Browsing by Subject "participation"

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  • Klabbers, Jan (Oxford University Press, 2019)
    This chapter addresses some of the complexities of having regional economic integration organizations (above all the European Union) participate in treaty-making under UN auspices. Discussing conceptual matters such as how participation can take place (as full member, as observer, or anything in-between), it delves into some of the relevant legal issues on both sides of the equation: on the part of the regional economic integration organization as well as on the part of the UN and specialized agencies, devoting some attention to the solutions agreed upon within the framework of the Food and Agricultural Organization when it admitted the EU as a member in its own right. These include the delegation and distribution of treaty-making powers, negotiating mandates, and the like, as well as some practical matters. The discussion is situated against a backdrop of functionalist theorizing about the law of international organizations.
  • Lindqvist, Ann-Marie Sigrid Irene (2008)
    The study describes how adult people with learning difficulties participate in everyday life and in research from a citizenship and user perspective. The study contributes with new knowledge about obstacles and possibilities for participation in care context and in research. The purpose is to anchor the experience from the research in the increase of customer orientation in practice. Citizenship is used as an umbrella concept for participation, empowerment and autonomy. I use the definition of participation in ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) as an operative theoretical viewpoint. The study is a qualitative research inspired by the hermeneutic phenomenological approach and with participatory methods. A group of people with learning difficulties participate in the research as advisory group. The group members have given their experiences of participation and have chosen the informants and the questions to be asked. They have also given to a certain extent their interpretation of the interviews. The data material consists of theme interviews with five users of services. Two of the group members have done eleven interviews with users applying standard questions. The interviews are analysed using the method of content-based analysis. The study shows that within the organization there are formal structures for participation such as an advisory board of users, individual planning and individual regular discussions between users and professionals. The challenge is to strengthen these structures. Participation is a political issue about democracy and human rights. People with learning difficulties need to get information in an easily available way about their rights and obligations and about their impairments. The study shows concrete measures that facilitate the participation in everyday life. The professionals have the responsibility the make a dialog possible when decisions concerning users’ everyday life are being made. Increased awareness and information are two of the keys for participation. When users have the opportunity to express their opinions a new awareness of themselves and their relation to the environment is possible. Participation is an interactive process between the users and the environment. Most of all participation is a common learning process for the professionals and for the users.
  • Grönqvist, Mikaela (2002)
    The partnership principle is one of four basic principles that governs work with the EU Structural Funds. The principle is supposed to foster a greater involvement of different regional actors in the regional development. This involvement in turn is expected to improve the conditions for growth in the region. This is an analysis of the interpretation of the partnership principle in two regions that belonged to a Regional Objective during the years 1995-1999 - Gävleborg in Sweden and South Ostrobothnia in Finland. This is studied through an examination of the actors involved in each different phase of the programme. The analysis is based on qualitative interviews performed in both regions. Differences between the countries regarding their regional governance explain some of the different solutions to administrate the programme. Traditions and policies of governance also influenced how the programme was to be implemented. The national rules and regulations and the traditional practices on both national and regional level how to deal with issues regarding development policy largely affected participation in the Regional Objective programme and also determined to a great extent which actors got a role in the implementation of the programme. The programmes in both regions were to be dominated by the regional actors that already previously had a given position in the regional development sphere. Even though the partnership principle especially strives for the involvement of the private and the third sector in the programme the public sector actors had by far the largest part - they created most projects, financed these and also decided on the EU-financing. The co-operation in the partnership forums mostly only concerned the public authorities and the dialogue with the other sectors of society was laconic. The analysis also points at some obstacles that serve as explanations why some, especially smaller actors, found it difficult to participate. The work concerning the Structural Funds developed to a large degree into a world of its own and to be able to take part in this inner circle a great deal of specialist knowledge of terminology and of the regulations of the Funds was required. This distanced potential actors from participating in the programme. The greatest differences concerning participation between the two regions were that the municipalities in Gävleborg in Sweden had a much larger role in the programme in comparison with the sub-regions in Finland - in South Ostrobothnia, on the other hand, a larger number of different organisations, not necessarily public ones, were involved in the creating of projects.
  • Rintakorpi, Kati; Reunamo, Jyrki (2017)
    Documentation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions has been developed for decades in various contexts. Today, documentation is preferred as an inclusive method of evaluating, planning, and developing ECEC in the curricula of many countries. Qualitative research on documentation has increased in past years, but quantitative research on the connections between documentation and ECEC practice has remained behind. We will present a study in which a total of 2889 children, 194 kindergartens and preschools, and 179 teams of ECEC educators in 13 municipalities in Finland participated. On the basis of our quantitative analysis, we argue that documentation is inherently connected with child-centred and carefully planned ECEC practices and the children's participation, well-being, and ability to learn. One of our main findings is that documentation is not yet fully exploited in the Finnish ECEC. As a result, we encourage ECEC officers and educators to develop documentation further.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.
