Browsing by Subject "sustainable development"

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  • Salojärvi, Sari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    This study explores the role and nature of knowledge management (KM) in small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). Even though the role of knowledge as a competitive advantage is commonly recognized in the SME sector, almost no attention has been paid to the managing and developing of knowledge in SMEs. This thesis consists of three different sub-studies that were reported in four individual essays. The results of the questionnaire study indicate that nearly all companies that responded to the questionnaire (N = 108) found intangible assets, i.e. knowledge resources to be their main source of competitive advantage. However, only less than a third of the companies actively deal with knowledge management. The results also indicate a significant correlation between activity in knowledge management and sustainable organic growth of the company. The interview study (N = 10) explored the context and motives of the SMEs for managing their intangible assets, and the concrete practices of knowledge management. It turned out that KM facilitated change management, clarification of the vision and new strategy formulation. All the interviewed companies were aiming at improved innovation process, new ways of doing business and attaining an increased “knowledge focus” in their business. Nearly all also aspired to grow significantly. Thus, KM provides a strategy for these SMEs to guarantee their survival and sustainability in the turbulent markets. The action research was a process to assess and develop intangible resources in three companies. The experienced benefits were the clarification of future focus and strategy, creation of a common language to discuss strategic issues within the company, as well as improved balance of different categories of intangible assets. After the process all the case companies had developed in the chosen key areas. Thus, by systematic knowledge management the implementation of new strategic orientation (knowledge focusing) was facilitated. The findings can be summarized in two main points. First, knowledge management seems to serve the purpose of change, renewal and new strategic orientation in the SMEs. It also seems to be closely related to organic growth and innovation. All of these factors can be considered dimensions of entrepreneurship. Second, the conscious development of intangible assets can increase the balance of different categories of intangible assets and the overall knowledge focusing of business. In the case companies, this in turn facilitated the path to the improved overall performance.
  • Hokajärvi, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims. The good life opportunities are tried to be secured by the sustainable development. Food production and consumption are essential elements in ecological development, which is one section of the sustainable development. Because the environmental impacts vary with different foodstuffs, a major influence can be reached by proper choice of consumer and eating habits. Good education in home economics can greatly influence the eating habits of children and youth. Teaching in home economics is bound by the curriculum, but in the end what is emphasised is chosen by the teacher. The aim of this study amongst teachers in home economics was to establish their level of understanding of the impact food has on the environment and how it has come true in the teaching. Methods. The study was carried out in a qualitative method. A thematic interview method was used in collecting data. Eight home economics teachers, who worked in secondary schools in Helsinki took part in individual interviews in January 2016. The interviews were recorded and the data was transcribed. A phenomenography method was applied in the analysis of the data and answers to the research questions were screened. Findings were interpreted and compared with the theoretical background. Results and discussion. Home economics teachers do not see the impact that food may have on the environment as an important issue in home economics. The teachers thought that teaching nutrition, cooking, and personal skills were of primary importance. Their ability to teach about the environmental impact of food varied. Most of the teachers felt being in need of better information on the topic. According to the teachers the theme was hardly discussed in their own education in home economics. Environmental impacts were hardly discussed in teaching. The role of food on the environment was according to the teachers noted mainly when discussing sorting of household waste. The topic was to some extent discussed only when the issue was questioned by students. The environmental aspect was hardly mentioned in the available textbooks. The teachers tend to give more emphasis in their teaching in economic and social development than in ecological sustainability. The environmental impact of food itself would be an important topic both for home economics teachers' education and updated training in home economics.
