Browsing by Subject "varmuus"

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  • Kahiluoto, Joonas; Hirvonen, Jukka; Näykki, Teemu (Springer, 2019)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191, 259 (2019)
    Continuous sensor measurements are becoming an important tool in environmental monitoring. However, the reliability of field measurements is still too often unknown, evaluated only through comparisons with laboratory methods or based on sometimes unrealistic information from the measuring device manufacturers. A water turbidity measurement system with automatic reference sample measurement and measurement uncertainty estimation was constructed and operated in laboratory conditions to test an approach that utilizes validation and quality control data for automatic measurement uncertainty estimation. Using validation and quality control data for measurement uncertainty estimation is a common practice in laboratories and, if applied to field measurements, could be a way to enhance the usability of field sensor measurements. The measurement system investigated performed replicate measurements of turbidity in river water and measured synthetic turbidity reference solutions at given intervals during the testing period. Measurement uncertainties were calculated for the results using AutoMUkit software and uncertainties were attached to appropriate results. The measurement results correlated well (R2 = 0.99) with laboratory results and the calculated measurement uncertainties were 0.8–2.1 formazin nephelometric units (FNU) (k = 2) for 1.2–5 FNU range and 11–27% (k = 2) for 5–40 FNU range. The measurement uncertainty estimation settings (such as measurement range selected and a number of replicates) provided by the user have a significant effect on the calculated measurement uncertainties. More research is needed especially on finding suitable measurement uncertainty estimation intervals for different field conditions. The approach presented is also applicable for other online measurements besides turbidity within limits set by available measurement devices and stable reference solutions. Potentially interesting areas of application could be the measurement of conductivity, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total organic carbon (TOC), or metals.
  • Metsämuuronen, Tuua Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The study focuses on the Nepalese 8 grade Mathematics, Nepali language and Social study teachers' confidence to teach their own subject. Every skill, such as teaching skills, brings with uncertainty and insecurity creates a need for security. The aim of the master's thesis is to research how substance knowledge, the teacher's personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, and their components are connected to each other. In addition, has been researched how much personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, explain the teacher's self-perceived competence assurance to teach. Altogether, 1224 of Nepalese teachers responded to the survey. The survey sample was stratified. The questionnaire, teachers were asked to assess their teaching confidence in their teaching subject and its sections, on a scale of 1 to 4. Many studies have been done about teaching and the teacher's impact on learning outcomes. That has been considered as a possible cause of Finnish students' good learning achievements. Since the schools have small differences between them, it is easier to study the teachers and the teaching effect of the student's achievements in a country, where the school differences are considerable bigger. According to Hattie (2003, 2), the teacher effect is 30% of the student learning achievements, in Nepal the corresponding figure is 68% (Acharya, Metsämuuronen and Metsämuuronen 2013, 281 316). The study examined by tree-analysis how personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management elements are linked to educational confidence and by regression analysis how much these independent variables explain together the effect of the phenomenon. According to regression analysis, there are age, teaching years, assessment, professional development over the last two years, and the curriculum understanding and using, as well as the school equipment shortages. The study found that the most confident were those teachers who were under the age of 30 teachers; who had teaching experience five years or less; who used the project work as assessment; who experienced that they understood the objectives of the school curriculum, and in addition they experienced to implement it successfully. This study was empirical and explorative work and the results obtained on the regression model shows that the model explains 9.5% of teacher's confidence to teach their own subjects. As regression model explains less than 10% certainty, is the teacher's teaching confidence and competence a good follow-up research object. Another good object would be to compare the self-perceived reliability and the validity of the comparison of the measured whether teachers' own experience of the same qualifications as a measurable skill.