Browsing by Subject " administration "

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  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1961)
  • Bor, Sanne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
    Economics and Society – 285
    Organisations collaborate with one another. And they appear to do so more and more frequently in the recent decades. At the same time many of these efforts fail to deliver what the collaboration was set up for. This combination creates the basis for the fascinating and stimulating research field of inter-organisational relations – a field which is still very much in development. In this thesis the focus is on meta-organisations, associations in which organisations are members. The steering of such inter-organisational structures appears to need a novel approach, a collective, multi-level engagement which I set out to examine. The thesis is structured to foreground the process of the research and the development of my thinking. The study is conducted on R&D consortia funded as Networks of Excellence by the European Commission under Framework Programme 6. The study is based primarily on five case studies, by way of documentation and interviews. In addition, the study draws on data collected on 101 consortia and consortium agreements from 50 consortia. The thesis develops the theoretical understanding of meta-organisations and their organisational conditions and implications. Meta-organisation theory, thus far, has focused mainly on the implications following from having organisations as members. This thesis suggests adding to this theory the implications created by constitutional membership, that is, members that constitute the organisation. Constitutional membership makes a difference in three ways: it creates a clear boundary of the meta-organisation; it assumes collective ownership of the meta-organisation; and it makes possible the utilising of indirect resources – the resources of the member organisations, and most importantly their personnel – by the meta-organisation. In addition, the thesis develops a conceptual framework of steering processes, combining governance, management and administration. This framework shows how both decisions and mutual adjustment in top-down, bottom-up, and horizontal directions steer meta-organisations. The framework may, however, be fruitfully used to study other organisations as well. The findings from the analysis of the steering processes show that the utilisation of indirect resources decentralises the governance, management and administration of activities to the participants of member organisations who are undertaking these activities. The results also demonstrate that the governance, management and administration of undivided tasks centralises to those with formal management responsibility. In addition, the analysis shows how control and granting are avoided, externalised or formalised to deal with lack of hierarchical authority. These and other findings of the study seek to refine and extend the hypothesised conditions of meta-organisation theory.
  • Wirta, Kaarle; Tikka, Katja; Björklund, Jaakko (2022)
    The article illustrates the importance of business diplomacy practised by free agents, who navigated and negotiated between northern European empires for widespread commercial, legal and administrative developments. Abraham Cabiljau’s career is an example from the early modern Swedish empire, which stands on the threshold of a new era. In the Swedish empire, Cabiljau was involved in several different sectors, from military recruitment to the development of state accounting and administration of international trade. He represents the Swedish empire’s vast economic relationships with international merchant networks operating in a broad spectrum of military and commercial arenas. The Swedish empire was economically dependent on the financial resources of the merchants in Amsterdam, and economic prosperity was not the sole contribution of these merchants. The education, knowledge and connections provided by Cabiljau greatly enhanced the administration and organisation of Sweden’s international trade by importing a new legal mindset and organisational culture. In return, northern mining resources and Baltic commerce were alluring for Dutch merchants. We argue that the modelling of international organisations was an essential part of Swedish economic development. However, the first Swedish trading companies remained an experimental attempt to transplant the Dutch East India Company (VOC) model to Sweden. Individuals like Cabiljau represent key actors who ignited, taught and promoted commercial law development in Sweden, on which international commerce was later built upon, with long-lasting impacts.
  • Henly, Russell K.; Ellefson, Paus V. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Björklund, Mathias (2008)
    I och med den kommande service- och kommunstrukturreformen i Finland är organiseringen av kommunalförvaltningen en högaktuell fråga. Hur skall sådana förvaltningsmässiga modeller skapas som på bästa möjliga kostnadseffektiva sätt producerar den offentliga service som kommuninvånarna är i behov av? I de övriga nordiska länderna, Sverige, Danmark och Norge, har det redan tidigare genomförts omfattande organisatoriska förändringar i kommunalförvaltningen för att skapa effektivare lösningar inom den kommunala sektorn. Det är sålunda viktigt att följa med händelserna inom kommunalförvaltningen i de andra nordiska länderna för att bättre kunna avgöra vilka lösningar som vore bäst för Finland. Denna undersökning granskar kommunalförvaltningens organiseringsformer i de nordiska länderna Finland, Sverige, Norge och Danmark. Undersökningens syfte är att beskriva och jämföra kommunalförvaltningens organiseringsformer i dessa länder. Undersökningen strävar också efter att utgående från en modell för uppbyggnad av den offentliga förvaltningen utreda om graden av nätverksbaserad administration är hög eller låg inom de nordiska ländernas kommunalförvaltning. Som metoder har jag använt fallstudier, komparativ metod, klassindelande analys och kvalitativ textanalys. Avhandlingen beskriver kommunalförvaltningens organiseringsmodeller på ett allmänt plan i en strävan att skapa en utgångspunkt för kommande mera ingående och omfattande analyser. Beskrivningen och jämförelsen visar att det finns mycket som är olika och mycket som är lika inom kommunalförvaltningen i de nordiska länderna. Det har inte ännu gjorts lika stora strukturella förändringar i den finska kommunalförvaltningen som det gjorts i de andra nordiska länderna. Däremot är samarbetet mellan kommunerna starkare i Finland än i Sverige, Norge och Danmark. Existensen av en stark regionalförvaltning i Sverige, Norge och Danmark skiljer dem också från Finland. Trots att undersökningens teoretiska modell är grov, vilket gör det svårt att göra exakta analyser, visar undersökningen att graden av nätverksbaserad administration i de nordiska ländernas kommunalförvaltning kan ses som relativt hög.
