Browsing by Subject "resilience"

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  • Hyvämäki, Vera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. Reform schools (RSs) in Finland are child welfare institutions for adolescents with severe conduct problems. RS adolescents have generally been studied in terms of their disadvantages while factors related to positive adulthood outcomes remain unknown. Cognitive abilities have been associated with resilience, which embodies personal qualities that enable individuals to overcome adversity. This study aimed to investigate cognitive performance and resilience among former RS residents with good adult-age outcomes, and to see whether cognitive abilities were a predictor of their resilience. Methods. The sample consisted of 30 former RS residents who had no criminal record or diagnosed mental illness. Cognitive performance was measured with WAIS-IV subtests Matrix Reasoning, Vocabulary, Coding and a measure of verbal fluency. Resilience was measured with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Linear regression was used to identify the association between cognitive performance and resilience. Results. The participants’ cognitive performance and resilience were lower compared to general population standards. None of the cognitive measures were significantly correlated with resilience. Among all the measures, verbal fluency predicted resilience the most. Conclusions. Cognitive deficits appear to be common among the whole RS population. Future research should conduct comparisons within the RS population for more clinically relevant conclusions. The participants’ lower resilience was likely due to an unfitting comparison group. In future work, it might be fruitful to investigate the connection between resilience and skills related to executive functioning and emotional intelligence. This study raised important methodological considerations and it provides a valuable starting point for future strength-based RS studies.
  • Tiira, Katriina (2019)
    What are the key factors of psychological resilience in dogs? Why do some individuals recover swiftly from neglect, abuse or several years of harsh kennel environments, while some seem to be permanently traumatized by much milder adverse experiences? Resilience is a concept seldom discussed in canine studies; however, many studies have identified risk factors (both environmental and genetic) for developing anxieties, aggression or other behavioral problems. These studies also indicate several factors that may act as protective agents against life adversities. In this paper, I will present some of the most commonly identified key factors of resilience in other species and discuss what has been found in dogs. This paper is an attempt to raise focus on the positive key factors in a dog's life that are important for dog welfare, a healthy psychological outcome and are also important building blocks of a happy and well-behaving pet.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Koskivaara, Atte; Makkonen, Teemu; Yakusheva, Natalya; Malkamäki, Arttu (2021)
    This paper builds on the idea of cross-border regional innovation system (CBRIS) to investigate the implications of global and regional changes in social, political, economic, and ecological systems on cross-border regions. In an era of increasingly abrupt changes in border permeability, CBRIS offers an intriguing context for studying such processes. Our main contribution is to define a resilient CBRIS (R-CBRIS) for sustainability based on careful reading of previous literature on resilience, sustainability, and CBRIS integration. As merging these concepts requires a sound understanding of the factors driving or constraining CBRIS integration, we conduct a systematic review of the literature to answer our main research question: what factors affect the resilience and sustainability of CBRIS? The literature reveals that the studied CBRIS are not particularly sustainable and that their resilience remains a neglected topic. This is a definite cause for concern for everyone interested in the long-term success of cross-border regions.
  • Ollikainen, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This qualitative research addresses a three-week pioneering intervention which is based on positive pedagogy and was conducted in a day-care centre in Eastern Finland. A pre-school group of nine children took part to the intervention but four of them attended as research participants and were given pen names. Adam and Bella were studying according to the general education plan, Carrie had intensified support and David received special support. During the intervention, the pre-schoolers were taught about the character strengths of self-regulation and honesty via various stories, poems and pictures which transitioned to reciprocal conversations among the child group. Through different kinds of child plays the pre-schoolers had the opportunity to train those skills in action and in touch with creative documentation exercises they built perceptions of the terms themselves. The material was collected through semi-structured interviews and a concentration questionnaire called pikkuKESKY. As a result of analyses each participant got personal profiles which illustrate their skills and development. The results indicate that the students who needed the most support in learning about self-regulation and honesty showed individual improvement during and after the intervention. Many themes in the teachers last interview often came back to the feeling of success which seemed to be widely in a key role when strengthening the pre-schoolers self-esteem.