  • Kopra, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines how urban sustainability is constructed in the local implementation plans of Sustainable Development Goals, and whether a common discourse can be outlined of them. Cities and other local authorities are increasingly assuming the global responsibility for sustainable development actions alongside the nation-states. In this case, the commitment is demonstrated by voluntarily committing to monitoring progress towards meeting the Sustainable Development Goals as part of a global city network. The potential reasons for cities to engage in such global city networks for sustainability are a disappointment to global cooperation efforts by nation-states, a possibility for peer learning, sharing new practices, and seeking branding possibilities. A sample of local commitments, Voluntary Local Reviews, are analysed in terms of their discursive construction. The analysis is based on the theoretical constructions of environmental policy discourses by Maarten Hajer and John Dryzek. By focusing on policy discourses, it becomes possible to understand how certain issues are organized into politics while others are organized out. The research focuses on nine Voluntary Local Reviews released in 2019 by Bristol, Buenos Aires, Hamamatsu City, Helsinki, Los Angeles, Oaxaca, Mannheim, New York City and Taipei City. The research shows that although cities have internalized the common principles of sustainable development, mainly deriving from the Agenda 2030, many of them are interpreted in various ways. The common framework by Voluntary Local Review offers only a vague guideline for the reviews which leads to cities rather resorting to copying the models from each other or developing their own. The inherent ambiguity that is connected to the term sustainable development is not addressed in any of the reviews, nor is an explicit definition of the used sustainability concept offered in any of them. This supports the notion that cities engage in the discursive construction of (urban) sustainable development with the reviews. Based on the reviews, the following Sustainable Development Goals are considered as most relevant for cities: goal 11 (Sustainable cities and communities), goal 8 (Decent work and economic growth), goal 10 (Reduced inequalities) and goal 16 (Peace, justice and strong institutions). Cities also actively position themselves as global sustainability actors in their reviews. They position themselves as eager to bear a global responsibility and as most relevant actors for citizens, close to their everyday lives. Furthermore, they express an urge to inspire other cities nationally and globally to also join in reporting and commit to sharing their progress on global arenas, such as in the United Nation’s High-Level Political Forum. In their connection to national sustainable development reporting, broadly two approaches can be identified. In some situations, national reporting is not mentioned in a review at all and, consequently, its role is highlighted. This applies mostly in situations where national actors are not considered as active as city actors. In other situations, cities see their reporting as complementary to the national one and even consider cooperation as their duty thanks to shared values with national actors. Voluntary Local Review reporting offers an interesting case of voluntary bottom-up commitment by cities to engage in global sustainability spheres and its significance is likely to only increase in the future. Based on results, reporting on the local level requires a careful balancing between adapting goals and indicators to locally relevant form, on one hand, and ensuring that they are general enough to allow for comparison, on the other hand. As sustainable development and Sustainable Development Goals are characterized by ambiguity concerning their precise definitions, the current local reporting offers considerable judgement for cities in terms of what to include in the reporting. More precise frameworks and indicators would allow that also cities with lesser resources could engage in this sustainability reporting.
  • Silvo, Kimmo; Jouttijärvi, Timo; Nystén, Taina; Kauppi, Sari; Kontula, Tytti; Oinonen, Kari; Jantunen, Jorma; Hellsten, Seppo; Krogerus, Kirsti; Leppänen, Matti; Lehtoranta, Jouni (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    SYKE Policy Brief 28.8.2019
  • Lu, FeiFei; Wang, Zhaohua; Toppinen, Anne; D'amato, Dalia; Wen, Zuomin (2021)
    Understanding how managers perceive risks in the decision-making process of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure is vital, especially in sectors with high social and environmental demands on sustainability. The main aim of this study was to explore the impact of managerial risk perceptions and influencing factors on CSR disclosure in the forestry sector of China and to improve the sustainable development of forestry. Utilizing survey data of 214 managers from Chinese forestry enterprises, we analyzed how manager backgrounds, including six variables (gender, age, education level, degree major, number of years working as a manager, and work experience) related to the managers' risk perceptions of CSR disclosure via a two-stage model. The analyses of the two-stage model revealed that the influence factors differ in the two stages of risk perception. According to our results, influencing factors were not the same at various stages of the CSR reporting process. This requires decision makers to take practical driving factors into account and select managers with different characteristics to carry out the CSR disclosure of forestry enterprises.
