Browsing by Subject " trends"

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  • Verronen, P. T. (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2022)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2022:1
    The 11th International Workshop on Long-Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere will be held between 30 May and 3 June, 2022, at the Finnish Meteorological Institute in Helsinki, Finland. The workshop is organised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The workshop gathers together more than 50 scientists from the EU, USA, India, Canada, Argentina, Norway, China, Switzerland, and UK. This report is the official abstract book of the workshop. The scientific topics include: ● Stratospheric and mesospheric observations ● Simulations and predictions of the stratosphere and mesosphere ● Changes in the ionosphere and thermosphere ● Dynamic, physical, chemical and radiative mechanisms ● Role of the stratosphere and mesosphere for climate The workshop is sponsored by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS).
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Virkki, Vili; Alanärä, Elina; Porkka, Miina; Ahopelto, Lauri; Gleeson, Tom; Mohan, Chinchu; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Flörke, Martina; Gerten, Dieter; Gosling, Simon N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wanders, Niko; Kummu, Matti (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
    Human actions and climate change have drastically altered river flows across the world, resulting in adverse effects on riverine ecosystems. Environmental flows (EFs) have emerged as a prominent tool for safeguarding the riverine ecosystems, but at the global scale, the assessment of EFs is associated with high uncertainty related to the hydrological data and EF methods employed. Here, we present a novel, in-depth global EF assessment using environmental flow envelopes (EFEs). Sub-basin-specific EFEs are determined for approximately 4400 sub-basins at a monthly time resolution, and their derivation considers the methodological uncertainties related to global-scale EF studies. In addition to a lower bound of discharge based on existing EF methods, we introduce an upper bound of discharge in the EFE. This upper bound enables areas to be identified where streamflow has substantially increased above natural levels. Further, instead of only showing whether EFs are violated over a time period, we quantify, for the first time, the frequency, severity, and trends of EFE violations during the recent historical period. Discharge was derived from global hydrological model outputs from the ISIMIP 2b ensemble. We use pre-industrial (1801–1860) quasi-natural discharge together with a suite of hydrological EF methods to estimate the EFEs. We then compare the EFEs with recent historical (1976–2005) discharge to assess the violations of the EFE. These violations most commonly manifest as insufficient streamflow during the low-flow season, with fewer violations during the intermediate-flow season, and only a few violations during the high-flow season. The EFE violations are widespread and occur in half of the sub-basins of the world during more Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 3316 V. Virkki et al.: Globally widespread and increasing violations of environmental flow envelopes than 5 % of the months between 1976 and 2005, which is double compared with the pre-industrial period. The trends in EFE violations have mainly been increasing, which will likely continue in the future with the projected hydroclimatic changes and increases in anthropogenic water use. Indications of increased upper extreme streamflow through EFE upper bound violations are relatively scarce and dispersed. Although local fine-tuning is necessary for practical applications, and further research on the coupling between quantita tive discharge and riverine ecosystem responses at the global scale is required, the EFEs provide a quick and globally robust way of determining environmental flow allocations at the sub-basin scale to inform global research and policies on water resources management.
