Browsing by Subject " drug therapy"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Duivenvoorden, Wilhelmina C. M.; Daneshmand, Siamak; Canter, Daniel; Lotan, Yair; Black, Peter C.; Abdi, Hamidreza; van Rhijn, Bas W. G.; van de Putte, Elisabeth E. Fransen; Zareba, Piotr; Koskinen, Ilmari; Kassouf, Wassim; Traboulsi, Samer L.; Kukreja, Janet E.; Bostrom, Peter J.; Shayegan, Bobby; Pinthus, Jehonathan H. (2016)
    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic surgery are significant risk factors for thromboembolic events. Our study objectives were to investigate the timing, incidence and characteristics of thromboembolic events during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent radical cystectomy in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 761 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer from 2002 to 2014. Median followup from diagnosis was 21.4 months (range 3 to 272). Patient characteristics included the Khorana score, and the incidence and timing of thromboembolic events (before vs after radical cystectomy). Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare survival between patients with vs without thromboembolic events. Results: The Khorana score indicated an intermediate thromboembolic event risk in 88% of patients. The overall incidence of thromboembolic events in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 14% with a wide variation of 5% to 32% among institutions. Patients with thromboembolic events were older (67.6 vs 64.6 years, p = 0.02) and received a longer neoadjuvant chemotherapy course (10.9 vs 9.7 weeks, p = 0.01) compared to patients without a thromboembolic event. Of the thromboembolic events 58% developed preoperatively and 72% were symptomatic. On multivariable regression analysis the development of a thromboembolic event was not significantly associated with decreased overall survival. However, pathological stage and a high Khorana score were adverse risk factors for overall survival. Conclusions: Thromboembolic events are common in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy before and after radical cystectomy. Our results suggest that a prospective trial of thromboembolic event prophylaxis during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is warranted.
  • Heikinheimo, K.; Huhtala, J. -M.; Thiel, A.; Kurppa, K. J.; Heikinheimo, H.; Kovac, M.; Kragelund, C.; Warfvinge, G.; Dawson, H.; Elenius, K.; Ristimäki, A.; Baumhoer, D.; Morgan, P. R. (2019)
    BRAF V600E is the most common mutation in conventional ameloblastoma (AM) of the mandible. In contrast, maxillary AMs appear to harbor more frequently RAS, FGFR2, or SMO mutations. Unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM) is considered a less aggressive variant of ameloblastoma, amenable to more conservative treatment, and classified as a distinct entity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutation profile of UAM (n = 39) and to compare it to conventional AM (n = 39). The associations between mutation status and recurrence probability were also analyzed. In the mandible, 94% of UAMs (29/31, including 8/8 luminal, 6/8 intraluminal, and 15/15 mural subtypes) and 74% of AMs (28/38) revealed BRAF V600E mutations. Among the BRAF wild-type cases, 1 UAM showed a missense SMO mutation (p.L412F), whereas 2 NRAS (p.Q61R), 2 HRAS (p.Q61R), and 2 FGFR2 (p.C383R) activating mutations were identified in AM. Of the 3 maxillary UAMs, only 1 revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate high frequency of activating BRAF V600E mutations in both UAM and AM of the mandible. In maxillary UAMs, the BRAF V600E mutation prevalence appears to be lower as was shown for AM previously. It could therefore be argued that UAM and AM are part of the spectrum of the same disease. AMs without BRAF V600E mutations were associated with an increased rate of local recurrence (P = 0.0003), which might indicate that routine mutation testing also has an impact on prognosis.
  • van Dongen, Myrna M. E.; Aarnio, Karoliina; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Pirinen, Jani; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Putaala, Jukka (2019)
    Background: Knowledge on the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. Methods: We included 936 first-ever ischemic stroke 30-day survivors aged 15-49, enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994-2007. Follow-up data until 2012 came from Finnish Care Register, Statistics Finland, and Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Usage thresholds were defined as non-users, low (prescription coverage 80%). Adjusted Cox regression allowed assessing the association of usage with all-cause mortality and recurrent vascular events. Results: Of our patients, 40.5% were non-users, 7.8% had low usage, 11.8% intermediate usage and 40.0% high usage. Median follow-up was 8.3 years. Compared to non-users, risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA was lower for patients with low-intermediate (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.65; HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18-0.53) and high usage (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.42; HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.46), after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Use of antihypertensives was suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensives were initially prescribed. Users were at lower risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA compared to non-users.Key Messages The use of antihypertensive medication is suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensive medication was initially prescribed after ischemic stroke at young age. The risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA is lower for users of antihypertensive medication after ischemic stroke at young age compared to non-users, after adjustment for relevant confounders including pre-existing hypertension and prior use of antihypertensive medication. Specific guidelines on antihypertensive medication use after ischemic stroke at young age are lacking. However, our results may motivate doctors and patients in gaining better usage of antihypertensive medication, since better usage was associated with more favorable outcome in this study.
  • Pieters, R. J; Slotved, H. C; Møller Mortensen, H.; Arler, L; Finne, J; Haataja, Sauli; Joosten, J. A. F; Branderhorst, H. M; Krogfelt, K. A (2013)