Browsing by Subject "115 Astronomy, Space science"

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  • Smolcic, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomicic, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y. -K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fevre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S. (2017)
    We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 mu m and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z(spec) > 4 : 5, and one at z(spec) = 2 : 49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of sigma(Delta z/(1+z)) = (1 + z) = 0 : 0067 (0 : 0155) at z <3 : 5 (> 3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator delta(g) as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can e ffi ciently retrieve overdensities out to z approximate to 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S = N >= 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32 '' aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z <2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2.8 x 10(13) M-circle dot. The z > 2 subsample yields an average flux of (1.3 +/- 0.5) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2 x 10(13) M-circle dot. Our results suggest a higher occurrence of SMGs occupying overdense environments at z >= 3 than at z <3. This may be understood if highly star-forming galaxies can only be formed in the highest peaks of the density field tracing the most massive dark matter haloes at early cosmic epochs, while at later times cosmic structure may have matured su ffi ciently that more modest overdensities correspond to su ffi ciently massive haloes to form SMGs.
  • Cantiello, Matteo; Braithwaite, Jonathan; Brandenburg, Axel; Del Sordo, Fabio; Käpylä, Petri; Langer, Norbert (2011)
    During their main sequence evolution, massive stars can develop convective regions very close to their surface. These regions are caused by an opacity peak associated with iron ionization. Cantiello et al. (2009) found a possible connection between the presence of sub-photospheric convective motions and small scale stochastic velocities in the photosphere of early-type stars. This supports a physical mechanism where microturbulence is caused by waves that are triggered by subsurface convection zones. They further suggest that clumping in the inner parts of the winds of OB stars could be related to subsurface convection, and that the convective layers may also be responsible for stochastic excitation of non-radial pulsations. Furthermore, magnetic fields produced in the iron convection zone could appear at the surface of such massive stars. Therefore subsurface convection could be responsible for the occurrence of observable phenomena such as line profile variability and discrete absorption components. These phenomena have been observed for decades, but still evade a clear theoretical explanation. Here we present preliminary results from 3D MHD simulations of such subsurface convection.
  • Dalla, Silvia; Nolfo, G. A.; Bruno, A.; Giacalone, J.; Laitinen, Totti; Thomas, S.; Battarbee, Markus; Marsh, M. S. (2020)
    Context. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) with energy in the GeV range can propagate to Earth from their acceleration region near the Sun and produce ground level enhancements (GLEs). The traditional approach to interpreting and modelling GLE observations assumes particle propagation which is only parallel to the magnetic field lines of interplanetary space, that is, spatially 1D propagation. Recent measurements by PAMELA have characterised SEP properties at 1 AU for the ∼100 MeV–1 GeV range at high spectral resolution. Aims. We model the transport of GLE-energy solar protons using a 3D approach to assess the effect of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and drifts associated to the gradient and curvature of the Parker spiral. We derive 1 AU observables and compare the simulation results with data from PAMELA. Methods. We use a 3D test particle model including a HCS. Monoenergetic populations are studied first to obtain a qualitative picture of propagation patterns and numbers of crossings of the 1 AU sphere. Simulations for power law injection are used to derive intensity profiles and fluence spectra at 1 AU. A simulation for a specific event, GLE 71, is used for comparison purposes with PAMELA data. Results. Spatial patterns of 1 AU crossings and the average number of crossings per particle are strongly influenced by 3D effects, with significant differences between periods of A+ and A− polarities. The decay time constant of 1 AU intensity profiles varies depending on the position of the observer and it is not a simple function of the mean free path as in 1D models. Energy dependent leakage from the injection flux tube is particularly important for GLE energy particles, resulting in a rollover in the spectrum.
