Browsing by Subject "smoking"

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  • Kaajakari, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Large part of world’s meat products are smoked to achieve desired sensory properties, typical to these products. Many attributes affect the color formation of sausage surface perceived after smoking. Surface color is a substantial part of the quality criteria of the smoked sausage. The aim of this study was to see if fat and frozen meat content of the sausage has effects on the surface color after smoking assessed by sensory evaluation. Assumption was that fat percentage, and the frozen meat content would both affect the color formation and the achieved surface color. The sensory evaluation method that could be applied to production environment was also developed and studied. Sensory study was conducted in three parts with three different semi-trained panels (n=21, n=13 n=13). In the study the color evaluation of sausages was made by using the 6-point color scale and ranking test. The sample sausages had three different frozen meat levels (20 %, 50 % ja 60 %) and four different fat levels (19 %, 21 %, 24 % ja 26 %). The protein, moisture and fat contents and cooking loss of the product were instrumentally measured. Also, the temperature during the cooking was recoded. Sausages with higher fat content were evaluated as lighter than the lower fat level sausages both with the color scale and by the ranking test. The frozen meat content didn’t affect the perceived color of the smoked sausages. The fat content or the frozen meat content did not have an effect to cooking loss. The method of the color evaluation could be used in the production as the result of color evaluation made with the scale gave good results. However, the use of color scale needs to be instructed to all employees doing the color evaluation in the production before using it and is still quite subjective. The main use of the method would have in the reject-accept evaluation to help in t the decision making.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Poussa, Kristiina; Lehto, Hanna; Porras, Matti (2013)
  • Yu, Hongyao; Frank, Christopher; Hemminki, A.; Sundquist, Kristiina; Hemminki, K. (2017)
    Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor. © ERS 2017.
  • Relas, Heikki; Luosujarvi, Riitta; Kosola, Silja (2018)
    Objectives: Across diagnosis groups, successful transition of adolescent and young adults from children's hospitals to adult care is often associated with decreased treatment adherence and treatment results. The aim of this study was to characterize disease activity and anti-rheumatic medications following transfer of care of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients to the adult clinic.Method: All consecutive JIA patients aged 16-20 years who visited the specific transition clinic in the rheumatology outpatient clinic of Helsinki University Hospital between November 2012 and May 2013 and between April 2015 and April 2016 were evaluated.Results: A total of 214 patients were identified, and 23 appeared in both cohorts. Females had higher disease activity scores (DAS) than males (DAS28-CRP 1.90.7 versus 1.6 +/- 0.3, p=.019; and DAS44-CRP 1.0 +/- 0.7 versus 0.7 +/- 0.5, p=.005; respectively) in the latter cohort. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were prescribed to 86% of patients, and 48% were on biological DMARDs (bDMARDs), whereas 14% had no specific treatments.Conclusion: Disease activity and clinic attendance remained stable during the transition period. The proportion of transition phase JIA patients on bDMARDs was high and disease activity was low. Reasons for lower disease activity in males in the latter cohort require further investigation.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Kaprio, Jaakko (2003)
  • Hemilä, H; Kaprio, J; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J (2006)
    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and beta-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 - 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day, and beta-carotene, 20 mg/day, on lung and other cancers. Physical activity at work, and the type of leisure-time exercise, were recorded at study entry. We retrieved the first occurrence of hospital-treated pneumonia during a 3-year follow-up from the National Hospital Discharge Register (133 cases). Physical activity at work and at leisure had no association with the risk of pneumonia. In participants with physically loading jobs, neither vitamin E nor beta-carotene affected the risk of pneumonia. In participants carrying out moderate or heavy exercise at leisure, beta-carotene had no effect, but vitamin E reduced the risk of pneumonia by 50% (95% CI: 16-70%). Previously, exercise has been shown to affect diverse laboratory measures of the immune system which are, however, only surrogate markers for the resistance to infections. The lack of association between physical activity and the risk of pneumonia observed in our study emphasizes the problem of drawing conclusions from surrogate end points. The finding that vitamin E reduced the risk of pneumonia in persons carrying out leisure-time exercise warrants further study.