  • Kolehmainen, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Households globally contribute 72 %, and in Finland about 70 % of greenhouse gas emissions, so they have a remarkable potential to mitigate climate change. Alongside technical solutions, human behavior patterns have been identified as a significant component of consumption, and changing them towards more environmentally friendly direction would increase our chances to combat climate change. These behaviors can be explored with social practice theory that sees people’s daily behavior as a part of a broader independent object, practice. As in many aspects households' everyday life consists of repetition of daily habits, social practice theory provides a suitable framework for assessing the changes made by households. This Master's Thesis will look into two household consumption sub-areas, mobility and the use of electrical appliances, in four Finnish sustainable consumption projects related to households. The material for the study was collected from written material as well as interviewing two experts from each project's personnel. The projects were living lab experiments in which 5 to 16 households tried to reduce their consumption of energy and natural resources by making more sustainable consumption choices and changing their habits. How do these projects seek to influence practices? What is the significance of the changes related to mobility and electric appliances for climate change mitigation in the home context? To assess this significance, a framework for evaluation, climate change mitigation potential, was developed. To be a decisive measure, a significant reduction in the carbon footprint as well as the ability to spread widely among households are essential. Thus, the climate change mitigation potential of a given measure was determined as the product of 1) impact, and 2) feasibility, which were estimated on a five-step scale. As a basis for the evaluation, both project material and more general analyses were used. 13 measures were identified, that aimed to influence the practices of using electrical appliances and of mobility, either by recrafting the elements of the practices, substituting old practices with new ones, changing how different practices interlock, or combining these approaches. The unanimous opinion of the interviewees was that personal counseling played a particularly important role in achieving the changes. The climate change mitigation potential was low in electrical appliance use and moderate in mobility changes. The result was not surprising, since the use of electrical appliances accounts for smaller part of households' greenhouse gas emissions than mobility. However, the climate change mitigation potential turned out to be a viable assessment framework that has value in future experiments and policy interventions, helping to focus on measures that have the greatest potential to reduce climate stress. Although, especially by changing the practices of mobility, households can achieve significant carbon dioxide savings, the balancing between realistic feasibility and good impact will result in the magnitude of less than 10 % of the households’ carbon footprint, including both mobility and electric appliance use. Taking other areas of consumption into account will improve this potential, but it is undeniable that households on their own will not be able to accomplish the almost 80 % reduction required for a sustainable level of consumption. Therefore, expectations of sustainable consumption cannot be left only to households and the changing of habits, but it is equally important to create a sustainable energy and infrastructure system, which will enable households to satisfy their remaining energy and mobility needs economically and fluently. In the end, the responsibility of this system falls on the decision makers, as only they have the necessary means to steer and sponsor companies, researchers and consumers to build together a carbon-free future.
