Browsing by Subject " standards"

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  • Hokkanen, Laura; Barbosa, Fernando; Ponchel, Amelie; Constantinou, Marios; Kosmidis, Mary H.; Varako, Nataliya; Kasten, Erich; Mondini, Sara; Lettner, Sandra; Baker, Gus; Persson, Bengt A.; Hessen, Erik (2020)
    The prevalence and negative impact of brain disorders are increasing. Clinical Neuropsychology is a specialty dedicated to understanding brain-behavior relationships, applying such knowledge to the assessment of cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning associated with brain disorders, and designing and implementing effective treatments. The need for services goes beyond neurological diseases and has increased in areas of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, among others. In Europe, a great deal of variability exists in the education and training of Clinical Neuropsychologists. Training models include master's programs, continuing education courses, doctoral programs, and/or post-doctoral specialization depending on the country, with no common framework of requirements, although patients' needs demand equal competencies across Europe. In the past 5 years, the Standing Committee on Clinical Neuropsychology of the European Federation of Psychologists' Association has conducted a series of surveys and interviews with experts in the field representing 30 European countries. The information, along with information from the existing literature, is used in presenting an overview of current and relevant topics related to policy and guidelines in the training and competencies in Clinical Neuropsychology. An option for the way forward is the EuroPsy Specialist Certificate, which is currently offered in Work and Organizational Psychology, and in psychotherapy. It builds upon the basic certificate and complements national standards without overriding them. General principles can be found that can set the basis for a common, solid, and comprehensive specialty education/training, sharpening the Neuropsychologists' competencies across Europe. The requirements in Clinical Neuropsychology should be comparable to those for the existing specialty areas in the EuroPsy model. Despite the perceived challenges, developing a specialist certificate appears a step forward for the development of Clinical Neuropsychology. Recommendations are proposed toward a shared framework of competencies by the means of a common level of education/training for the professionals in Europe. Benchmarking training standards and competencies across Europe has the potential of providing protection against unqualified and ethically questionable practice, creating transparency, raising the general European standard, and promoting mobility of both Clinical Neuropsychologists and patients in Europe, for the benefit of the professional field and the population.
  • Maack, Gerd; Äystö, Lauri; Carere, Mario; Clausen, Henning; James, Alice; Junghans, Marion; Junttila, Ville; Hollender, Juliane; Marinov, Dimitar; Stroomberg, Gerard; Triebskorn, Rita; Verbruggen, Eric; Lettieri, Teresa (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Environmental Sciences Europe
    Leverett et al. commented on the Environmental quality standard (EQS) for diclofenac derived under the European Water Framework Directive [Leverett et al. (2021) Environ Sci Eur 33: 133]. They postulated that the derivation of the EQS value for diclofenac is not conducted according to the EQS Technical Guidance, but rather using data of poor reliability and relevance. Consequently, the authors suggested using their alternative derived value instead. It is to be noted that the process for the EQS derivation for diclofenac is still ongoing and not finalized, and that as a consequence, any critical analysis is very premature. In general, within the current European Commission process, EQS values proposals are derived by expert groups led by the Joint Research Centre. In the specific case for diclofenac, Leverett et al. have also been actively involved as experts. This response to Leverett et al. (2021) aims to clarify the reasoning behind the proposal from a scientific point of view and to express our concern for the lack of transparency of their position in the statement of competing interests. Indeed, the authors did not disclose their participation in the expert group for deriving the diclofenac EQS value, nor that they have direct and indirect ties to a company that markets diclofenac in Europe, Glaxo Smith & Kline plc (GSK). This amounts to a significant conflict of interest and leads to disinformation to the reader.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.