  • Aho, Hanna; Pietila, Ilkka; Joronen, Katja (2019)
  • Ijäs, Petra; Aro, Ellinoora; Eriksson, Henrietta; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Soinne, Lauri; Venermo, Maarit (2018)
    Background and Purpose Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is recommended within 14 days after carotid artery stroke to prevent recurrence. However, the optimal timing of CEA after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) remains unclear. We studied the safety of CEA after IVT while taking into account both stroke recurrence and CEA-related complications. Methods Patients who underwent IVT followed by CEA in Helsinki University Hospital 2005 to 2016 were withdrawn from prospectively collected registers. The incidence of stroke recurrence during the time between IVT and CEA, peri/postoperative stroke, hyperperfusion syndrome or drug-resistant high blood pressure, and 3-month outcome measured by modified Rankin Scale was recorded. Stroke patients treated with CEA without preceding IVT were used as controls. Results Altogether 128 CEAs with preceding IVT and 777 CEAs for stroke without IVT were identified. The median time from IVT to CEA was 9 days (range, 0-349 days; interquartile range, 16). Seven patients (5.5%) underwent CEA within 24 hours, 20 (15.6%) within 48 hours and 87 (68.0%) within 2 weeks from IVT. Stroke recurrence in IVT-CEA patients was 5.5% at median 4 days after IVT (range, 0-8 days). Outcome from CEAs performed within 48 hours from IVT did not differ from CEAs performed later with respect to peri/postoperative ischemic strokes (5.0% and 3.7%), hemorrhagic strokes (5.0% and 1.9%), neck hematomas (5.0% and 8.3%), myocardial infarctions (0.0% and 0.9%), or 3-month modified Rankin Scale. There was a tendency toward higher incidence of hyperperfusion syndrome in the patients operated within 48 hours from IVT (20.0% versus 6.5%; P=0.070). The CEA-related stroke rate was similar to that of the operation without thrombolysis. Only smoking was significantly associated with peri/postoperative stroke (odds ratio, 21.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-439.58). Conclusions Time between IVT and CEA was not associated with CEA-related complications. The high rate of stroke recurrence during the waiting time for CEA underscores the importance of shortening surgery delays.
  • Evins, A. E.; Korhonen, T.; Kinnunen, T. H.; Kaprio, J. (2017)
    Background. The relationship between smoking and suicide remains controversial. Method. A total of 16 282 twin pairs born before 1958 in Finland and alive in 1974 were queried with detailed health and smoking questionnaires in 1975 and 1981, with response rates of 89% and 84%. Smoking status and dose, marital, employment, and socio-economic status, and indicators of psychiatric and somatic illness were assessed at both time points. Emergent psychiatric and medical illness and vital status, including suicide determined by forensic autopsy, were evaluated over 35-year follow-up through government registries. The association between smoking and suicide was determined in competing risks hazard models. In twin pairs discordant for smoking and suicide, the prospective association between smoking and suicide was determined using a matched case-control design. Results. Smokers had a higher cumulative suicide incidence than former or never smokers. Heavy smokers had significantly higher suicide risk [hazard ratio (HR) 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-5.22] than light smokers (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.61-3.23) (p = 0.017). Compared with never smokers, smokers, but not former smokers, had increased suicide risk (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.43-4.59), adjusting for depressive symptoms, alcohol and sedative-hypnotic use, and excluding those who developed serious somatic or psychiatric illness. In twin pairs discordant for smoking and suicide, suicide was more likely in smokers [odds ratio (OR) 6.0, 95% CI 2.06-23.8]. Conclusions. Adults who smoked tobacco were more likely to die by suicide, with a large, dose-dependent effect. This effect remained after consideration of many known predictors of suicide and shared familial effects, consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to tobacco smoke increases the risk of suicide.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Study Design. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Objective. To determine the associations for workload and health-related factors with incident and recurrent low back pain (LBP), and to determine the mediating role of health-related factors in associations between physical workload factors and incident LBP. Summary of Background Data. It is not known whether the risk factors for the development of LBP are also prognostic factors for recurrence of LBP and whether the associations between physical workload and incident LBP are mediated by health-related factors. We used data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. Those responding to any two subsequent surveys in 2010 to 2016 were included for the main analyses (N = 17,962). Information on occupational lifting, working in twisted positions, weight/height, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and sleep problems were self-reported. Incident LBP was defined as pain limiting daily activities in the preceding three months in participants free from LBP at baseline. Recurrent LBP was defined as having LBP both at baseline and follow-up. For the mediation analyses, those responding to three subsequent surveys were included (N = 3516). Methods. Main associations were determined using generalized estimating equation models for repeated measures data. Mediation was examined with counterfactual mediation analysis. Results. All risk factors at baseline but smoking and physical activity were associated with incident LBP after adjustment for confounders. The strongest associations were observed for working in twisted positions (risk ratio = 1.52, 95% CI 1.37, 1.70) and occupational lifting (risk ratio = 1.52, 95% CI 1.32, 1.74). These associations were not mediated by health-related factors. The studied factors did not have meaningful effects on recurrent LBP. Conclusion. The findings suggest that workload and health-related factors have stronger effects on the development than on the recurrence or progression of LBP, and that health-related factors do not mediate associations between workload factors and incident LBP.
  • Mäkikyrö, Taru H.; Hakko, Helinä H.; Timonen, Markku J.; Lappalainen, Jaakko A. S.; Ilomäki, Risto S.; Marttunen, Mauri J.; Läksy, Kristian; Räsänen, Pirkko K. (2004)
    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between smoking and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients in Finland. Methods: Data from 157 patients (aged 12-17 years) admitted to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and July 2002 were collected. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between regular daily smoking and suicidality. The data were adjusted for several sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: The results showed over four-fold risk for definite and/or life-threatening suicide attempts among smoking adolescents in inpatient psychiatric facility compared with nonsmoking ones (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.23-15.20). Also, the smoking adolescents had three times greater risk for occasional (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.09-10.10) or frequent (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.08-10.10) self-mutilation. Suicidality was more common among girls than boys and among those adolescents who suffered from depression. Conclusions: Among teens hospitalized for psychiatric illnesses, daily smoking was significantly related to suicide attempts and self-mutilation, even after controlling for several confounding factors, including psychiatric diagnosis. (C) Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2004.
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Korja, Miikka; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background and Purpose: One of the largest twin studies to date suggested that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly of nongenetic origin, but the causal effect of environmental factors on SAH is yet unknown. We hypothesized that if only one of the twins experience fatal SAH, they do not share the most important environmental risk factor for SAH, namely smoking. If true, such finding would suggest that smoking causes SAH. Methods: Through the nationwide cause-of-death register, we followed 16 282 same-sex twin pairs of Finnish origin from the older Finnish Twin Cohort between 1976 and 2018 and identified all participants who died from SAH. For the baseline, we collected risk factor information about smoking, hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and education. We classified the pairs as monozygotic, dizygotic, or of unknown zygosity. We examined the within-pair risk factor differences in the pairs discordant for SAH, that is, where one twin died from SAH and the other did not. We computed both individual (whole cohort) and pairwise (discordant pair) hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Results: During the 869 469 person-years of follow-up, we identified 116 discordant and 2 concordant (both died from SAH) twin pairs for fatal SAH. Overall, 25 of the discordant twin pairs were monozygotic. For the whole cohort, smoking (occasional/current) was associated with increased risk of SAH death (hazard ratio, 3.33 [CI, 2.24-4.95]) as compared with nonsmokers (never/former). In the pairwise analyses for discordant twin pairs, we found that the twin who smoked had an increased risk of fatal SAH (hazard ratio, 6.33 [CI, 1.87-21.4]) as compared with the nonsmoking twin. The association remained consistent regardless of the twin pairs' zygosity or sex. Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence for a causal, rather than associative, role of smoking in SAH.