  • Sharma, Sapna; Filazzola, Alessandro; Nguyen, Thi; Imrit, M. Arshad; Blagrave, Kevin; Bouffard, Damien; Daly, Julia; Feldman, Harley; Felsine, Natalie; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Granin, Nikolay; Hecock, Richard; L’Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Hopkins, Ed; Howk, Neil; Iacono, Michael; Knoll, Lesley B.; Korhonen, Johanna; Malmquist, Hilmar J.; Marszelewski, Włodzimierz; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Miyabara, Yuichi; Miyasaka, Kiyoshi; Mills, Alexander; Olson, Lolita; Peters, Theodore W.; Richardson, David C.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rudstam, Lars; Wain, Danielle; Waterfield, Holly; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Wiltse, Brendan; Yao, Huaxia; Zhdanov, Andry; Magnuson, John J. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Scientific Data
    In recent decades, lakes have experienced unprecedented ice loss with widespread ramifications for winter ecological processes. The rapid loss of ice, resurgence of winter biology, and proliferation of remote sensing technologies, presents a unique opportunity to integrate disciplines to further understand the broad spatial and temporal patterns in ice loss and its consequences. Here, we summarize ice phenology records for 78 lakes in 12 countries across North America, Europe, and Asia to permit the inclusion and harmonization of in situ ice phenology observations in future interdisciplinary studies. These ice records represent some of the longest climate observations directly collected by people. We highlight the importance of applying the same definition of ice-on and ice-off within a lake across the time-series, regardless of how the ice is observed, to broaden our understanding of ice loss across vast spatial and temporal scales.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Angelstam, Per; Fedoriak, Mariia; Cruz, Fatima; Muñoz-Rojas, José; Yamelynets, Taras; Manton, Michael; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne; Dobrynin, Denis; Izakovičova, Zita; Jansson, Nicklas; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kanka, Robert; Kavtarishvili, Marika; Kopperoinen, Leena; Lazdinis, Marius; Metzger, Marc J.; Özüt, Deniz; Gjorgjieska, Dori Pavloska; Sijtsma, Frans J.; Stryamets, Nataliya; Tolunay, Ahmet; Turkoglu, Turkay; Moolen, Bert van der; Zagidullina, Asiya; Zhuk, Alina (2021)
    Ecology and Society 26 (1): 11
    Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approaches requires maintenance of several forms of social interactions and capitals. Focusing on Pan-European regions with different environmental histories and cultures, we estimate the state and trends of two groups of factors underpinning rural landscape stewardship, namely, (1) traditional rural landscape and novel face-to-face as well as virtual fora for social interaction, and (2) bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital. We applied horizon scanning to 16 local landscapes located in 18 countries, representing Pan-European social-ecological and cultural gradients. The resulting narratives, and rapid appraisal knowledge, were used to estimate portfolios of different fora for social interactions and forms of social capital supporting landscape stewardship. The portfolios of fora for social interactions were linked to societal cultures across the European continent: “self-expression and secular-rational values” in the northwest, “Catholic” in the south, and “survival and traditional authority values” in the East. This was explained by the role of traditional secular and religious local meeting places. Virtual internet-based fora were most widespread. Bonding social capitals were the strongest across the case study landscapes, and linking social capitals were the weakest. This applied to all three groups of fora. Pan-European social-ecological contexts can be divided into distinct clusters with respect to the portfolios of different fora supporting landscape stewardship, which draw mostly on bonding and bridging forms of social capital. This emphasizes the need for regionally and culturally adapted approaches to landscape stewardship, which are underpinned by evidence-based knowledge about how to sustain green infrastructures based on both forest naturalness and cultural landscape values. Sharing knowledge from comparative studies can strengthen linking social capital.
  • Manninen, Terhikki; Aalto, Tuula; Markkanen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Böttcher, Kristin; Metsämäki, Sari; Anttila, Kati; Pirinen, Pentti; Leppänen, Antti; Arslan, Ali Nadir (Copernicus, 2019)
    Biogeosciences
    The surface albedo time series, CLARA-A2 SAL, was used to study trends in the snowmelt start and end dates, the melting season length and the albedo value preceding the melt onset in Finland during 1982–2016. In addition, the melt onset from the JSBACH land surface model was compared with the timing of green-up estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Moreover, the melt onset was compared with the timing of the greening up based on MODIS data. Similarly, the end of snowmelt timing predicted by JSBACH was compared with the melt-off dates based on the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) operational in situ measurements and the Fractional Snow Cover (FSC) time-series product provided by the EU FP7 CryoLand project. It was found that the snowmelt date estimated using the 20 % threshold of the albedo range during the melting period corresponded well to the melt estimate of the permanent snow layer. The longest period, during which the ground is continuously half or more covered by snow, defines the permanent snow layer (Solantie et al., 1996). The greening up followed within 5–13 days the date when the albedo reached the 1 % threshold of the albedo dynamic range during the melting period. The time difference between greening up and complete snowmelt was smaller in mountainous areas than in coastal areas. In two northern vegetation map areas (Northern Karelia–Kainuu and Southwestern Lapland), a clear trend towards earlier snowmelt onset (5–6 days per decade) and increasing melting season length (6–7 days per decade) was observed. In the forested part of northern Finland, a clear decreasing trend in albedo (2 %–3 % per decade in absolute albedo percentage) before the start of the melt onset was observed. The decreasing albedo trend was found to be due to the increased stem volume.
  • Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Bopp, Matthias; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kalediene, Ramune; Lee, Jung Su; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2019)
    Background We compared mortality inequalities by occupational class in Japan and South Korea with those in European countries, in order to determine whether patterns are similar. Methods National register-based data from Japan, South Korea and eight European countries (Finland, Denmark, England/Wales, France, Switzerland, Italy (Turin), Estonia, Lithuania) covering the period between 1990 and 2015 were collected and harmonised. We calculated age-standardised all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men aged 35-64 by occupational class and measured the magnitude of inequality with rate differences, rate ratios and the average inter-group difference. Results Clear gradients in mortality were found in all European countries throughout the study period: manual workers had 1.6-2.5 times higher mortality than upper non-manual workers. However, in the most recent time-period, upper non-manual workers had higher mortality than manual workers in Japan and South Korea. This pattern emerged as a result of a rise in mortality among the upper non-manual group in Japan during the late 1990s, and in South Korea during the late 2000s, due to rising mortality from cancer and external causes (including suicide), in addition to strong mortality declines among lower non-manual and manual workers. Conclusion Patterns of mortality by occupational class are remarkably different between European countries and Japan and South Korea. The recently observed patterns in the latter two countries may be related to a larger impact on the higher occupational classes of the economic crisis of the late 1990s and the late 2000s, respectively, and show that a high socioeconomic position does not guarantee better health.
  • Kohonen, Ilmari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Global biodiversity continues to decline. Recent reports of decline in insect abundance and biomass are concerning, given the crucial roles insects play in multiple ecosystem processes, such as pollination, nutrient cycling and as a food resource for higher trophic levels. Based on the current state of the literature, it appears that total insect abundance and biomass are in decline, but there is considerable variation in trajectories in different regions and taxa. Many studies report on either aggregated community abundance or biomass, but few have examined how closely these two variables are correlated. For example, declining trends in large-bodied species could have disproportionately large effects on total biomass, even if total abundance remained stable. This, in turn, could have substantial consequences for predators dependent on insect biomass for food. Whether studying total abundance or biomass, long-term monitoring data are essential for robust estimation of temporal trends. In my thesis, I investigated trends in macro-moth abundance and biomass using data from the Finnish moth monitoring scheme (Nocturna) over a period of 24 years (1993-2016). My main objectives were to explore whether total abundance and biomass have changed over the timeframe examined, and to estimate the degree of correlation between the two variables in these data. As is typical for monitoring programs, only counts of moth individuals have been recorded. In order to obtain information on biomass, I created a predictive model for converting the recorded abundance counts to dry biomass based on species mean wingspan and body robustness. I weighed museum collection specimens of common moth species of variable sizes, and used these data for fitting the model. Additionally, I also investigated how local weather (thermal and precipitation) conditions during the growing season and winter relate to interannual variation in total abundance. Finally, I analysed potentially informative species traits (e.g., wingspan, voltinism, overwintering stage) in relation to population trends of individual species, because such associations could be underlying change in total abundance or biomass. There was no long-term change in total macro-moth abundance or biomass over the 24-year monitoring period. Abundance and biomass were very highly correlated (r > 0.9). In terms of interannual variation, total moth abundance and biomass showed a distinctive pattern suggestive of periodicity, with peaks at approximately 10-year intervals. Local weather conditions were very weakly associated with annual change rates of total abundance, leaving the interannual pattern unexplained. Lichen-feeding and multivoltinism (multiple generations per year) were positively related to population trends, supporting earlier findings. Especially relevant to potential trends in biomass, wingspan showed no relationship with positive or negative trends, which is in line with the high correlation between abundance and biomass in this dataset. My results imply that the total abundance and biomass trends in boreal Europe diverge from those commonly reported from temperate Europe. Further research is required to shed light on factors underlying total insect abundance and biomass trends. The method I developed for converting moth abundance to biomass is applicable to similar work elsewhere.