  • Karja, Miia (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    An interdisciplinary research project The conservation of the native breeds for the social welfare and rural entrepreneurship – the background for the economical, social and cultural activities was carried out in MTT Agrifood Research Finland during the years 2004-2006. The research was done in collaboration with MTT Agrifood Research Finland, TTS Work Efficiency Institute, persons having native breeds and experts in the field of native breeds. The research was one part of Biodiversity and Monitoring Programme MOSSE partially funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. One dimension of the research was to examine the socio-cultural meaning of native breeds in productisation. The aim was to find out the social and cultural meanings of native breeds among breeders, consumers and citizens and to define the essential meanings and their dimensions relating to native breeds. Answers for the research questions were searched for example by the theme interview done for eight breeders of Finncattle and Finnsheep. Resting on material of the theme interview I have researched in this Master´s thesis, what kind of policy measures would be the most functional ones so that breeders would keep native breeds also in the future and even have more of them. I have examined these policy measures by using farmer typology, considering challenges and opportunities arousing from keeping native breeds and the dimensions of utilizing native breeds. With the help of farmer typology were found out those policy measures, targets and need for policy measures important for each farmer type for example in the situation where a breeder wanted to start with upgrading of native breed products in his farm. Examining policy measures by using challenges and opportunities of keeping native breeds and by the dimensions of utilizing native breeds, did highlight the need not only for diversified policy measures but also for collaboration between administrative and social sectors and participation of breeders when planning policy measures for the conservation of native breeds. This arises from the diverse field of keeping native breeds: native breeds are utilized in traditional agricultural production and in a hobby oriented way when living in the countryside as well. Farmers, other entrepreneurs, private persons, school farms, prison farms and other breeders do have a key position in conservation work of native breeds. They in practice do take care of breeding of these animals and maintaining live gene banks. In addition to functional policy measures, we need management of diversity of indigenous breeds based on breeders´ views and actors committed to the work.
  • Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse (2018)
    In the new national core curriculum for Finnish preschool and basic education, rationales for supporting pupil participation are framed by the goal of developing school communities by listening to pupils’ perspectives, the social nature of teaching and learning and pupils’ participatory role in planning, implementing and evaluating their own learning. Also in educational literature, listening to pupils’ perspectives is seen as the first step of participation. Framed by these rationales, this article is based on a 6-week-long participatory learning project in one second-grade classroom in Finland. The research group of 8-year-olds included 11 girls and 10 boys. In this study, we used diamond ranking and peer interviews as mediating tools in listening to the pupils’ perspectives. In the article, we describe how a diamond ranking and a peer interview worked as a tool in capturing pupils’ perspectives. Two questions guided the research work: (1) How did diamond ranking and the peer interview work together as a method to improve teacher’s understanding from the pupils’ perspectives? and (2) How did diamond ranking and the peer interview work together as a method to promote pupils’ participation? In this study, the second graders were able to implement diamond ranking. This activity was used as a tool to stimulate pupils’ perspectives that were then captured in peer interviews. The methods provided important information about the pupils and helped the teacher to understand their perspectives. Diamond ranking and peer interviews also revealed information that was not related to pedagogical practices but indicated the sense of relatedness among pupils. In this study, the process of peer interviews was a child-led practice, while the process of diamond ranking activity was teacher-oriented. The method would have served pupils’ participation better if pupils had been more involved in the data collection.
