Browsing by Subject " education"

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  • Grote, Ludger; Pevernagie, Dirk; Bruni, Oliviero; Deboer, Tom; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Hill, Elizabeth A.; Penzel, Thomas; Puertas, F. Javier; Wiechmann, Axel; Verspaandonk, Margret; Paunio, Tiina (2022)
    The European Somnologist certification programme was developed by the European Sleep Research Society to improve patient care in sleep medicine by providing an independent evaluation of theoretical and practical knowledge. The examination of eligible experts plays a key role in this procedure. A process was started more than 15 years ago to create the European sleep medicine curriculum, eligibility criteria for certification, and sleep centre accreditation criteria. The process was characterised by interdisciplinary collaboration, consensus, and achieving new solutions. During the past 10 years, experience has been gained by the examination and certification of more than 1000 sleep medicine experts from more than 50 countries. The process has continuously been improved. However, as the programme was designed and administered mainly by medical experts in the field, systematic influence from teaching and pedagogic experts was partially underrepresented. The current critical appraisal pinpoints several missing links in the process - mainly as a missing constructive alignment between learning objectives, learning and teaching activities, and the final assessment. A series of suggestions has been made to further improve the ESRS certification programme.
  • Grote, Ludger; Pevernagie, Dirk; Bruni, Oliviero; Deboer, Tom; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Hill, Elizabeth A.; Penzel, Thomas; Puertas, F. Javier; Wiechmann, Axel; Verspaandonk, Margret; Paunio, Tiina (2022)
    The European Somnologist certification programme was developed by the European Sleep Research Society to improve patient care in sleep medicine by providing an independent evaluation of theoretical and practical knowledge. The examination of eligible experts plays a key role in this procedure. A process was started more than 15 years ago to create the European sleep medicine curriculum, eligibility criteria for certification, and sleep centre accreditation criteria. The process was characterised by interdisciplinary collaboration, consensus, and achieving new solutions. During the past 10 years, experience has been gained by the examination and certification of more than 1000 sleep medicine experts from more than 50 countries. The process has continuously been improved. However, as the programme was designed and administered mainly by medical experts in the field, systematic influence from teaching and pedagogic experts was partially underrepresented. The current critical appraisal pinpoints several missing links in the process - mainly as a missing constructive alignment between learning objectives, learning and teaching activities, and the final assessment. A series of suggestions has been made to further improve the ESRS certification programme.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Oza, Nilay; Münch, Jürgen (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2013)
    Teaching distributed software development (DSD) in project courses where student teams are geographically distributed promises several benefits. One main benefit is that in contrast to traditional classroom courses, students can experience the effects of distribution and the mechanisms for coping with distribution by themselves, therefore understanding their relevance for software development. They can thus learn to take more care of distribution challenges and risks when starting to develop software in industry. However, providing a sustainable environment for such project courses is difficult. A development environment is needed that can connect to different distributed teams and an ongoing routine to conduct such courses needs to be established. This article sketches a picture of the Software Factory, a platform that supports teaching distributed student projects and that has now been operational for more than three years. We describe the basic steps of conducting Software Factory projects, and portray experiences from past factory projects. In addition, we provide a short overview of related approaches and future activities.
  • Pernaa, Johannes; Wiedmer, Susanne (2020)
    The focus of this systematic literature analysis is to provide a comprehensive review of earlier research on the utilisation of 3D printers in chemistry education. The objective is to offer research-based knowledge for developing chemistry education through following research questions: what kind of work has been done in the field of 3D printing in chemistry education; what kind of design strategies have been implemented; how 3D printing has been used in chemistry education research. The data consists of 47 peer-reviewed articles which were analysed via qualitative content analysis using a technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. Theoretical framework was selected because integrating 3D printing in chemistry education requires knowledge of chemistry, technology, and most importantly, pedagogy. Our research indicates that integrating 3D printing begins by analysing current challenges which are reasoned via pedagogical or technological content knowledge-based arguments. 3D printing was used for producing solutions (e.g. physical models) that support working with found challenges. In chemistry education research, 3D printing has mainly been used for printing research instruments; few studies have investigated its effect on learning or students’ perceptions towards it. There is a great need for comprehensive student-centred pedagogical models for the use of 3D printing in chemistry education.