  • OBSERVANT II Res Grp; Costa, Giuliano; D'Errigo, Paola; Rosato, Stefano; Biancari, Fausto; Juvonen, Tatu; Tamburino, Corrado (2022)
    Background: Data reflecting the benefit of procedural improvements in real-world transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) practice are sparse. Aims: To compare outcomes and trends of two TAVI eras from real Italian practice. Methods: A total of 1811 and 2939 TAVI patients enrolled in the national, prospective OBSERVANT and OBSERVANT II studies in 2010-2012 and 2016-2018, respectively, were compared in a cohort study. Outcomes were adjusted using inverse propensity of treatment weighting and propensity score matching. Results: The median age (83.0 (79.0-86.0) vs. 83.0 (79.0-86.0)) and EuroSCORE II (5.2 (3.2-7.7) vs. 5.1 (3.1-8.1)) of OBSERVANT and OBSERVANT II patients were similar. At 1 year, patients of the OBSERVANT II study had a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (10.6% vs. 16.3%, Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.63 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.52-0.76)) and rehospitalization for heart failure (HF) (14.3% vs. 19.5%, Sub-distribution HR 0.71 (95%CI 0.60-0.84)), whereas rates of stroke (3.1% vs. 3.6%) and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) (16.6% vs. 18.0%) were comparable between study groups. Conclusions: Age and risk profile among patients undergoing TAVI in Italy remained substantially unchanged between the 2010-2012 and 2016-2018 time periods. After adjustment, patients undergoing TAVI in the most recent era had lower risk of all-cause death and rehospitalization for HF at 1 year, whereas rates of stroke and PPI did not differ significantly.
  • Santalahti, Tanya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Carbon neutral agriculture plays a key role in climate change mitigation. However, Finnish farmers are struggling with the impacts of climate change and the profitability crisis. This study aims at providing market insight on potential sources of income for Finnish farmers in carbon neutral agriculture by 2030. However, this thesis does not focus on the question whether carbon neutral agriculture is achievable. The role of policy instruments is also investigated to determine whether they facilitate or prevent changes. The thesis is commissioned by Envitecpolis Oy. Six experts from the agriculture field were interviewed and the data were analysed with theory-driven content analysis. The analysis is based on the future signals sense-making framework (FSSF) that focuses on the weak signals, drivers and trends found in the data. Each theme includes two categories; the nonlinear and linear paths of change. In addition, policy instruments were divided into promoters and disrupters of change. The relevant weak signals identified are innovations, the formation of premium markets, the adoption of paludiculture, novel and existing market mechanisms for carbon neutral practices, the substitution of materials and energy in production, digitalization, the increasing requirements for producers by food industry and by consumers and lastly, strengthened cooperation between actors in agriculture. The drivers of change, such as climate change, knowledge and advances in technology, significantly influence the adoption of these weak signals. However, various trends function as blockers of change whilst some trends are inevitable large change processes. In light of the results, weak signals of potential sources of income are not likely to become mainstream by 2030. However, existing or emerging issues may play a key role in providing additional income for farmers. National agriculture policy and the EU Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) are complex schemes that are gradually emphasizing climate issues. However, these policies fail to incentivize farmers to adopt practices for carbon neutral agriculture. Recommendations for future research include the cost-effectiveness of climate change mitigation measures and a follow-up on the sources of income for farmers in 2030.
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Helm, Aveliina; Alahuhta, Janne (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 786 (2021), 147491
    Patterns of species rarity have long fascinated ecologists, yet most of what we know about the natural world stems from studies of common species. A large proportion of freshwater plant species has small range sizes and are therefore considered rare. However, little is known about the mechanisms and geographical distribution of rarity in the aquatic realm and to what extent diversity of rare species in freshwater plants follows their terrestrial counterparts. Here, we present the first in–depth analysis of geographical patterns, potential deterministic ecogeographical factors and projected scenarios of freshwater vascular plant rarity using 50 × 50 km grid cells across Europe (41°N–71°N) and North America (25°N–78°N). Our results suggest that diversity of rare species shows different patterns in relation to latitude on the two continents, and that hotspots of rarity concentrate in a relatively small proportion of the European and North American land surface, especially in mountainous as well as in climatically rare and stable areas. Interestingly, we found no differences among alternative rarity definitions and measures when delineating areas with notably high diversity of rare species. Our findings also indicate that few variables, namely a combination of current climate, Late Quaternary climate–change velocity and human footprint, are able to accurately predict the location of continental centers of rare species diversity. However, these relationships are not geographically homogeneous, and the underlying factors likely act synergistically. Perhaps more importantly, we provide empirical evidence that current centers of rare species diversity are characterized by higher anthropogenic impacts and might shrink disproportionately within this century as the climate changes. Our reported distributional patterns of species rarity align with the known trends in species richness of other freshwater organisms and may help conservation planners make informed decisions mitigating the effects of climate change and other anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity.