  • Heino, Sauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sustainable development is a large entity, that as a concept, is still ambiguous and unclear. Since the Brundtland report in 1987, sustainable development has slowly stared to increase its significance in day-to-day activities, where the ongoing UN’s international Agenda 2030 aims yet to increase the progress towards sustainable development across the globe. Sustainable development includes multidimensional economic, environmental and social aspects, where challenges facing sustainability within its dimensions are different in different regions. The ambiguity related to sustainable development lies in its complexity, where measuring progress demands clear and legible applications to ensure the accurate interpretation and communication of the measures. There are many ways to measure sustainable development, and as it is such an immense subject, the transparent procedure behind any sustainable assessment is underlined. This study is a local-level sustainable development performance analysis, that is conducted of all the Finnish local authorities. Sustainability performances are derived as sustainable development scores and ranking positions for each considered local authority via a dataset of 59 indicators. The indicators are aligned with the Agenda 2030 17 SDGs – the sustainability performance assessment is based on indicator data normalization, where normalized indicator data is aggregated to the appointed SDG, and furthermore as the overall sustainable development scores for each local authority. The sustainable development ranks are then derived from the score values as a data arrangement application. Being a data-based examination, data-related characteristics are invoked in this study by computing the sustainable development performance numbers of all the Finnish local authorities four times: once with the original dataset, and three times by applying weights to the data; considering indicator-specific data coverage by the share of population included, indicator-specific coverage by local authority data availability and lastly SDG-specific coverage by the number of indicators aligned. The results after all the four sustainability performance applications show that Kuopio scores the best of all the Finnish local authorities every time. On the contrary, Koski Tl gets the worst performance, also for all the four performance applications. Otherwise, there are movements in ranking positions and sustainable development scores comparing the weighting applications with the non-weighted outcomes. When reviewing the top 10 and bottom 5 local authorities, municipalities of Åland; Jomala, Lemland and Lumparland, for instance improve their performances significantly when applying the weights to indicator coverage by local authority data availability. What can be deduced from this analysis, is that this sustainability performance assessment application is one way of measuring local sustainable development. The outcome of this data-based analysis is dependent on the indicators in use, and the applied minimum-maximum normalization method used in the aggregation process. This study provides an example of a local-level sustainability performance application, that may be utilized and further continued, acknowledging all the variable components, causal relations and data-related challenges that inevitably are present in such assessments. Such aggregated sustainability indicators’ analyses are prone to challenges related to data, where the intent for the given application vary case-by-case and should therefore also be assessed regarding the intended use.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Koskivaara, Atte; Makkonen, Teemu; Yakusheva, Natalya; Malkamäki, Arttu (2021)
    This paper builds on the idea of cross-border regional innovation system (CBRIS) to investigate the implications of global and regional changes in social, political, economic, and ecological systems on cross-border regions. In an era of increasingly abrupt changes in border permeability, CBRIS offers an intriguing context for studying such processes. Our main contribution is to define a resilient CBRIS (R-CBRIS) for sustainability based on careful reading of previous literature on resilience, sustainability, and CBRIS integration. As merging these concepts requires a sound understanding of the factors driving or constraining CBRIS integration, we conduct a systematic review of the literature to answer our main research question: what factors affect the resilience and sustainability of CBRIS? The literature reveals that the studied CBRIS are not particularly sustainable and that their resilience remains a neglected topic. This is a definite cause for concern for everyone interested in the long-term success of cross-border regions.
  • Kurenlahti, Mikko Sakari; Salonen, Arto O. (2018)
    Due to the global challenges that are posed by the Anthropocene and the academic focus on the fragmented state of modernity, we extend an invitation for shared dialogue on the all-pervading nature of consumerism as the seemingly problematic ethos of Western consumer culture. To this end, we outline a way to approach consumerism as an implicit religion, theorized as having adopted functionalities related to explicitly faith-based traditions within secular settings. We suggest that a similar kind of holistic and multidimensional approach might be of great benefit in the implementation of sustainability, as this would allow, e.g., (i) a more holistic analysis of the all-pervading nature of consumerism; (ii) acknowledgement of the functional diversity of the phenomenon; (iii) recognition of the shallowness of the critique of consumerism as a way of life; and, (iv) shared dialogue across a spectrum of academic perspectives under a unified model. This approach problematizes standard interpretations of consumerism as being about the promotion of the individual against the collective and as leading to a general sense of purposelessness. The perspective of religion reveals how patterns of consumption become illuminated with meaning and connected to a shared way for individuals to articulate a sense of purpose in contemporary contexts.