  • Janhonen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines food education from the perspectives of adolescents participation and agency. The study builds on a social constructivist understanding of learning and draws methodological inspiration from child-hood sociology. The empirical part of the study is based on two data-sets: Nordic survey data (N=1539) collected in 2006−2007 and data from a qualitative case study (2012−2013), which focused on 9th grade students in one Finnish school (14−17 years). The dissertation is compiled from four original publications. Articles I and II examine Nordic adolescents school lunch patterns and their considerations of meal choices in the family context. Articles III and IV examine adolescents school lunch practices as an educational resource and the challenges of school-based participatory research with young people. The results drawn from the comparative Nordic data-set function as a broader background, against which the results from the qualitative case study are discussed in this summary. The study is based on an interdisciplinary and multimethod research design, and has combined qualitative and quantitative data in an interpretive integration (i.e., a combination of qualitative and quantitative results at the stage of theoretical interpretation). The overall aim of the dissertation is to explore how adolescents views on their food practices could be more thoroughly used as an educational resource and how their participation and agency could be better supported in food education. This dissertation concludes that future work on adolescents participation and agency in food education would benefit from enhancing intergenerational dialogue and from approaching food-related learning as dynamic processes that reach beyond formal schooling.
  • Janket, Sok-Ja; Meurman, Jukka; Diamandis, Eleftherios P. (2020)
    We teach and practice ethical behavior with all clinical and research activities. Notably, we are well educated to treat the subjects participating in research studies with high ethical standards. However, the ethics of interacting with colleagues, or with junior faculty members, are neither well defined nor taught. Dealing with junior faculty has parallels to dealing with vulnerable research subjects such as children, mentally or physically challenged groups, prison inmates or army recruits. Like any other vulnerable population, lower-ranking faculty members are often at the mercy of department chairs or other higher-ranked faculty members. Herein we present some potentially unethical or unfair examples related to academic research. Our goal is to educate the academic community of conceptual paths and to prevent similar untoward occurrences from happening in the future. Unethical behaviors related to sexual misconduct have already been described elsewhere and are not included in this manuscript. © 2020 Janket SJ et al.
  • Blagoeva, Nadezda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation presents an artist-teacher-researcher’s exploration of the use of the integrated approach to teaching visual arts to primary students, aged six-to-eight in the after-school clubs organized by an international school in Helsinki. The study is necessitated by the fact that in our postmodern world the availability of visual information is growing with dazzling speed and children, even at an early age, more than ever before are flooded with images through a multitude of channels. Therefore, they need guidance and sharing in order to construct their own knowledge about the world around them and to become multi-literate (Räsänen, 2015a; Räsänen, 2015b), all-round individuals (Finnish National Agency for Education – EDUFI, 2016), able to comprehend the complexity of this diverse visuality. In our fast-changing social and technological environment, dominated by the visual, new means of expression, and methods and materials for art creation are constantly emerging. So, in order to suggest answers to the educational challenges of the future in the field of visual arts it is becoming increasingly necessary to expand curriculum horizons, to find suitable ways for making use of the new and the contemporary (Watts, Cox, & Herne, 2009) and to establish links between different spheres of knowledge and life. For these reasons, the theoretical background of the study relies upon central tenets of the socio-constructivist and integrated approach, while at the same time takes into account some aspects of contemporary art forms and practices. The latter are shown to be essentially integrative in their nature and are viewed as a suitable means of introducing students to the varieties of ways for seeing the world around them and using their knowledge acquired in other subjects for the creation of new original artworks. Contemporary art effortlessly brings together, unites, combines, reuses, recycles, up-cycles, re-contextualizes and remediates materials and ideas to express the interconnectedness between various conceptual entities and, in this way to construct new meanings, just as the integrative approach aims at bridging the gap between disciplines in education. In this dissertation contemporary art forms and practices are considered to be integrative in terms of three of their main aspects: their materialization, their conceptualization and the collaboration during their creation. In view of this understanding of integrative teaching and contemporary art, the dissertation seeks to answer the following broad research question: How can the integrative potential of the three basic art-making principles of contemporary art – alternative materials utilization, conceptualization and collaboration – contribute to the successful integrative teaching of visual arts to primary school students to promote knowledge construction? In order to answer this research question, four artistic projects were planned, developed and implemented, each exploring various aspects of applying the integrated approach to my teaching of visual arts to six-to-eight year old students. The dissertation presents the research and teaching process as a developmental spiral consisting of five action research cycles. Employing action research method for the implementation of all the projects offered a clear methodological procedure that facilitated the data collection as well as