on human adipogenesis in whole.
  • Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Koskinen, Juha; Brown, Emily; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Sabin, Matthew; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2021)
    Aims To investigate the association between overweight/obesity and fatty liver index (FLI) on the odds of incident prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020 participants after 10 years follow up. Methods At baseline (in 2001) 2020 participants, males and females, aged 24-39 years, were stratified according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (= 25-= 30 kg/m(2)) and FLI (as high FLI >= 60 or low FLI
  • Niinikoski, Iida-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This licentiate thesis consists of a literature review and a retrospective study. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in cats. It mainly resembles type II diabetes mellitus of humans, where the dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells together with peripheral insulin resistance causes increased blood glucose concentrations. Along with other risk factors such as breed and neuter status, obesity is closely related to the development of feline diabetes mellitus. The aim of the retrospective study was to assess risk factors and treatment protocols of diabetes mellitus. Factors influencing treatment outcome were also investigated. The results were compared with current scientific evidence. The hypotheses were that diabetic cats with an optimal body condition score (BCS) are more likely to achieve stable disease requiring administration of exogenous insulin and are more likely to achieve remission, where administration of exogenous insulin is no longer needed. The veterinary patient database ProvetNet was used to search for cats with diabetes mellitus presented to the University of Helsinki, Small Animal Teaching Hospital and the Saari Small Animal Clinic between March 2006 and March 2016. Data such as breed, gender, BCS and concurrent diseases were recorded for 123 cats. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism. Neutered male cats had 2.8 times the risk of developing diabetes mellitus when compared to intact cats and neutered females. Domestic shorthair cats had 1.7 times the risk of developing diabetes mellitus when compared to other breeds. Remission rates were substantially lower than what has been reported in literature. The results did not support the hypotheses. Cats with an optimal BCS were not more likely to achieve stable disease or remission. However, the small sample size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. Investigating the relationship between BCS and diabetes mellitus was difficult due to incomplete documentation of BCS values and limitations of the veterinary patient database. Measures should be taken to develop the database so the evaluation and recording of BCS is a convenient routine. Further research into risk factors for both diabetes mellitus and obesity as well as treatment protocols resulting in remission is needed, so evidence-based data can be used for prevention and remission of the disease.