  • Limpens, Juul; Fijen, Thijs P. M.; Keizer, Iris; Meijer, Johan; Olsthoorn, Fanny; Pereira, Ana; Postma, Roel; Suyker, Mariette; Vasander, Harri; Holmgren, Milena (2021)
    Arctic and subarctic ecosystems are changing rapidly in species composition and functioning as they warm twice as fast as the global average. It has been suggested that tree-less boreal landscapes may shift abruptly to tree-dominated states as climate warms. Yet, we insufficiently understand the conditions and mechanisms underlying tree establishment in the subarctic and arctic regions to anticipate how climate change may further affect ecosystem structure and functioning. We conducted a field experiment to assess the role of permafrost presence, micro-topography and shrub canopy on tree establishment in almost tree-less subarctic peatlands of northern Finland. We introduced seeds and seedlings of four tree-line species and monitored seedling survival and environmental conditions for six growing seasons. Our results show that once seedlings have emerged, the absence of permafrost can enhance early tree seedling survival, but shrub cover is the most important driver of subsequent tree seedling survival in subarctic peatlands. Tree seedling survival was twice as high under an intact shrub canopy than in open conditions after shrub canopy removal. Under unclipped control conditions, seedling survival was positively associated with dense shrub canopies for half of the tree species studied. These strong positive interactions between shrubs and trees may facilitate the transition from today's treeless subarctic landscapes towards tree-dominated states. Our results suggest that climate warming may accelerate this vegetation shift as permafrost is lost, and shrubs further expand across the subarctic.
  • Kuutti, Leo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Abstract: Aims and objectives: Resilience is linked to better health, mental health and coping at work. Thus, there is use for a high-quality resilience assessment method, as better ways of assessing resilience and a better understanding of the phenomenon could help people to identify their strengths and to develop their weaknesses. This master’s thesis aimed to examine the relationships between the developed Sisu-resilience questionnaire and its subcategories, the psychophysiological variables measured during the laboratory study designed for perseverance assessment, performance in six tasks used in the laboratory study and overall performance in the laboratory study. Due to the novelty of the experimental design, precisely directed hypotheses were not at the epicentre of the thesis. This thesis is part of the Sisu-questionnaire validation project and in the general part of resilience research. Methods: There were 54 test subjects (47 women) in the laboratory phase of the study. The subjects were university students with a mean age of 26.0 years. The experiment consisted of six different tasks for measuring perseverance, which the subjects performed using the instructions given. Of all the psychophysiological variables measured during the experiment, measures of electrodermal activity and facial electromyography were used in this thesis. Electrodermal activity is considered to reflect sympathetic activation. Measures of facial electromyography are connected to emotional valence. Subjects had completed various personality and health assessment questionnaires and the Sisu-questionnaire before to the laboratory study. Results: During the laboratory study, tonic skin conductance of those with more beneficial sisu was lower vis-à-vis those with less beneficial sisu. Beneficial sisu was also associated with better performance in the handgrip endurance task. Tonic and phasic skin conductance of those with more harmful sisu were lower compared to those with less harmful sisu, but the links between harmful sisu and skin conductance were focused only around its “harm to others” subcategory. Beneficial sisu was not associated with positive emotion during the laboratory study. Positive emotion was assessed by orbicularis oculi -activation. Conclusion: The association between higher beneficial sisu and lower sympathetic activation indicates that the questionnaire reaches some property of the nervous system, and it is in line with previous research. Unlike harmful sisu, none of the subcategories of beneficial sisu were associated with phasic skin conductance, which can be interpreted to tell about the independent explanatory power of harmful sisu. The link between better performance in the handgrip task and more beneficial sisu could indicate more beneficial sisu leading to adaptive stress management. Given the widely-known connection between positive emotion and resilience, it is surprising that beneficial sisu was not associated with positive emotion during any subtasks.
  • Kröger, Björn; Franeck, Franziska; Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø. (2019)
    The early Palaeozoic Era records the initial biodiversification of the Phanerozoic. The increase in biodiversity involved drastic changes in taxon longevity, and in rates of origination and extinction. Here, we calculate these variables in unprecedented temporal resolution. We find that highly volatile origination and extinction rates are associated with short genus longevities during the Cambrian Period. During the Ordovician and Silurian periods, evolutionary rates were less volatile and genera persisted for increasingly longer intervals. The 90%-genus life expectancy doubled from 5 Myr in the late Cambrian to more than 10 Myr in the Ordovician-Silurian periods. Intervals with widespread ecosystem disruption are associated with short genus longevities during the Cambrian and with exceptionally high longevities during the Ordovician and Silurian periods. The post-Cambrian increase in persistence of genera, therefore, indicates an elevated ability of the changing early Palaeozoic marine ecosystems to sustainably maintain existing genera. This is evidence of a new level of ecosystem resilience which evolved during the Ordovician Period.