the natural flow of the research process – the results and conclusions drawn from each action research cycle inspired the research questions for the next cycle (artistic project). The specific learning objectives as well as the artistic qualities of the artworks created during the projects implementation explored different aspects of the said integrative potential of contemporary art forms and practices. This research in action gave the opportunity to arrive at theoretical conclusions that stemmed directly from my authentic artistic experience applied in the teaching-learning process. These conclusions are presented as a three-tier model for facilitating integrated knowledge construction in the primary visual arts after-school activities by means of introducing contemporary art forms and practices. The model suggests that practical pedagogical utilization of the integrative potential of contemporary art forms can be materials-driven, concept-driven and collaboration-driven integration. These were the specific aspects of contemporary art that were explored in the course of the study and were observed during the implementation of the projects to have the potential to foster collaboration and knowledge integration that transcend disciplinary boundaries. In addition, employing action research allowed me to explore my artistic and teaching approaches thoroughly, to evaluate their development, and to gain awareness of the similarities between the artistic and the research process. In this way, the overlap of professional identities – an artist, a teacher and a researcher – was recognized as an opportunity for guiding the students into authentic artistic processes through artistic action research (Jokela, 2008; Räsänen, 2005), which affected positively the pedagogical and theoretical outcomes of the teaching and research process. The adoption and pedagogical adaptation of the kaleidoscopic diversity of contemporary art’s materialization, conceptualization and collaborative practices fostered collaborative interdisciplinary integration, which is in line with the current Finnish National Core Curriculum for basic education (EDUFI, 2016). They facilitated integrated knowledge construction among the primary after-school students, made the educational process more inspiring and meaningful (European Commission: Eurydice, 2019) and provided the young learners with a creativity toolbox to remix and remediate knowledge and experience, to think outside the box, so as to meet the visual challenges of the postmodern world. ________________________________________ Keywords: contemporary art; action research; integrated approach; primary after-school activities; visual arts education; multi-professional collaboration
  • Tolonen, Mikko; Mäkelä, Eetu; Marjanen, Jani; Tahko, Tuuli (2020)
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Härkänen, Tommi; Lahti, Jouni; Haukkala, Ari; Heliövaara, Markku; Rahkonen, Ossi (2021)
    Aims: There is a lack of longitudinal, population-based studies on the association between education and smoking cessation. A more thorough examination of this association is needed to address inequalities in smoking. Methods: The longitudinal Health 2000 Survey and Health 2011 Survey, representing the Finnish population aged > 30 years, were analysed. Of the 1352 baseline daily smokers, 945 (70%) provided a smoking status at the follow-up. The analytic sample size was 884 (excluding the follow-up occasional smokers). Self-reported questionnaire data and measurements (e.g. plasma cotinine) from the baseline were utilised. The outcome variable was smoking cessation at the follow-up, and the main explanatory variable was education. Logistic regression was the main method for statistical analyses. All of the analyses accounted for the sampling design. Results: At the follow-up, 28% of the baseline daily smokers had quit smoking. An adjusted regression model showed that highly educated respondents had a higher likelihood of quitting smoking compared with those with basic education. Controlling for demographic and health-related variables had a modest effect on this association. Higher scores for plasma cotinine, symptoms of depression and heavy alcohol use were associated with a lower likelihood of quitting smoking. The association between education and smoking cessation was weaker for women than it was for men. Conclusions: High education is associated with smoking cessation among the general adult population, especially among men. A higher plasma cotinine level is strongly associated with continued smoking among both sexes. Background variables only modestly affected the association between education and smoking cessation.
  • Kämppi, Antti; Tanner, Tarja; Viitanen, Olavi; Pohjola, Vesa; Päkkilä, Jari; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko; Patinen, Pertti (2022)
    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of dental fear among Finnish conscripts. Other aims were to study the association between dental fear and cariological status as well as their self-reported, dentition-related well-being. The study material consisted of 13,564 men and 255 women conscripts who underwent oral examinations. Of those, 8713 responded to a computer-based questionnaire. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) was used in analyses for cariological status. Self-reported dental fear, dentition-related well-being and regular check-ups were analysed. Data were analysed with cross tables, Pearson Chi-Square tests, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regressive analysis. High dental fear or finding dental visits very scary was associated with DT > 2 both among women (14.6%, when DT = 0; 33.3%, when DT > 2) and men conscripts (2.3% and 10.8%, respectively). In addition, those reporting that dental health had a negative impact on their well-being and had no regular check-ups were more likely to need cariological treatment than the rest. A high education level, both one's own and parental, was a protective factor for restorative treatment need in male conscripts. The findings of this study support the concept of a vicious cycle of dental fear and dental caries. A preventive, interactive way of work by dental teams would most likely be beneficial for dental health, avoiding the development of dental fear, and dentition-related well-being.