  • Ferica, Imy (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    This study aims to examine the political, economic, social and cultural characteristics of TED as alternative media. TED (Technology, Entertainment and Design) is a non-profit global conference media organizer that curates formatted brief speech called TED Talk and presents it in its offline conferences as well as publishes in online platform. TED has a global network that has spread rapidly through TEDx, a replication of TED-like conference by local communities worldwide. This social phenomenon makes TED as the contemporary illustration of the latest development of alternative media. Earlier literature studies on alternative media from Atton (2002) and Downing et al. (2001) focus on alternative media’s role as civil society that radically opposes the dominant power of the state, market and mainstream media. This civic role is important in providing alternative voices in democracy. Castells (2008) argues that the advancement of communication technology in globalization process has extended alternative media’s civic engagement to global level and empowered the community to higher access and participation in alternative media. Bailey et al. (2008) surmise these developments into four approaches that see alternative media: first, in serving the community; second, as an alternative to mainstream media; third, as part of civil society; and fourth, as a rhizome-like hybrid media. This study utilizes these literature references along with the four frameworks above to present holistic view in understanding TED as alternative media. By studying TED, I seek to expand these theoretical discussions by looking at how alternative media build sustainable civil society movement through dynamically incorporating dominant values in achieving its alternative media goals. This hybrid approach also affects alternative media’s ways in serving the community, promoting democracy and prompting social changes. The methodology of this study is ethnography. Since TED has two social settings of offline conference and online media platform, the ethnographic approach of this study is conducted in both setting. I gathered field data through participation and observation on TEDx Jakarta event and interview with the founders as well as online observation on TED.com, TED Talk videos, TED’s forums and third party documents on TED. I analyzed the data with the help of coding tools and discussed the findings within the framework of literature references. The key findings of this study show that TED’s political, economic, social and cultural characteristics are contingent, rhizome-like and transhegemonic. These characteristics project TED as alternative media that adopts dominant practices such as commercialism and controlled editorial system and maintaining elitism to reach paradoxically its civic goals of democratizing knowledge sharing and making social changes. TED also builds flexible partnership with the market and mainstream media and is not entirely counter-hegemonic. Although TED maintains a centralized authority in policy making, its relationship with its communities is based on rhizome-like network which strives towards semi-hierarchical access and participation, multiple replications by community and heterogeneity of its community across geographical and cultural borders. However this hybrid strategy of alternative media brings up threats of over-commercialization, elitism within the community, and ideological bias.
  • Iivonen, Marjut (Helsingfors universitet, 2002)
    The study examines one case of students' experiences from the activity in a collaborative learning process in a networked learning environment, and explores whether or not the experiences explain the participation or lack of participation in the activities. As a research task the students' experiences in the database of the networked learning environment, participating in its construction, and the ways of working needed to build the database, were examined. To contrast the students' experiences, their actual participation in the building of the database was clarified. Based on actual participation, groups more active and more passive than average were separated, and their experiences were compared to each other. The research material was collected from the course Cognitive and Creative Processes, which was offered to studentsof the Department of Textile Teacher Education in University of Helsinki, and students of the Departments of Teacher Education Units giving textile education in Turku, Rauma and Savonlinna in the beginning of 2001. In this course, creativity was examined from a psychological and sosiocultural context with the aim of realizing a collaborative progressive inquiry process. The course was held in a network-based Future Learning Environment (Fle 2) except for the starting lecture and training the use of the learning environment. This study analyzed the learning diaries that the students had sent to the tutor once a week for four weeks, and the final thoughts written into the database of the learning environment. Content analysis was applied as the research method. The case was enriched from another point of view by examining the messages the students had written into the learning environment with the social network analysis. The theoretical base of the study looks at the research of computer-supported collaborative learning, the conceptions of learning as a process of participation and knowledge building, and the possibilities and limitations of network-based learning environments. The research results show, that both using the network-based learning environment and collaborative ways of studying were new to the students. The students were positively surprised by the feedback and support provided by the community. On the other hand, they also experienced problems with facelessness and managing the information in the learning environment. The active students seemed to be more ready for a progressive inquiry process. It can be seen from their attitudes and actions that they have strived to participate actively and invested into the process both from their own and the community's point of view. The more passive students reported their actions to get credits and they had a harder time of perceiving the thoughts presented in the net as common progression. When arranging similar courses in the future, attention should be paid to how to get the students to act in ways necessary for knowledge building, and different from more traditional ways of studying. The difficulties of students used to traditional studying methods to adapt to collaborative knowledge building were evident on the course Cognitive and Creative Processes.
  • Muukkonen, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    In Cambodia, water has a special purpose as a source of life and livelihoods. Along with agriculture, fishing and forest use, industry, hydropower, navigation and tourism compete for the water resources. When rights and responsibilities related to essential and movable water are unclear, conflicts emerge easily. Therefore, water management is needed in order to plan and control the use of water resources. The international context is characterized by the Mekong River that flows through six countries. All of the countries by the river have very different roles and interests already depending on their geographical location. At the same time, water is also a tool for cooperation and peace. Locally, the water resources and related livelihoods create base for well-being, for economical and human resources in particular. They in turn are essential for the local people to participate and defend their rights to water use. They also help to construct the resource base of the state administration. Cambodia is highly dependent on the Mekong River. However, Cambodia has a volatile history whose effects can be seen for example in population structure, once suspended public institutions and weakened trust in the society. Relatively stable conditions came to the country as late as in the 1990s, therefore Cambodia for example has a weak status within the Mekong countries. This Master s thesis forms international, national and local interest groups of water use and analyzes their power relations and resources to affect water management. The state is seen as the salient actor as it has the formal responsibility of the water resources and of the coordination between the actions of different levels. In terms of water use this study focuses on production, in management on planning and in power relations on the resources. Water resources of Cambodia are seen consisting of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake and the time span of the study is between the years 1991 and 2006. The material consists of semi-structured interviews collected during summer 2006 in Finland and in Cambodia as well as of literature and earlier studies. The results of the study show that the central state has difficulties to coordinate the actions of different actors because of its resource deficit and internal conflicts. The lessons of history and the vested interests of the actors of the state make it difficult to plan and to strengthen legislation. It seems that the most needed resources at the central state level are intangible as at the village level instead, the tangible resources (fulfilling the basic needs) are primarily important. The local decision-making bodies, NGOs and private sector mainly require legislation and legitimacy to support their role. However, the civil society and the international supporters are active and there are possibilities for new cooperation networks.