  • Van Looy, Kris; Tonkin, Jonathan D.; Floury, Mathieu; Leigh, Catherine; Soininen, Janne; Larsen, Stefano; Heino, Jani; Poff, N. LeRoy; Delong, Michael; Jaehnig, Sonja C.; Datry, Thibault; Bonada, Nuria; Rosebery, Juliette; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Ormerod, Steve J.; Collier, Kevin J.; Wolter, Christian (2019)
    River Research and Applications 35 (2): 107-120
    Resilience in river ecosystems requires that organisms must persist in the face of highly dynamic hydrological and geomorphological variations. Disturbance events such as floods and droughts are postulated to shape life history traits that support resilience, but river management and conservation would benefit from greater understanding of the emergent effects in communities of river organisms. We unify current knowledge of taxonomic-, phylogenetic-, and trait-based aspects of river communities that might aid the identification and quantification of resilience mechanisms. Temporal variations in river productivity, physical connectivity, and environmental heterogeneity resulting from floods and droughts are highlighted as key characteristics that promote resilience in these dynamic ecosystems. Three community-wide mechanisms that underlie resilience are (a) partitioning (competition/facilitation) of dynamically varying resources, (b) dispersal, recolonization, and recruitment promoted by connectivity, and (c) functional redundancy in communities promoted by resource heterogeneity and refugia. Along with taxonomic and phylogenetic identity, biological traits related to feeding specialization, dispersal ability, and habitat specialization mediate organism responses to disturbance. Measures of these factors might also enable assessment of the relative contributions of different mechanisms to community resilience. Interactions between abiotic drivers and biotic aspects of resource use, dispersal, and persistence have clear implications for river conservation and management. To support these management needs, we propose a set of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and life-history trait metrics that might be used to measure resilience mechanisms. By identifying such indicators, our proposed framework can enable targeted management strategies to adapt river ecosystems to global change.
  • Laine, Anna M.; Tolvanen, Anne; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2016)
    Young coastal fens are rare ecosystems in the first stages of peatland succession. Their drainage compromises their successional development toward future carbon (C) reservoirs. We present the first study on the success of hydrological restoration of young fens. We carried out vegetation surveys at six young fens that represent undrained, drained, and restored management categories in the Finnish land uplift coast before and after restoration. We measured plant level carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) from 17 most common plant species present at the sites. Within 5 years of restoration, the vegetation composition of restored sites had started to move toward the undrained baseline. The cover of sedges increased the most in response to restoration, while the cover of deciduous shrubs decreased the most. The rapid response indicates high resilience and low resistance of young fen ecosystems toward changes in hydrology. Forbs had higher photosynthetic and respiration rates than sedges, deciduous shrubs, and grasses, whereas rates were lowest for evergreen shrubs and mosses. The impact of management category on CO2 assimilation was an indirect consequence that occurred through changes in plant species composition: Increase in sedge cover following restoration also increased the potential photosynthetic capacity of the ecosystem. Synthesis and applications. Restoration of forestry drained young fens is a promising method for safeguarding them and bringing back their function as C reservoirs. However, their low resistance to water table draw down introduces a risk that regeneration may be partially hindered by the heavy drainage in the surrounding landscape. Therefore, restoration success is best safeguarded by managing the whole catchments instead of carrying out small-scale projects.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Lonka, Kirsti (2019)
    The focus of the current study was to examine teachers’ well-being in terms of work engagement and burnout by using a person-oriented approach. The participants (n = 149, 70.5% female) were subject-matter teachers from 22 schools from metropolitan Helsinki area in Finland. The first aim was to examine the kinds of profiles we can identify based on work burnout and engagement among teachers. The second aim was to study how the identified profiles differed in job-related demands and resources and personal resources in terms of resilience. Based on the demands-resources model, we expected to find profiles that differ in terms of key resources and demands. The sample was acquired as a convenience sample and the data was collected using online self-report questionnaires. The measures were work engagement, work burnout, work demands/resources (workload and control) and resilience as the personal resource. In addition, changes and effects of the economic circumstances were accounted for with two binary variables assessing the effect on class sizes and material resources. We identified two profiles among teachers: engaged (30%) and engaged-burnout (70%) profiles. We found that those in the engaged profile group had more job and personal resources, such as control and resilience, whereas those in the engaged-burnout profile group experienced more work demands, such as workload.