  • Niemi, Hertta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    Parliaments are political institutions, but they are also places where people work; the MPs and the people who are employed there work, albeit in rather different ways. In this research the focus is on those in a Parliament who work there as employees and managers, and thereby, in some senses, run the organisation. Accordingly, this involves seeing the Parliament as a working environment, for MPs and employees, for men and women. The institution of Parliament is thus here examined by looking at it from a different and new angle. Instead of the usual focus on politicians the focus is on the administration of this institution. The aim is, amongst other things, to increase knowledge and offer different perspectives on democracy and democratic institutions. Unpacking the nearly mythical institution into smaller, more digestible, graspable realities should at the very least help to remind the wider society that although nations, to a certain extent, do need national institutions they should not become mystified or seen as larger than life. Institutions should work on behalf of people and thus be accountable to these same people. The main contribution of this work is to explore and problematise how managing and working is done inside an institution that both largely fulfils the characteristics of a bureaucracy and yet also has added special features that seem to be rather far removed from clear bureaucratic structures. This research offers a new kind of information on working life inside this elite institution. The joys and the struggles of working and managing in this particular public sector organisation are illustrated here and offer a view, a glimpse, into the experiences of managing and working in this House.
  • Vironen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Evidence based medicines alongside with age-appropriate dosage forms are essential in enabling appropriate treatment for any patient group. Pediatric pharmacotherapy, however, is lacking age-appropriate dosage forms and research-based evidence regarding the dosing, efficacy, and safety of medicines. Orally administered drugs require manipulation to enable administration and are often used against the indications approved in the marketing authorization and summary of product characteristics (SmPC). This off-label use puts pediatric patients at risk for medicational errors and adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate recent trends in oral dosage forms used in pediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with emphasis on age appropriateness. The results could be utilized in developing evidence-based dosage forms, suitable for all pediatric patients aged 0-17 years, and manufacturable in a small scale in a hospital pharmacy. This study was conducted as a systematic review following the PRISMA Statement. The literature search was carried out from Pubmed and Scopus databases and it covered a five-year period of 2015-2020. References from the databases were entered to the Covidence systematic review platform. After removing duplicates 3333 articles were left for screening. Two independent researchers selected the articles first screening by title and abstract, and then by full text review. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on the included articles. Altogether 77 articles met the inclusion criteria. Dosage forms included were tablets (n=37), liquids (n=21), capsules (n=18) and multiparticulates (n=6). Majority of the dosage forms were conventional (n=49) compared to more advanced novel modified release and fixed-dose combination formulations (n=33). Based on our results, orally administered dosage forms used in the recent pediatric RCTs are still limited by poor acceptability, palatability, and the need to manipulate dosage forms to enable administration. These issues are similar to the ones related to the off-label use of medicine that compromise patient safety. Majority of the dosage forms included in our study were tablets, indicating a positive shift towards more safe and acceptable dosage form. Formulations were also evolving towards dispersible, extended-release and fixed-dose combinations that offer additional benefits for pediatric patients. The low number of children < 2 years old included in study populations and the poor acceptability profile reported by most studies limit our conclusions on an ideal age-appropriate dosage form. Further research is needed on unifying the guidelines used in pediatric drug development.
  • Krott, Max (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Nazarenko, Salla; Aitamurto, Kaarina; Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Korhonen, Vesa; Koski, Sanni; Laine, Veera; Lassila, Jussi; Mitikka, Eemil Johannes (Puolustusministeriö, 2019)