  • Laita, Samuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2005)
    Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) is one of the most endangered species in the world. Global and local issues define conservation and management of living areas of Saimaa ringed seal. Implementation of sustainable development is based on international environmental politics. Municipalities’ land-use decisions are often affected by the pressure to manage in the field of the global economy. Increasing the number of cottages and leisure time homes are seen in rural municipalities as one solution to survive in global economical challenge. Increased housing on inland lakeside areas will also increase man-made disturbance to the Saimaa ringed seal. Toxins in the water are not a problem anymore for Saimaa ringed seal after the turn to post-industrial society. Now the biggest threats for the seal are fishing tackles, which are distributed by people living in the cottages located on lakeside. Also other indirect disturbances caused by lakeside housing create serious problems. The study area, Lake Pihlajavesi, is located in the middle part of the lake complex Saimaa. About 30 % of the population of the Saimaa ringed seals live here. Three municipalities, Savonlinna, Punkaharju and Sulkava, surround Lake Pihlajavesi. During the last 15 years these municipalities have completed five shoreline master plans in the Pihlajavesi area. This research has studied what kind of a role Saimaa ringed seal plays in the field of local planning. To define planner’s chances to take seals into account, the possibilities given by legislation and the interpretations of the most important laws have been analysed. It has also been studied if Saimaa ringed seal has been accounted for in the master and strategic planning. The relations of seal lairing and man-made disturbances have been researched with the methods of GIS (Geographic Information System). According to this study, the seal population in Lake Pihlajavesi is living closer to the man-made disturbances than the other populations elsewhere in Lake Saimaa. Housing situated near the most important lairing sites of Saimaa ringed seals in Lake Pihlajavesi will increase dramatically due to the shoreline master plans. Despite possibilities given by legislation, Saimaa ringed seal is not mentioned in municipal strategies. The communicative turn in planning has been carried out in Finland, for example, by the new Land Use And Building Act. New communicative elements give more chance to take Saimaa ringed seal into account in planning. There are possibilities to develop new ways of participation in open planning processes to gather more information about Saimaa ringed seal in these areas.
  • Hyytia, Annika (WoodEMA i.a. International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing, 2019)
    Resources are important for competitiveness in business. Business models and innovation can provide new opportunities. The value chain and innovations in the sustainable development of the forest sector provide opportunities for competitiveness and business. Quality is part of competitiveness. It can provide a sustainable image to customers. This is a qualitative research based on research articles and literature including academic sources, for example Proquest, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), Agris, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS (Elsevier), Web of Science (IS I) and Google Scholar and Internet sites.
  • Cockerell, Emelie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    All learners should obtain knowledge about and be able to foster sustainable development, according to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4.7 (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Consequently, teacher education should involve sustainable development so as to meet SDG 4.7. This study aims to identify the incorporation of sustainable development in Finland’s teacher education programmes in order to support the development needed to attain SDG 4.7. Agenda 2030 and the SDGs were created in 2015 to continue to work towards the goals which the Brundtland report (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) established; to guarantee that present and future generations can fulfil their needs without jeopardising planet Earth. Therefore, meeting the SDGs and Agenda 2030 are considered of the utmost importance. As such, the incorporation of sustainable development in teacher education worldwide, is considered significant (Stevenson et al., 2015). However, previous research concerning Finland has indicated that sustainable development in teacher education is advised but seldom practiced (Hofman, 2012). As such it is conceivable that large improvements have not yet been made. This study qualitatively examined the eight universities in Finland, which offer teacher education, using content analysis and document analysis. To determine whether each university’s strategy, teacher education programme and courses during 2019-2020, concerning sustainable development, were aligned with one another, Biggs’ theory of constructive alignment was used. The research material consisted of eight universities’ strategies, ten teacher education programme descriptions and 860 course descriptions. The results revealed the majority of teacher education institutions offer merely a handful of courses, which target sustainable development. The findings varied between universities but typically there were only a limited number of compulsory courses and marginally more electives. However, students could pick electives in other subjects which focused on sustainable development. Therefore, the conclusion is that sustainable development is insufficiently integrated into primary teacher education to be able to enable Finland to adequately respond to Agenda 2030 and SDG 4.7.