  • Veteli, Peitsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Opetus- ja tutkimusmaailmojen välillä koetaan olevan rako, jota voidaan pitää osasyynä yleisesti havaittuun opiskelijoiden matalaan motivaatioon luonnontieteellisiä aloja kohtaan. Samassa yhteydessä esiin nousevat autenttisuuden ja relevanssin käsitteet, joilla voidaan kuvata eri tavoilla tapahtuvan toiminnan ”aitoutta” tai mielekkyyttä. Tässä työssä esitellään Fysiikan tutkimuslaitos HIP:in (Helsinki Institute of Physics) Avoin data opetuksessa -projektin myötä kehitettyjä merkityksellisen ohjelmoinnin työkaluja, joissa hyödynnetään muun muassa CERNissä toimivan CMS-kokeen (Compact Muon Solenoid) avoimia hiukkastutkimuksen aineistoja. Näiden materiaalien siirtymistä opettajakunnan avuksi tuetaan koulutuksilla, joista kerättyä palautetta analysoidaan tässä tutkielmassa laajemman tiedeopetuksen autenttisuuteen ja avoimen datan hyödyntämiseen liittyvän keskustelun yhteydessä. Avoimen datan hyödyntäminen ja opetuksellinen tutkiminen ovat hyvin nuoria aloja, joiden eturintamaan tämäkin työ asettuu. Aineistoa on kerätty sekä suomalaisilta (n = 64) että kansainvälisiltä (n = 12) toisen asteen opettajilta, minkä lisäksi vertailukohtana käytetään opiskelijatyöpajoista nousseita kommentteja (n = 62). Menetelmänä toimii temaattinen analyysi, jonka tulokset ovat vertailukelpoisia muuhun luonnontieteen opetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen. Tutkimuskysymyksenä on: Miten autenttisuus esiintyy opettajien palautteessa hiukkasfysiikan avoimen datan opetuskäytön kursseilta ja kuinka se vertautuu tiedeopetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen? Tuloksista havaitaan opettajien näkemysten asettuvan hyvin saman suuntaisesti kuin verrokkikirjallisuuden pohjalta olisi voinut olettaakin, yleisimpien autenttisuuden yhteyksien painottuessa tutkijoiden toimintaan verrattaviin työskentelytapoihin ja ”oikean maailman” haasteisiin. Palautteen lähes yksimielinen positiivisuus antaa vahvaa indikaatiota projektin tarjoamien mahdollisuuksien hyödyllisyydestä ja tukee alalla kaivattavien jatkotutkimusten kannattavuutta.
  • Bousquet, J.; Bewick, M.; Cano, A.; Eklund, P.; Fico, G.; Goswami, N.; Guldemond, N. A.; Henderson, D.; Hinkema, M. J.; Liotta, G.; Mair, A.; Molloy, W.; Monaco, A.; Monsonis-Paya, I.; Nizinska, A.; Papadopoulos, H.; Pavlickova, A.; Pecorelli, S.; Prados-Torres, A.; Roller-Wirnsberger, R. E.; Somekh, D.; Vera-Munoz, C.; Visser, F.; Farrell, J.; Malva, J.; Ranberg, K. Andersen; Camuzat, T.; Carriazo, A. M.; Crooks, G.; Gutter, Z.; Iaccarino, G.; Manuel De Keenoy, E.; Moda, G.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Vontetsianos, T.; Abreu, C.; Alonso, J.; Alonso-Bouzon, C.; Ankri, J.; Arredondo, M. T.; Avolio, F.; Bedbrook, A.; Bialoszewski, A. Z.; Blain, H.; Bourret, R.; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M. F.; Catala, A.; O'Caoimh, R.; Cesari, M.; Chavannes, N. H.; Correia-Da-Sousa, J.; Dedeu, T.; Ferrando, M.; Ferri, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Garcia-Lizana, F.; Guerin, O.; Hellings, P. W.; Haahtela, T.; Illario, M.; Inzerilli, M. C.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Kardas, P.; Keil, T.; Maggio, M.; Mendez-Zorrilla, A.; Menditto, E.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Murray, R.; Nogues, M.; O'Byrne-Maguire, I.; Pappa, D.; Parent, A. S.; Pastorino, M.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Samolinski, B.; Siciliano, P.; Teixeira, A. M.; Tsartara, S. I.; Valiulis, A.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vellas, B.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.; Wickman, M.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Zuberbier, T.; Barbagallo, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Klimek, L.; Maggi, S.; Aberer, W.; Akdis, C.; Adcock, I. M.; Agache, I.; Albera, C.; Alonso-Trujillo, F.; Angel Guarcia, M.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Apostolo, J.; Arshad, S. H.; Attalin, V.; Avignon, A.; Bachert, C.; Baroni, I.; Bel, E.; Benson, M.; Bescos, C.; Blasi, F.; Barbara, C.; Bergmann, K. C.; Bernard, P. L.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, P. J.; Branchini, B.; Brightling, C. E.; Bruguiere, V.; Bunu, C.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D. P.; Calderon, M. A.; Canovas, G.; Cardona, V.; Carlsen, K. H.; Cesario, A.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chiron, R.; Chivato, T.; Chung, K. F.; D'Angelantonio, M.; De Carlo, G.; Cholley, D.; Chorin, F.; Combe, B.; Compas, B.; Costa, D. J.; Costa, E.; Coste, O.; Coupet, A. -L.; Crepaldi, G.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Du Toit, G.; Dubakiene, R.; Dupeyron, A.; Emuzyte, R.; Fiocchi, A.; Wagner, A.; Fletcher, M.; Fonseca, J.; Fougere, B.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Garces, G.; Garcia-Aymeric, J.; Garcia-Zapirain, B.; Gemicioglu, B.; Gouder, C.; Hellquist-Dahl, B.; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I.; Heve, D.; Holland, C.