  • Laakso, Senja; Aro, Riikka; Heiskanen, Eva; Kaljonen, Minna (Taylor & Francis Online, 2020)
    Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy 17 1 (2020)
    Two streams of literature have become especially prominent in understanding social change toward sustainability within the past decades: the research on socio-technical transitions and applications of social practice theory. The aim of this article is to contribute to efforts to create dialogue between these two approaches. We do this by focusing on the concept of reconfiguration, which has become a much-used, but poorly defined notion in the discussion on sustainability transitions. To understand what is defined as reconfiguration in systems and practices, and how the understanding of reconfiguration in regimes could benefit from insights about reconfiguration in practices, we conducted a systematic and critical literature review of 43 journal articles. The findings showed a trend toward a focus on whole-system reconfiguration and interlinked dynamics between practices of production and consumption. However, our study suggests that a less hierarchical understanding of transitions utilizing insights from practice theory might be fruitful. Future research on sustainability transitions could benefit from addressing the tensions between and within niche and regime practices; the dynamics maintaining and challenging social and cultural norms; the efforts in creating new normalities and in recruiting actors in practices; and investigating the different roles the various actors play in these practices.
  • Herzon, Irina; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Wehn, Solvi; Rusina, Solvita; Helm, Aveliina; Cousins, Sara; Rašomavičius, Valerius (2021)
    The European continent contains substantial areas of semi-natural habitats, mostly grasslands, which are among the most endangered habitats in Europe. Their continued existence depends on some form of human activity, for either production or conservation purposes, or both. We examined the share of semi-natural grasslands within the general grassland areas in boreal Europe. We reviewed research literature across the region to compile evidence on semi-natural grasslands and other semi-natural habitats, such as wooded pastures, in respect to a range of topics such as ecology, land-use change, socioeconomics, and production. We also explored drivers of the research agenda and outlined future research needs. Challenges are faced when defining and quantifying semi-natural habitats even across a restricted region. Agricultural development and other policies clearly impact the research agenda in various countries. There are recent signs of a shift from classical ecological studies toward more multidisciplinary and integrated research. To sufficiently address the threats faced by semi-natural habitats, political and research frameworks in the European Union should pay more attention to the social-ecological complexity inherent in their management and should support the engagement of various actors into participatory governance processes. This is in line with a full-farm approach implicit in high nature value farming systems.
  • Saastamoinen, Ilkka (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this study was to describe how the tactile properties have been taken into consideration in packages value chain and which aspects in packaging are important for consumers in the future. Packages were devided in study to cheaper everyday bulk products and more expesive luxury products. The scope of this study covers the marketing side of board packaging. Theory part discusses how packaging and the design of packages relate to product branding. The discussion is based on a few of the main theories and presents the key points of how design and shape are important factors in a package’s value chain. In the empirical part of this study the data were collected by qualitative interviewievs Finnish professionals working in different parts of packaging value chain. The professionals represented Brand owners, Advertising agencies and Package manufacturers. Altogether 10 qualitative theme interviews were carried out. Idea was to find out how decisions concerning the choice of board material are made in the packaging value chain and what role does haptical qualities have. Interviewees were asked about the environmental aspects in package design. The term “touch and feel” is used in this study to represent the whole experience when the consumer takes the package from the shelf and feels its surface and shape. Package manufacturers have more influence on the packaging board selection process than brand owners, while design agencies usually do not even participate in material selection. The cost of the package become more important factor in bulk and less expensive products than in more expensive products. If a product has a leading position in the market, companies try to reduce packaging costs. Finnish brands have not yet incorporated touch and feel properties into board packages. Design and shape can affect to package's desirability in store. Quality of package relates straight to quality of product in consumers mind. Haptic properties could increase the perceived quality in products. Environmental aspects came up as a key trend in package design and manufacture. But at the same time it was argued that nobody is going to buy the product just because it has an ecological package. Role of the package is to express products qualities and protect it.