  • Kivivuori, Miia Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The purpose of this study is to describe the rise and development of UNU IAS RCE Espoo. Mari Nuutinen, UNU IAS RCE Espoo coordinator, is a main source of information. She has the most extensive experience, knowledge, skills and knowhow of the subject. The goal of this study was to bring teachers a new approach to their work. This study was a case study of Mari Nuutinen and UNU IAS RCE Espoo and a narrative approach is emphasized. The view of communal transformative learning is emphasized between the subject and the researcher. The mentor of the study participated few times to the conversations between Mari Nuutinen and researcher. This study was carried out with using two methods; interviews and involved observations. Cmaptools was used to analyze the gathered material and produce the concept maps. Mari Nuutinen, the innovator, is a talented network creator and administrator. She has developed her personal characteristics and resources at her work as a teacher as well as in her personal life. She has gathered this knowledge to develop sustainable development. UNU IAS RCE Espoo, innovation, is a result of her initiative, co-operation and devoted efforts. UNU IAS RCE network is currently expanding. UNU IAS RCE Espoo is Finland's first UNU IAS RCE example. It provides teachers and educators a possibilities and tools to work in a more sustainable way for the future.
  • Lehtimäki, Tomi Henrik (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This master’s thesis study examines the participation of Finnish civil society actors in the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, commonly referred to as Rio+20. The summit was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. The study is situated in the discussions about the limits and carrying capacity of the global environment and their relation to societal development and economic growth. These so-called 'pillars' of sustainable development (ecological, social and economic) have been a central focus of both non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as well as the United Nations from the 1970s onwards. Civil society has been posited as a crucial part of reaching sustainability. From these starting points, this study asks (1) who were the participants of the preparatory process, (2) what agendas did they promote and (3) how did it turn out in the context of the outcomes of the summit. Four different sets of data were used in this study. First, record and memos of the Environment and development group (Ympäristö ja kehitys työryhmä), which was a central working group for NGO cooperation, were used to analyze the structuring of the Finnish NGO group. The records span from 2011 to September 2012. Second, the Earth Negotiation Bulletins, a daily coverage of the negotiations, published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IIISD), were used to gain knowledge about the official inter-state negotiations. Third, five semi-structured interviews with key civil society actors representing Finnish NGOs were used. And last, notes and recording on six Rio+20 themed seminars were used to gain knowledge about the agendas of the NGOs as well as Finnish government officials, as well as the progression of the preparations. The theoretical framework is Laurent Thévenot´s sociology of engagements which focuses on disputes and the construction of commonality. The theory, combined with means of content analysis, is used to answer the above-mentioned research questions. The preparatory process mobilized a group of key actives from established Finnish associations, which were focused on developmental and environmental issues. The discussions on green economy and agendas the NGOs promoted continued from the division between the countries of the global north and the global south, and from the opposition of environmental limits and development. The NGOs constructed their agenda on the dual basis of both ecological limits and a human right-based approach to global inequality, which was then used to criticize economic growth. Analysis of the outcomes of the summit suggests a rejection of these claims. The results support a strong agenda geared towards poverty eradication, development and growth in the global south. The issue of green economy was tied to them. The findings of this study therefore present both continuations of old disputes as well as new developments. Debates in the summit preparations were locked in familiar settings, most clearly in the north-south divide, but the outcomes of the summit on the other hand suggest changes in the status of different actors situated in this division. The study concludes that for the actors engaged in sustainable development, and more specifically on global environmental problems, need to reconsider their agendas in accordance to this new constellation of actors, which emphasize the role of the developing countries.