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Johnston, S. L.; Just, J.; Jutel, M.; Kaidashev, I. P.; Khaitov, M.; Kalayci, O.; Kalyoncu, A. F.; Keijser, W.; Kerstjens, H.; Knezovic, J.; Kowalski, M.; Koppelman, G. H.; Kotska, T.; Kovac, M.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Lepore, V.; Macnee, W.; Maggio, M.; Magnan, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Marcucci, M.; Marti, T.; Masoli, M.; Melen, E.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Millot-Keurinck, J.; Mlinaric, H.; Momas, I.; Montefort, S.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Moreno-Casbas, T.; Moesges, R.; Mullol, J.; Nadif, R.; Nalin, M.; Navarro-Pardo, E.; Nekam, K.; Ninot, G.; Paccard, D.; Pais, S.; Palummeri, E.; Panzner, P.; Papadopoulos, N. K.; Papanikolaou, C.; Passalacqua, G.; Pastor, E.; Perrot, M.; Plavec, D.; Popov, T. A.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Raffort, N.; Reuzeau, J. C.; Robine, J. M.; Rodenas, F.; Robusto, F.; Roche, N.; Romano, A.; Romano, V.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Roubille, F.; Ruiz, F.; Ryan, D.; Salcedo, T.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Schulz, H.; Schunemann, H. J.; Serrano, E.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Scichilone, N.; Siciliano, P.; Skrindo, I.; Smit, H. A.; Sourdet, S.; Sousa-Costa, E.; Spranger, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Sruk, V.; Sterk, P. J.; Todo-Bom, A.; Touchon, J.; Tramontano, D.; Triggiani, M.; Tsartara, S. I.; Valero, A. L.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Van Hage, M.; Van den Berge, M.; Vandenplas, O.; Ventura, M. T.; Vergara, I.; Vezzani, G.; Vidal, D.; Viegi, G.; Wagemann, M.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Wilson, N.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Zagar, M.; Zaidi, A.; Zidarn, M.; Hoogerwerf, E. J.; Usero, J.; Zuffada, R.; Senn, A.; De Oliveira-Alves, B. (2017)
    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).
  • Wasserman, D.; Apter, G.; Baeken, C.; Bailey, S.; Balazs, J.; Bec, C.; Bienkowski, P.; Bobes, J.; Ortiz, M. F. Bravo; Brunn, H.; Boke, O.; Camilleri, N.; Carpiniello, B.; Chihai, J.; Chkonia, E.; Courtet, P.; Cozman, D.; David, M.; Dom, G.; Esanu, A.; Falkai, P.; Flannery, W.; Gasparyan, K.; Gerlinger, G.; Gorwood, P.; Gudmundsson, O.; Hanon, C.; Heinz, A.; Dos Santos, M. J. Heitor; Hedlund, A.; Ismayilov, F.; Ismayilov, N.; Isometsä, E. T.; Izakova, L.; Kleinberg, A.; Kurimay, T.; Reitan, S. Klaebo; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Lehmets, A.; Lindberg, N.; Lundblad, K. A.; Lynch, G.; Maddock, C.; Malt, U. F.; Martin, L.; Martynikhin, I.; Maruta, N. O.; Matthys, F.; Mazaliauskiene, R.; Mihajlovic, G.; Peles, A. Mihaljevic; Miklavic, V.; Mohr, P.; Ferrandis, M. Munarriz; Musalek, M.; Neznanov, N.; Ostorharics-Horvath, G.; Pajevic, I.; Popova, A.; Pregelj, P.; Prinsen, E.; Rados, C.; Roig, A.; Kuzman, M. Rojnic; Samochowiec, J.; Sartorius, N.; Savenko, Y.; Skugarevsky, O.; Slodecki, E.; Soghoyan, A.; Stone, D. S.; Taylor-East, R.; Terauds, E.; Tsopelas, C.; Tudose, C.; Tyano, S.; Vallon, P.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Varandas, P.; Vavrusova, L.; Voloshyn, P.; Wancata, J.; Wise, J.; Zemishlany, Z.; Oncu, F.; Vahip, S. (2020)
    Background. Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care. Methods. The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions. Results. We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures. Conclusions. We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
  • Pyy, Iida; Leiviskä, Anniina; Mansikka, Jan-Erik (2020)
    In this article, we analyse a recent case of educational policymaking in the city of Oulu in Finland. The case concerns a ban on asylum seekers’ visits to local schools and day-care centres. Our primary aim is to study the role that negative political emotions play in the decision making process of our case. We primarily utilise Martha Nussbaum’s work on political emotions as our analytical framework. We propose that our case exemplifies a type of backlash politics, where policymaking is motivated by negative emotions and based on ethnic or racial group stigmatisation, with the result of abandoning collectively established democratic values and guidelines. Our case also illustrates how, by creating a culture of fear, the type of policymaking exemplified by our case can significantly diminish the possibilities of democratic institutions, such as the comprehensive school, to reinforce social cohesion and reduce social inequalities in society. Accordingly, we suggest that negative political emotions might have problematic consequences for democratic values and decision making processes. Finally, we propose an alternative course of action for addressing asylum seekers’ visits to Finnish schools: we particularly emphasise the importance of following established democratic procedures in political decision making and also argue for the reinforcement of positive political emotions as a long-term educational objective.