  • Krigsholm, Pauliina (Unigrafia Oy, 2020)
    FGI Publications 160 - Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS 45/2020
    Cadastral system as the 'where' component of a property rights system is central to effective land markets, land use and sustainable development. The foundation of any cadastral system, the relationship between people and land, is constantly altering and cadastral systems as well have evolved over time in response to these changes. The focus of this dissertation is on understanding the cadastral system dynamism, and more specifically, the potential future changes of cadastral systems. Empirically the main focus is on the Finnish cadastral system that presents an example of a mature cadastral system with long traditions on registration of land related interests. This dissertation suggests that the future of cadastral systems should be approached from a holistic and systemic perspective and, therefore, integrates concepts and knowledge from the disciplines of futures studies and socio-technical transition studies. The dissertation adopts a mixed method approach with a greater emphasis on qualitative research methods. Literary sources, a Delphi questionnaire, interviews, and focus group meetings are used in data collection. This dissertation provides a refined and revised understanding of what drives change in the context of land administration and how the mature cadastral systems might develop in the future. Exploration of emerging issues of change reveals the increasing awareness of the multi-purpose role of cadastral systems, as the identified issues range from technology-oriented ones to political, economic, environmental, and social issues. Overall, the findings suggest that the future of cadastral systems is a complex issue that cannot be reduced to individual technologies or innovations. Rather, this dissertation argues that more emphasis should be put on the institutional foundations, i.e., on the elements that coordinate and stabilise the established systems when the goal is to detect distinctively alternative configurations for cadastral systems. The academic value of this thesis is in bridging the gap between land administration literature and futures studies and socio-technical transition studies, and in creating comprehensive understanding of cadastral system dynamism. The base of evidence obtained in this research also provides new and fresh insights to actors of land administration domain.
  • Henningsen, Anna-Karina A.; Bergh, Christina; Skjaerven, Rolv; Tiitinen, Aila; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Romundstad, Liv B.; Gissler, Mika; Opdahl, Signe; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Forman, Julie L.; Pinborg, Anja (2018)
    IntroductionChildren born after assisted reproductive technology, particularly singletons, have been shown to have an increased risk of congenital malformations compared with children born after spontaneous conception. We wished to study whether there has been a change in the past 20 years in the risk of major congenital malformations in children conceived after assisted reproductive technology compared with children spontaneously conceived. Material and methodsPopulation-based cohort study including 90 201 assisted reproductive technology children and 482 552 children spontaneously conceived, born in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Both singletons and twins born after in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and frozen embryo transfer were included. Data on children were taken from when the national Nordic assisted reproductive technology registries were established until 2007. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risks and adjusted odds ratios for congenital malformations in four time periods: 1988-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007. Only major malformations were included. ResultsThe absolute risk for singletons of being born with a major malformation was 3.4% among assisted reproductive technology children vs. 2.9% among children spontaneously conceived during the study period. The relative risk of being born with a major congenital malformation between all assisted reproductive technology children and children spontaneously conceived remained similar through all four time periods (p = 0.39). However, we found that over time the number of children diagnosed with a major malformation increased in both groups across all four time periods. ConclusionWhen comparing children conceived after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived, the relative risk of being born with a major congenital malformation did not change during the study period.
  • Ho, Hang Kei (2021)
    Since the early 2000s, East Asia has witnessed a significant increase in the consumption of luxury wines. Both Hong Kong and Singapore have become two of the most valuable wine trading hubs in the world, while surrounding regions such as South Korea and Japan have also experienced increases in the wine trade. In particular, mainland China has become the most important market that many wine makers and traders now focus on. Nevertheless, how East Asia has been transformed into a region of fine and luxury wine consumption remains a fascinating topic to explore further. This exploratory article aims to unpack this phenomenon and construct a sociology of wine in East Asia in four fundamental ways. First, wine itself is an alcoholic drink and has potential public health implications. Second, wine is a luxury good that can be consumed while simultaneously traded as a financial investment product. Third, East Asia as a region has a rich of history of alcohol production and consumption, but its drinking practices may sometimes clash with Western wine etiquette. Fourth, the creation of the wine industry in East Asia largely came from the withdrawal of wine duty in Hong Kong in 2008. The article explores how drinking cultures and the wine industry in various East Asian regions have been transformed by economic development, changing gender norms, and the influence of Western culture.