  • Vänskä, Nea; Sipari, Salla; Haataja, Leena (2020)
    Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe meaningful participation in everyday life from the perspectives of children with disabilities. Methods: Nine children (5-10 years, mean age 7.2 years, 5 boys, 4 girls) with disabilities participated in individual photo-elicitation interviews. The interview data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results: The children's meaningful participation mainly comprised free leisure activities that fostered enjoyment, capability, autonomy and social involvement with family and friends. The children's emotions and physical sensations, opportunities to influence, knowledge about the activity and the participation context, presumptions and previous experiences of the activity and the environment played a vital role in their decisions to participate. Conclusion: The meaningful participation facilitated enjoyment and self-determination for the children. Identifying personal and environmental factors supporting or restricting participation from the child's perspective emerges as important in order to provide opportunities for the child's meaningful participation in everyday life. The photo-elicitation interviews demonstrated the potential to act as a tool to identify and explore the children's views about participation in a real-life context.
  • Vauhkonen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The thesis at hand regards the form of performance called “professional wrestling”. A professional wrestling match is where two (or more) performers or wrestlers perform a bout with a predetermined outcome in and in the close proximity of a wrestling ring in front of a live audience. Thus, the performance is a part of a fictional combat sport in that the combatants work together in order to tell a story. This thesis concentrates on the fictionality of professional wrestling but also on the role of the live audience which is active and participatory. Lastly, professional wrestling is examined in the light of theories regarding participatory art. The primary research question of this thesis is the following: can professional wrestling realize the potentials of participatory art? Even though the primary goal of this thesis is not to offer an absolute explanation of the phenomenon of professional wrestling, it is a rather alien subject in aesthetics. Thus, the goals of chapters 1 and 2 are to explain the history of professional wrestling in the United States and to attempt to categorize it in the field of the arts. In chapter 3 professional wrestling is examined in the light of Kendall Walton’s theories on fiction formatted in his Mimesis as Make-believe (1992). The chapter states that professional wrestling presents a uniform fictional world. Chapter 3 concludes in the idea that professional wrestling has in fact historically and organically engulfed its audience as a fundamental element of the fictional world it presents. Chapter 4 is a summary of the main theories regarding participatory art, the main sources on this subject being Claire Bishop’s Artificial Hells (2012) and Jacques Rancière’s The Emancipated Spectator (2011). According to Bishop’s definition, participatory art is such where people constitute the central artistic medium and material, in the manner of theater and performance. Bishop argues that the main motive of participatory art is a critique of spectacle and capitalism. According to Rancière, the ideal of participatory art is a “new theater”, where the audience’s role is to be an active and radical community audience, and even further, where the piece of art is a part of said community. The main thesis of chapter 4 is that the artworld fails to realize the ultimate goals of participatory art, for the artworld presupposes a certain power dynamic between the artist and the audience, and this dynamic leaves no room for a rancièrian “unpredictable subject”. Chapter 5 examines the role of the professional wrestling audience in the performance it is presented with. The chapter includes a thorough explanation on the participatory elements in professional wrestling and the significance of the audience regarding televised professional wrestling. The chapter especially concentrates on recent phenomena in the participation of the professional wrestling audience through case studies. The examples echo the notion that the professional wrestling audience has power that is the product of the fact that the professional wrestling audience is an element of a fictional world. Finally, chapter 5 examines professional wrestling through the ideals of participatory art formatted by Bishop and Rancière. The thesis concludes in the notion that even though professional wrestling fails to realize several ideals of participatory art, it has the potential to become an example of a rancièrian new theater. This is because unlike in participatory art where the dynamic between the artist and the audience is dictated by auxiliary contracts, in professional wrestling the audience has power which is a natural part of the fictional world presented to it. At times the professional wrestling audience can become an active and radical community audience, which is the ideal of participatory art according to Rancière. Thus, participatory art may have things to learn from professional wrestling.