  • Chua, Joey (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This qualitative study examined the culture-specific forms of dance talent development. Due to the scant and uneven literature in the field of dance talent development, this study firstly aimed at exploring the various theories and research methodologies underpinning current dance talent development literature. The other aims were to better understand how various catalysts and processes enhanced dancers development at different stages and helped guide students in actualizing their potential. Hence, mapping the Finnish and Singaporean dancers and dance students talent trajectories later became the focus of this study. This dissertation consists of three sections or (dance) Acts , which are based on three sole-authored publications. Act I introduces the compilation and synthesis of empirically based articles published between 2000 2012 that dealt with the critical issues of developing dance talents across the lifespan of children, adolescents, and adults. Data from 37 accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: (a) abilities and traits, (b) creativity, (c) motivation, and (d) social support. Findings and recommendations about future research were useful in clarifying the ontological, epis- temological, and methodological lenses adopted in subsequent studies in this dissertation. In particular, definition of dance talents should be addressed using talent development theories, and more retrospective research about successful dancers and more prospective longitudinal research about talented students should be conducted. Act II presents, via retrospective interviews, the key factors that impacted the talent development of the award-winning Singaporean (n = 4) and Finnish (n = 4) ballet and contemporary dancers. Integral to all the eight dancers success were a high level of abilities, developed psychosocial skills, supportive and knowledgeable people, optimal learning opportunities, and chance. Four dancers stories titled Nonconformist, Exemplary Dancer, Go-Getter, and Trailblazer revolving around the themes and developmental stages illustrate the markedly different pathways for achiev- ing success. The talent-development mega-model framed the discussions in Acts I and II. The perspectives of students (n = 4), parents (n = 2), teachers (n = 6), and a sibling were analyzed in Act III in order to clarify how well significant individuals have supported the exceptionally talented dance students across the different stages of their talent development. The four exceptionally talented students were enrolled in their national dance institutions the Finnish National Opera Ballet School and the Singapore Dance Theatre. Common themes that emerged from this prospective, two-year study were being there, sharing, and knowing that illustrated the types of support instrumental, emotional, and informational from families, peers, and teachers that contributed to the students development. A result of this dissertation is the creation of a conceptual framework of dance talent develop- ment that can be useful for future research. The framework describes abilities, motivational beliefs, supportive and knowledgeable people, learning opportunities, and social skills that are crucial for dance talent development across four stages budding, blossoming, maturing, and seasoned.  The author has already utilized this framework in a longitudinal study involving male dance students. While this model emphasizes talent development in dance, it is hoped that this model is applicable in other domains.
  • Laivo, Soila Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis answers to a question “Why adolescent girls drop out of school in Northern Uganda?” In Uganda, approximately 70% of the children drop out of public school before 7th grade, the final year of primary school. In northern Uganda, girls drop out of school in more significant numbers than boys, and it happens around the age when girls reach puberty. Northern Uganda is also a particular location because it is recovering from long conflict, affecting strongly the whole population living in the area. The thesis is based on two-month ethnographic fieldwork in northern Uganda during the spring of 2015. To answer the main research question this study seeks to analyse it through taking a look how the school, the community and the girls themselves experience and talk about dropping out, education and growing up in the current post-conflict state of the social life. The thesis argues that the dropout rate is linked to the adolescence as life-stage of becoming an adult that is making the girls to make decisions about the future. The analysis is done through three different perspectives – the educational, societal and personal narratives of the youth. The first perspective is the education and schooling in northern Uganda. It explores the concept of ’educated person’ by Levinson and Holland through sexual education and gender in education. The study shows that Ugandan public primary and secondary education is deriving its ideas and understanding of educated person from the national curriculum, which often conflict with the local concepts of the educated person in the Acholi community, influencing the blamed and real reasons for dropping out. The second perspective looks into the community and the societal pressures the girls are facing when growing up. It will describe family, kinship, marriage and gender in post-conflict context and show how in these areas of life, the past conflict, “loss of culture”, generational conflicts and subsequent disobedience are presented as reasons behind the challenges to stay in school. The third perspective tells the stories of the girls met and talked to during the ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Uganda. It answers the question “What is happening in the life of a girl when she drops out of school?”. It is argued that the girls take actions of a gendered agency to further their lives and become adults. Thus, dropping out of school cannot just be explained as a simple event just suddenly happening without their own will. It will further answer the question “What makes some girls stay in school?” to show how those girls still in school manage the crosscurrents of growing up in Acholiland. The thesis argues that the girls in northern Uganda are active appropriators and social agents who through their own actions contest, struggle and penetrate the structures in their society while also at the same time reproduce them. In Northern Uganda, both the community and the state together with different international agencies will have plans and expectations for the girls’ future. The study shows how the girls navigate the school, community and peer expectations and sociocultural and economic structures to stay or finally drop out of school. These structures are state organised and aid-infused formal schooling and society in amidst of post-conflict recovery which creates a framework where the girls are acting. The school presents the modern and globally orientated educated person, and in contrast to it, the community is looking for to restore ‘traditional’ way of life. It is argued that these two sides are often in conflict and in the middle of this conflict the girls act and solve their way out of it, looking for adulthood and gaining respectable status in the society. The schools, the community and even sometimes the development actors see the girls as passively following the things they will encounter. The thesis will show that they are not. The girls either stay in school or drop out of it, but more often as a consequence of their own decisions and actions than passively because the school or the community could not support them. It is demonstrated that dropping out of school looks more of line a tactic for the future as a respectable grown-up than mere problem to be solved.