  • Tomankova, Hana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The tourism industry has a big impact on world economies since it is a leading sector in employment. The big growth of the tourism industry since 1950s brought many problems to destinations. Mass tourism caused overuse of local resources which has led to environmental degradation in destinations. In order to stop the overexploitation of destinations, sustainable development and further sustainable tourism development concepts have been created. Implementation of sustainable tourism development should ensure environmental, economic, social and cultural sustainability of destinations. However, this concept is defined vaguely, and it lacks specificity, and therefore, it allows many different interpretations of its application. This case study is located in Sade village on Lombok island in Indonesia. It is focused on exploring the impact of tourism development on sustainability of local livelihoods. Livelihood sustainability is analyzed through the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework for Tourism to which was added cultural capital as a livelihood asset since cultural capital has a big impact on sustaining traditional livelihoods. The TALC model is also used to analyze stages of tourism development in said location. Finally, the discourse of tourism sustainability is examined in the location. The results show that currently tourism is an additional livelihood activity to farming, which is a main livelihood activity of the local community. Thus, tourism serves as a diversification tool of local livelihoods; therefore, local livelihoods are sustainable over a long term. However, further findings indicate that this situation might not last long, since big governmental tourism development interventions are ongoing. Foreign direct investment, which is part of this intervention can have negative impact on local livelihoods and can break established ties between local people and tourists. Massive tourism development that includes construction of the Mandalika all-inclusive resort will exclude the majority of the local population from involvement. Furthermore, tourists staying in this resort will have no need to go outside the resort, thus; local community will not profit from this type of tourism in the future. Furthermore, this study reveals the impact of tourism development on the economic situation of the local population, which is improving due to tourism activities. On the other hand, negative impacts are visible on culture, such as acculturation and cultural commodification phenomena, and in the environment, where landscape transformation and land grabbing are taking place. This tourism development cannot be labelled as sustainable, since local people are not involved in any stage of the tourism process, environment is being slowly degraded and cultural and social impacts are extensive. Local population is considered in governmental tourism development only on paper but not in reality. This qualitative research was conducted in Sade village among Sasak population on Lombok island. The data were collected during one month visit at the beginning of the year 2017 through 20 semi-structured interviews, supported by informal conversations and participant observations. The data was transcribed and analyzed together with field diary through qualitative content analysis.
  • Kokko, Sirpa (T & T Clark, 2018)
    Since gaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia has progressed enormously, for example in terms of technological development. Today it is a very modern country. Yet, despite the pressures of globalization, crafts form an important aspect of Estonian cultural heritage and national identity. The Department of Estonian Native Crafts of Viljandi Culture Academy (University of Tartu) is devoted to the mission of researching and making visible Estonian craft traditions and to developing them further. This case study focuses on the role of this unique institution of higher education in sustaining culturally significant crafts. Participatory observation was used during several short visits between 2012 and 2015, and the teachers and former students were interviewed in 2014. The findings suggest that there is a need for similar institutions in other countries. Furthermore, cultural, social and wellbeing aspects deserve attention alongside economic considerations in education and research on crafts.
  • Ruuska, Eeva Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The study contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya. It scrutinizes the land use and land cover change (LULCC) and deforestation; forest ecosystem services and vulnerability of natural and human systems; forest management and land tenure; sustainable land management, development and livelihoods; and woodfuel energy in a Kenya and in Africa. It is a case study from Dakatcha Woodland, an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity adjacent to the Kenyan coast. The local setting of Dakatcha Woodland; the relation of livelihoods, especially charcoal production, to the land cover change; and the environmental and socio-economic impact of land cover change in the study area, are studied in detail. The possibilities to promote sustainable development, livelihoods and ecosystem services in the area are reflected, too. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the planning of sustainable management of land and forests, and sustainable livelihoods of the local population in Dakatcha Woodland. Environment and its change affect biodiversity and ecosystems, and thus ecosystem services that all human beings rely upon. Weakened ecosystem services deteriorate the possibilities to have good living conditions and livelihoods. Dakatcha Woodland is experiencing both environmental and socio-economical problems due to uncontrolled clearance of hilltop Cynometra-Brachylaena forests for agriculture and for charcoal burning to meet the energy demands of both local population as well as to supply the nearby centres and towns. The main underlaying problems are poverty and lack of alternative income generating activities coupled with weak institutional framework and poor land tenure and management system. Drawing from a holistic research epistemology, the study resolves the study objectives with various methods. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide means to assess the land cover and thus the change in the state of environment. Combined with socio-economic data collected with methods often used in Development Geography they offer ways to assess the poverty-environment linkages and offer data to land and forest resource management planning. This study contributes to the existing local land cover data by analyzing four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011, and by forming a supervised land cover classification for those years, thus scrutinizing also the change in land cover. In-situ observation, household questionnaires (90 households were assessed in October 2010) and semi-structured expert interviews (2 from October 2010 and 3 from April 2011), add to literature review in order to reveal the significance of charcoal production to local livelihoods and environment. It was found that more than half of the 90 assessed households are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network is a complex entity that offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood) is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross-cutting issue, that ties together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and demands thus further research. The woodland areas are fragmenting and the relevance of the Important Bird Area (IBA) demarcation should be questioned because it was found that the IBA has lost woodland areas to agriculture and to woody vegetation land cover classes from 2005 to 2011. The land and forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the relevance of ecosystem services that the environment offers. Sustainable future for Dakatcha Woodland is possible, but changes are needed today.