  • Al-Soufi, Omar (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Dental students at the University of Helsinki answered a 25-item questionnaire during spring 2008 that investigated their alcohol consumption, smoking habits and knowledge about the risk factors of smoking and alcohol consumption. This allows one to estimate how well future oral health care professionals would follow the recommendations they give and how hazardous they consider the risk factors of smoking and alcohol consumption to be. In addition, their attitudes towards tobacco use cessation and their opinions on who is responsible for education on tobacco use cessation were elicited to determine how anti-tobacco counselling might work in the future. Current smoking was reported by 17% of the participants and current alcohol consumption by 90% of participants. The majority of dental students (92%) considered education on tobacco use cessation to be the responsibility of dentists/doctors. Fairly high number of participants (43%) reported receiving inadequate information on tobacco cessation during their studies. Dental students should be taught and encouraged early on to routinely discuss with smokers the impacts of smoking on health.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Head, Jenny; Kivimaki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Zaninotto, Paola; Hanson, Linda Magnuson; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi (2016)
    Background: Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the co-occurrence of these behaviour-related risk factors predict healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies. Methods: Data were drawn from repeated waves of four cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. Smoking status, physical inactivity and obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) were examined separately and in combination. Health expectancy was estimated by using two health indicators: suboptimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years. Results: Compared with men and women with at least two behaviour-related risk factors, those with no behaviour-related risk factors could expect to live on average8 years longer in good health and 6 years longer free of chronic diseases between ages 50 and 75.Having any single risk factor was also associated with reduction in healthy years. No consistent differences between cohorts were observed. Conclusions: Data from four European countries show that persons with individual and co-occurring behaviour-related risk factors have shorter healthy life expectancy and shorter chronic disease-free life expectancy. Population level reductions in smoking, physical inactivity and obesity could increase life-years lived in good health.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Ollila, Hanna; Patja, Kristiina; Borodulin, Katja; Laatikainen, Tiina; Korhonen, Tellervo (2018)
    Aims: Finland has implemented a gradually tightening tobacco control policy for decades. Recently the objective of a tobacco-free Finland was introduced. Still, the population's acceptance of tobacco control policy has not been measured. More knowledge is needed on differences in attitudes and factors associated with tobacco control opinions for future policy-making. Methods: A population-based study with quantitative analysis. Attitudes on smoking and tobacco control policy were assessed within the National FINRISK 2012 Study in Finland involving 25-74-year-old adults (N = 4905). In analyses, smoking status groups were compared. Results: In general, attitudes differed systematically by smoking status. Differences increased or decreased when moving from never smokers to other smoking groups. Similarities in attitudes were found particularly on youth smoking, while differences between smoking groups were notable on statements regarding smoking on balconies and availability of tobacco products. The adjusted analysis showed that smoking status was most strongly associated with attitudes on different tobacco control policy measures. Daily smokers viewed stricter tobacco control policy and workplace smoking bans more negatively than others, though they viewed societal support for quitters and sufficiency of tobacco control policy more positively compared with others. Differences were vast compared with non-smokers, but also occasional smokers differed from daily smokers. Conclusions: Tightening tobacco control and workplace smoking bans were supported by the Finnish adult population, but societal support for quitters to a lesser extent. Attitude change, where smokers are seen as deserving help to quit smoking, is important.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko (2011)