  • Kosola, Silja; McCarthy, Maria C.; McNeil, Robyn; Orme, Lisa M.; Drew, Sarah; Sawyer, Susan M. (2018)
    Purpose: This study describes the early educational and vocational outcomes of Australian adolescents and young adults (AYAs) after cancer diagnosis and examines factors associated with these outcomes. Methods: Within this cross-sectional national Australian study, 196 AYAs aged 15-25 years at cancer diagnosis and within 6-24 months of diagnosis were recruited from 18 sites. Participants completed a survey that included questions about school and work outcomes, support received regarding necessary changes to education and vocation, and validated measures of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Results: Almost half of the sample (43%) was not fully "back on track" with their previous educational and vocational plans. Post-traumatic stress and emotional symptoms were associated with poorer school/work functioning (beta = -0.95, p = 0.009 and beta = -1.27, p = 0.001, respectively). Higher PedsQL school/work functioning was associated with a slightly greater likelihood of being "back on track" with education and work plans (OR 1.03, p = 0.001). AYAs who felt well supported regarding changes to education and work plans more frequently reported receiving support from formal sources and from more sources than those who felt less supported. Unmet need of accessing an educational or vocational advisor was significantly more frequent in adult than in pediatric settings (42% vs. 17%; p = 0.024). Parents were the most common source of educational or vocational support for AYAs rather than professionals. Conclusion: This study highlights the connection between school and work participation and mental health in a national sample of AYAs with cancer. It suggests distinct benefits of educational and vocational support.
  • Stickley, Andrew; Baburin, Aleksei; Jasilionis, Domantas; Krumins, Juris; Martikainen, Pekka; Kondo, Naoki; Leinsalu, Mall (2021)
    Aim: To estimate whether large macroeconomic fluctuations in the 2000s affected inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland. Design: Longitudinal register-based follow-up study. Setting: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland. Participants: General population in the 35–74 age group. Measurements: Socioeconomic status was measured by the highest achieved educational level and was categorised using the International Standard Classification of Education 2011 as low (included categories 0–2), middle (3–4), and high (5–8). Educational inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in 2000–2003, 2004–2007, 2008–2011 and 2012–2015 were examined using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Findings: Alcohol-related mortality increased in all countries in 2004–2007 except among Estonian women and decreased/remained the same from 2008 onward except among Latvian men. By 2012–2015 alcohol-related mortality was still higher than in 2000–2003 in Finland, Latvia and Lithuania (women only). Relative inequalities increased across the study period in all countries (significantly in Lithuania and Latvia). The 2004–2007 increase in relative inequalities was mostly driven by a larger mortality increase among the low educated, whereas in 2008–2011 and in 2012–2015 inequalities often increased because of a larger relative mortality decline among the high educated. However, these period changes in relative inequalities and between educational groups were often not statistically significant. Absolute inequalities were larger in 2012–2015 versus 2000–2003 in all countries except Estonia (decrease). Conclusion: In the Baltic countries and Finland, alcohol-related mortality tended to increase faster among the low educated during a period of economic expansion (2004–2007) and decrease more among the high educated during a period of economic recession (2008–2011).