  • Knickel, Karlheinz; Almeida, Alexandra; Bauchinger, Lisa; Casini, Maria Pia; Gassler, Bernd; Hausegger-Nestelberger, Kerstin; Heley, Jesse; Henke, Reinhard; Knickel, Marina; Oostindie, Henk; Ovaska, Ulla; Pina, Carlos; Rovai, Massimo; Vulto, Hans; Wiskerke, Johannes S. C. (2021)
    Decision-makers, planners and administrators involved in different policy domains at different governance levels face the important challenge of fostering more balanced, sustainable and territorially integrated development. Well-designed, multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor governance arrangements can play a key role in this process through orchestrating the interplay between different spheres, activities, actors and interests. In this paper, we examine the role of spatial planning in improving the relations between rural, peri-urban and urban areas. We analyse the strengths and limitations of spatial planning and explore the connections with territorial development. The methodology used for this analysis combines regional case studies in seven European locations-Ede, Frankfurt/Rhein-Main, Styria/Graz, Helsinki, Lisbon, Lucca and Mid Wales, with rapid appraisals, the analysis of published data, expert judgement and triangulation. We ask under which conditions spatial planning can induce more balanced, sustainable territorial relations, and look at the contribution planning can make to achieving sustainable development goals. The problem of ineffective (or toothless) plan implementation provides the entry point into the analysis and discussion. We illustrate why mutually beneficial relations between urban, peri-urban and rural communities (and territories) cannot simply be planned. Instead, these relationships need to be supported by strategies, policy instruments and governance arrangements that foster synergies between different actors and activities. The planning process itself needs to become more transparent and participatory. We conclude that the questions addressed in this article in an exploratory fashion merit further research especially as a more sustainable and territorially integrated development is becoming increasingly important in European policy making.
  • Ghosh, Bipashyee; Kivimaa, Paula; Ramirez, Matias; Schot, Johan; Torrens, Jonas (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Science and Public Policy, 48, 5, October 2021, 739–756
    The impending climate emergency, the Paris agreement and Sustainable Development Goals demand significant transformations in economies and societies. Science funders, innovation agencies, and scholars have explored new rationales and processes for policymaking, such as transformative innovation policy (TIP). Here, we address the question of how to orient the efforts of science, technology, and innovation policy actors to enable transformations. We build on sustainability transitions research and a 4-year co-creation journey of the TIP Consortium to present twelve transformative outcomes that can guide public policy agencies in evaluating and reformulating their projects, programmes, and policies. We illustrate the transformative outcomes in two empirical cases: transitions towards mobility-as-a-service in the Finnish transport system and the emergence of speciality coffee in Colombia. We argue that the twelve transformative outcomes can guide public policy agents to fundamentally transform their ways of thinking and operation in advancing transformative change.
  • Henry, Hagen Christian Knuth (2018)