  • Vardoulaki, E.; Andrade, E. F. Jimenez; Karim, A.; Novak, M.; Leslie, S. K.; Tisanic, K.; Smolcic, V.; Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Ruiz, N. Herrera; Mooley, K. P.; Delhaize, J.; Myers, S. T.; Marchesi, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Gozaliasl, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Middleberg, E.; Ciliegi, P. (2019)
    Context. Given the unprecedented depth achieved in current large radio surveys, we are starting to probe populations of radio sources that have not been studied in the past. However, identifying and categorising these objects, differing in size, shape and physical properties, is becoming a more difficult task. Aims. In this data paper we present and characterise the multi-component radio sources identified in the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (0.75 arcsec resolution, 2.3 mu Jy beam(-1) rms), i.e. the radio sources which are composed of two or more radio blobs. Methods. The classification of objects into multi-components was done by visual inspection of 351 of the brightest and most extended blobs from a sample of 10,899 blobs identified by the automatic code BLOBCAT. For that purpose we used multi-wavelength information of the field, such as the 1.4 GHz VLA-COSMOS data and the Ultra Deep Survey with the VISTA telescope (UltraVISTA) stacked mosaic available for COSMOS. Results. We have identified 67 multi-component radio sources at 3 GHz: 58 sources with active galactic nucleus (AGN) powered radio emission and nine star-forming galaxies. We report eight new detections that were not observed by the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 1.4 GHz, due to the slightly larger area coverage at 3 GHz. The increased spatial resolution of 0.75 arcsec has allowed us to resolve (and isolate) multiple emission peaks of 28 extended radio sources not identified in the 1.4 GHz VLA-COSMOS map. We report the multi-frequency flux densities (324 MHz, 325 MHz, 1.4 GHz & 3 GHz), star formation rates, and stellar masses of these objects. We find that multi-component objects at 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS inhabit mainly massive galaxies (>10(10.5)M(circle dot)). The majority of the multi-component AGN lie below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the green valley and the quiescent region. Furthermore, we provide detailed descriptions of the objects and find that amongst the AGN there are two head-tail, ten corelobe, nine wide-angle-tail (WAT), eight double-double or Z-/X-shaped, three bent-tail radio sources, and 26 symmetric sources, while amongst the SFGs we find the only star-forming ring seen in radio emission in COSMOS. Additionally, we report a large number (32 out of 58) of disturbed/bent multi-component AGN, 18 of which do not lie within X-ray groups in COSMOS (redshift range 0.08 Conclusion. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS data set give us the opportunity to identify peculiar radio structures and sub-structures of multi-component objects, and relate them to physical phenomena such as AGN or star-forming galaxies. This study illustrates the complexity of the mu Jy radio-source population; at the sensitivity and resolution of 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS, the radio structures of AGN and SFG both emitting radio continuum emission, become comparable in the absence of clear, symmetrical jets. Thus, disentangling the AGN and SFG contributions using solely radio observations can be misleading in a number of cases. This has implications for future surveys, such as those done by square kilometre array (SKA) and precursors, which will identify hundreds of thousands of multi-component objects.
  • Feher, O.; Juvela, M.; Lunttila, T.; Montillaud, J.; Ristorcelli, I.; Zahorecz, S.; Toth, L. V. (2017)
    Context. The physical state of cold cloud clumps has a great impact on the process and efficiency of star formation and the masses of the forming stars inside these objects. The sub-millimetre survey of the Planck space observatory and the far-infrared follow-up mapping of the Herschel space telescope provide an unbiased, large sample of these cold objects. Aims. We have observed (CO)-C-12(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(1-0) emission in 35 high-density clumps in 26 Herschel fields sampling different environments in the Galaxy. Here, we aim to derive the physical properties of the objects and estimate their gravitational stability. Methods. The densities and temperatures of the clumps were calculated from both the dust continuum and the molecular line data. Kinematic distances were derived using (CO)-C-13(1-0) line velocities to verify previous distance estimates and the sizes and masses of the objects were calculated by fitting 2D Gaussian functions to their optical depth distribution maps on 250 mu m. The masses and virial masses were estimated assuming an upper and lower limit on the kinetic temperatures and considering uncertainties due to distance limitations. Results. The derived excitation temperatures are between 8.5-19.5 K, and for most clumps between 10 15 K, while the Herschel-derived dust colour temperatures are more uniform, between 12 16 K. The sizes (0.1-3 pc), (CO)-C-13 column densities (0.5-44 x 10(15) cm(-2)) and masses (from less than 0.1 M-circle dot to more than 1500 M-circle dot) of the objects all span broad ranges. We provide new kinematic distance estimates, identify gravitationally bound or unbound structures and discuss their nature. Conclusions. The sample contains objects on a wide scale of temperatures, densities and sizes. Eleven gravitationally unbound clumps were found, many of them smaller than 0.3 pc, but large, parsec-scale clouds with a few hundred solar masses appear as well. Colder clumps have generally high column densities but warmer objects appear at both low and higher column densities. The clump column densities derived from the line and dust observations correlate well, but are heavily affected by uncertainties of the dust properties, varying molecular abundances and optical depth effects.
  • Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2013)
  • Gritsevich, Maria; Vinnikov, Vladimir; Kohout, Tomas; Toth, Juraj; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Turchak, Leonid; Virtanen, Jenni (2014)
    Abstract–In this study, we conduct a detailed analysis of the Košice meteorite fall (February28, 2010), to derive a reliable law describing the mass distribution among the recovered fragments. In total, 218 fragments of the Košice meteorite, with a total mass of 11.285 kg, were analyzed. Bimodal Weibull, bimodal Grady, and bimodal lognormal distributions are found to be the most appropriate for describing the Košice fragmentation process. Based on the assumption of bimodal lognormal, bimodal Grady, bimodal sequential, and bimodal Weibull fragmentation distributions, we suggest that, prior to further extensive fragmentation in the lower atmosphere, the Košice meteoroid was initially represented by two independent pieces with cumulative residual masses of approximately 2 and 9 kg, respectively. The smaller piece produced about 2 kg of multiple lightweight meteorite fragments with the mean around 12 g. The larger one resulted in 9 kg of meteorite fragments, recovered on the ground, including the two heaviest pieces of 2.374 kg and 2.167 kg with the mean around 140 g. Based on our investigations, we conclude that two to three larger fragments of 500–1000 g each should exist, but were either not recovered or not reported by illegal meteorite hunters.
  • Novakovic, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Granvik, Mikael; Todovic, Ana (2017)
    We report the discovery of a new asteroid family among the dark asteroids residing in the Phocaea region the Tamara family. We make use of available physical data to separate asteroids in the region according to their surface reflectance properties, and establish the membership of the family. We determine the slope of the cumulative magnitude distribution of the family, and find it to be significantly steeper than the corresponding slope of all the asteroids in the Phocaea region. This implies that subkilometer dark Phocaeas are comparable in number to bright S-type objects, shedding light on an entirely new aspect of the composition of small Phocaea asteroids. We then use the Yarkovsky V-shape based method and estimate the age of the family to be 264 +/- 43Myr. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the Tamara family. The results suggest that up to 50 Tamara members with absolute magnitude H <19.4 may currently be found in the near-Earth region. Despite their relatively small number in the near-Earth space, the rate of Earth impacts by small, dark Phocaeas is non-negligible.
  • Valentino, Francesco; Daddi, Emanuele; Finoguenov, Alexis; Strazzullo, Veronica; Le Brun, Amandine; Vignali, Cristian; Bournaud, Frederic; Dickinson, Mark; Renzini, Alvio; Bethermin, Matthieu; Zanella, Anita; Gobat, Raphael; Cimatti, Andrea; Elbaz, David; Onodera, Masato; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Arimoto, Nobuo; Carollo, Marcella; Starck, Jean-Luc (2016)
    We present the discovery of a giant >= 100 kpc Ly alpha nebula detected in the core of the X-ray emitting cluster CL J1449 +0856 at z = 1.99 through Keck/LRIS narrow-band imaging. This detection extends the known relation between Lya nebulae and overdense regions of the universe to the dense core of a 5-7 x 10(13) M-circle dot cluster. The most plausible candidates to power the nebula are two Chandra-detected AGN host cluster members, while cooling from the X-ray phase and cosmological cold flows are disfavored primarily because of the high Ly alpha to X-ray luminosity ratio (L-Ly alpha/L-X approximate to 0.3, greater than or similar to 10-1000 times. higher than in local cool-core clusters) and by current modeling. Given the physical conditions of the Ly alpha-emitting gas and the possible interplay with the X-ray phase, we argue that the Ly alpha nebula would be short-lived (less than or similar to 10 Myr) if not continuously replenished with cold gas at a rate of greater than or similar to 1000 M-circle dot yr(-1). We investigate the possibility that cluster galaxies supply the required gas through outflows and we show that their total mass outflow rate matches the replenishment necessary to sustain the nebula. This scenario directly implies the extraction of energy from galaxies and its deposition in the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), as required to explain the thermodynamic properties of local clusters. We estimate an energy injection of the order of approximate to 2 keV per particle in the ICM over a 2 Gyr interval. In our baseline calculation, AGNs provide up to 85% of the injected energy and two-thirds. of the mass, while the rest is supplied by supernovae-driven winds.