  • Syrjäkari, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This study assesses the relationship between education and HIV-status, and the contribution of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior to this association among 15-24 year old population in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe bears a generalized, sexually transmitting epidemic with a declining HIV prevalence currently estimated at 15 percent. In earlier studies in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between education and HIV has been found to change during the epidemic. In mature epidemics, when the knowledge on the transmission mechanisms of the virus increases, education is suggested to become protective of the infection. In addition to increased HIV-related knowledge, more accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV and cognitive skills facilitated by education are argued to influence the behavior protecting from the infection. The aims of this study were two-fold: 1) to describe the trends in the level of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior by the level of education, and 2) to assess the relationship between education and HIV-status based on the most recent data. This study focused on 15-24 years old only, among whom the acquired infections were assumed to be recent. The trend analyses were based on four cross-sectional, nationally representative Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey data sets collected between 1994 and 2010-11. In addition, the association between education and HIV-status was examined by calculating logistic regression models using the 2010-11 data, in which HIV-test results linked with the survey data were available. When trends between 1994 and 2011 were observed, both among women and men the level of education, HIV-related knowledge, and being tested for HIV had become more common, except among men with lower levels of education, who had worse HIV-related knowledge in the end of the periods studied. In 2010 more women in all educational groups, and men with lower levels of education, were married and had started their sex life, when men with higher levels of education, had postponed the onset of their sexual activity compared to 1994. Regardless of the level of education, both men and women had fewer lifetime partners and had less high-risk sex in 2010, though this was considerably more rare among women compared to men. In all other groups condom use in high-risk sex became more frequent during the periods studied, except among women with lower levels of education, who during the final study period were using condoms less often in high-risk sex than during the first study period. When the association between education and HIV status and the contribution of the intervening factors was assessed using the 2010 data, a statistically significant relationship between education and HIV status was found in women but not in men. Among women who had ever had sex having incomprehensive knowledge on HIV also increased the risk of the infection. Both in men and women having risky sexual behavior increased the risk of the infection. In line with earlier studies, the findings of this paper suggest that among young people in Zimbabwe, positive changes in HIV-related knowledge, and changes in high-risk behavior have occurred, though these changes vary according to the level of education and gender. More educated women seem to postpone the onset of their sexual activity, but those who have started their sex life have more often casual partnerships. Women with lower educational level marry and start their sex life early, but have very rarely casual partnerships, though condom use in these partnerships is lower and has even decreases, contrary to all other groups. Men with lower levels of education had most often incomprehensive knowledge on HIV, and had changed their behavior less compared to more educated men. More educated men had been able to alter their behavior more, but having many lifetime partners was still most common in this group. The findings of this study suggest that specific prevention measures are required to address these trends and the needs of different educational groups in both women and men.
  • Kaukonen Lindholm, Riikka Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The focus of this thesis is on the education of indigenous peoples, especially on how education can facilitate territorial self-determination and political emancipation for them. Indigenous movements world-wide and in Ecuador have focused on creating education respectful of and relevant to indigenous cultural background and knowledge. This thesis explores further the interconnectedness of education and indigenous territorial politics, as they have been together in the forefront of the indigenous movement in Ecuador, and they link the epistemological struggle of recognising Indigenous knowledges to environmental issues prevalent in the country dependent on extractivism. As indigenous peoples often inhabit environmentally vulnerable regions, this thesis examines how for the indigenous groups of Ecuadorian Amazon the relationship between education and territory can aim to be mutually beneficial, encouraging both preservation of the diverse cultures and environment in the biocultural landscapes. The research was conducted as an ethnographical case study on the province of Pastaza, situated in the Ecuadorian Amazon with a special focus on the indigenous group known as Sapara, who are the smallest of 14 indigenous nationalities recognised under the plurinational state of Ecuador. The data of the study consisted of 27 semi-structured interviews and participant observation recorded in the field diary, accompanied by historical analysis of intercultural bilingual education in Ecuador. This thesis illustrates the place-making practices and histories of indigenous peoples, acknowledged under the term Indigenous knowledge, as they form a foundation for territorial politics. Possibility for epistemological diversity in the education system is understood through principle of interculturality, as articulated by the indigenous movement itself as a radical project of recognising lived heritage of cultural and historical differences in dialogue between various segments of society. The topic is examined through the concept of territory, which emphasises a question of governance in plurinational Ecuador, where indigenous nationalities struggle to exercise control over their respective territories. Territory is formed of competing political projects that aim to define and redefine its meaning, which also opens up a definition of territory to scrutinise what type of power actually operates in these political projects and rejects assumptions of simple top-down governance as the only possible territorial form. This theoretical framework facilitates the analysis of education as a part of territorial strategies. The main argument of this thesis is that education constructs a significant part of reinforcing political emancipation and territorial self-determination of indigenous peoples. Based on historical and ethnographical analysis, the thesis illustrates how education functions as a privileged arena of cultural struggle to achieve epistemological diversity that includes Indigenous knowledges alongside with Western science. Simultaneously, education, which is perceived pivotal for living well, acts as a societal force that can transform material foundations of life, since indigenous peoples modify their residential patterns in order to access education. As indigenous territories remain only partly autonomous, since the nation-state retains control over subsoil resources, land continues to be an arena of competing political interests. This accentuates the importance of planning education practices to facilitate living inside the whole territory, since inhabiting space asserts the claims of indigenous groups effectively, allowing them to practice a strategy of dispersal.