    BACKGROUND: Biology is complex and the effects of many interventions may vary between population groups. Subgroup analysis can give estimates for specific populations, but trials are usually too small for such analyses. PURPOSE: To test whether the effect of vitamin E on pneumonia risk is uniform over subgroups defined by smoking and exercise. METHODS: The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study examined the effects of vitamin E (50 mg per day) and β-carotene (20 mg per day) on lung cancer in 29,133 male smokers aged 50-69 years using a 2 × 2 factorial design. The trial was conducted among the general community in Finland during 1985-1993; the intervention lasted for 6.0 years (median). In the present study, we tested the uniformity of vitamin E effect on the risk of hospital-treated pneumonia (898 cases) by adding a dummy variable to allow each subgroup its own vitamin E effect in a Cox model covering all participants. RESULTS: Vitamin E effect was not uniform over eight subgroups defined by baseline smoking (5-19 vs ≥20 cigarettes per day), age of smoking initiation (≤20 vs ≥21 years), and exercise during leisure time (yes vs no). Vitamin E decreased pneumonia risk by 69% (95% CI: 43% to 83%) among participants who had the least exposure to smoking and exercised during leisure time. Vitamin E increased pneumonia risk by 79% (95% CI: 27% to 150%) among those who had the highest exposure to smoking and did not exercise. LIMITATIONS: Although the evidence of heterogeneity is strong, it is not evident to what extent the estimates of effect or the limits between the subgroups can be extrapolated to other populations. CONCLUSION: Subgroup analysis of large trials should be encouraged, though caution is needed in the interpretation of findings. The role of vitamin E in susceptibility to pneumonia in physically active nonsmokers warrants further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Voutilainen, Raimo; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether first trimester trisomy screening (FTS) parameters are affected by alcohol and drug use. Methods: A routine combined FTS including measurements of maternal serum levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin subunit (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 9-11 weeks of gestation, and fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NTT) at 11-13 weeks of gestation. In total 544 women with singleton pregnancies [71 alcohol and drug abusers, 88 smokers, 168 non-smokers delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) child, and 217 unexposed control women] were assessed. Results: Free beta-hCG levels were higher in alcohol and drug abusing than in unexposed pregnant women [mean 1.5 vs. 1.2 multiples of medians (MoM); P=0.013]. However, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses suggested that smoking could explain increased free beta-hCG. Additionally, we observed lower PAPP-A levels in the smoking mothers (0.9 vs. 1.2 MoM; P=0.045) and in those giving birth to an SGA child compared to the controls (1.1 vs.. 1.2 MoM; P Conclusions: The present study shows increased free beta-hCG levels in alcohol and drug abusers, but maternal smoking may explain the result. Maternal serum PAPP-A levels were lower in smoking than non-smoking mothers, and in mothers delivering an SGA child. However, FTS parameters (PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and NTT) seem not to be applicable for the use as alcohol biomarkers because of their clear overlap between alcohol abusers and healthy controls.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Voutilainen, Raimo; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether first trimester trisomy screening (FTS) parameters are affected by alcohol and drug use. Methods A routine combined FTS including measurements of maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin subunit (free β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 9–11 weeks of gestation, and fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NTT) at 11–13 weeks of gestation. In total 544 women with singleton pregnancies [71 alcohol and drug abusers, 88 smokers, 168 non-smokers delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) child, and 217 unexposed control women] were assessed. Results Free β-hCG levels were higher in alcohol and drug abusing than in unexposed pregnant women [mean 1.5 vs. 1.2 multiples of medians (MoM); P = 0.013]. However, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses suggested that smoking could explain increased free β-hCG. Additionally, we observed lower PAPP-A levels in the smoking mothers (0.9 vs. 1.2 MoM; P = 0.045) and in those giving birth to an SGA child compared to the controls (1.1 vs.. 1.2 MoM; P < 0.001). Fetal NTT did not differ significantly between any of the groups. Conclusions The present study shows increased free β-hCG levels in alcohol and drug abusers, but maternal smoking may explain the result. Maternal serum PAPP-A levels were lower in smoking than non-smoking mothers, and in mothers delivering an SGA child. However, FTS parameters (PAPP-A, free β-hCG and NTT) seem not to be applicable for the use as alcohol biomarkers because of their clear overlap between alcohol abusers and healthy controls.
  • Oldereid, Nan B.; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Laivuori, Hannele; Petzold, Max; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Soderstrom-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.
  • Kaprio, Jaakko; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Iso-Markku, Paula; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kujala, Urho; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Latvala, Antti; Leskinen, Tuija; Lindgren, Noora; Ollikainen, Miina; Piirtola, Maarit; Rantanen, Taina; Rinne, Juha; Rose, Richard J.; Sillanpää, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Viljanen, Anne; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waller, Katja (2019)
    The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.