  • de Blok, W. J. G.; Walter, Fabian; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Neeleman, Marcel; Leroy, Adam K.; Ott, Jürgen; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Zwaan, Martin A.; Yun, Min S.; Langston, Glen; Keating, Katie M. (2018)
    We present a 3 degrees x 3 degrees, 105-pointing, high-resolution neutral hydrogen (H I) mosaic of the M81 galaxy triplet, (including the main galaxies M81, M82, and NGC 3077, as well as dwarf galaxy NGC 2976) obtained with the Very Large Array C and D arrays. This H I synthesis mosaic uniformly covers the entire area and velocity range of the triplet. The observations have a resolution of similar to 20 '' or similar to 420 pc. The data reveal many small-scale anomalous velocity features highlighting the complexity of the interacting M81 triplet. We compare our data with Green Bank Telescope observations of the same area. This comparison provides evidence for the presence of a substantial reservoir of low-column density gas in the northern part of the triplet, probably associated with M82. Such a reservoir is not found in the southern part. We report a number of newly discovered kpc-sized low-mass H I clouds with H I masses of a few times 10(6) M-circle dot. A detailed analysis of their velocity widths show that their dynamical masses are much larger than their baryonic masses, which could indicate the presence of dark matter if the clouds are rotationally supported. However, due to their spatial and kinematical association with H I tidal features, it is more likely that the velocity widths indicate tidal effects or streaming motions. We do not find any clouds that are not associated with tidal features down to an H I mass limit of a few times 10(4) M-circle dot. We compare the H I column densities with resolved stellar density maps and find a star formation threshold around 3-6 x 10(20) cm(-2). We investigate the widths of the H I velocity profiles in the triplet and find that extreme velocity dispersions can be explained by a superposition of multiple components along the line of sight near M81 as well as winds or outflows around M82. The velocity dispersions found are high enough that these processes could explain the linewidths of damped-Ly alpha absorbers observed at high redshift.
  • Liu, Tie; Li, Pak Shing; Juvela, Mika; Kim, Kee-Tae; Evans, Neal J.; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Yuan, Jinghua; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Zhang, Qizhou; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Fuller, Gary; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Chen, Huei-Ru; Hirano, N.; Wu, Yuefang; Sokolov, Vlas; Lee, Chang Won; White, Glenn J.; Wang, Ke; Eden, David; Li, Di; Thompson, Mark; Pattle, Kate M.; Soam, Archana; Nasedkin, Evert; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Gwanjeong; Lai, Shih-Ping; Park, Geumsook; Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Alina, Dana; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Falgarone, Edith; Fich, Michel; Greaves, Jane; Gu, Q. -L.; Kwon, Woojin; Li, Hua-bai; Malinen, Johanna; Montier, Ludovic; Parsons, Harriet; Qin, Sheng-Li; Rawlings, Mark G.; Tang, Y. -W. (2018)
    Magnetic field plays a crucial role in shaping molecular clouds and regulating star formation, yet the complete information on the magnetic field is not well constrained owing to the limitations in observations. We study the magnetic field in the massive infrared dark cloud G035.39-00.33 from dust continuum polarization observations at 850 mu m with SCUBA-2/POL-2 at JCMT for the first time. The magnetic field tends to be perpendicular to the densest part of the main filament (F-M), whereas it has a less defined relative orientation in the rest of the structure, where it tends to be parallel to some diffuse regions. A mean plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength of similar to 50 mu G for F-M is obtained using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. Based on (CO)-C-13 (1-0) line observations, we suggest a formation scenario of F-M due to large-scale (similar to 10 pc) cloud-cloud collision. Using additional NH3 line data, we estimate that F-M will be gravitationally unstable if it is only supported by thermal pressure and turbulence. The northern part of F-M, however, can be stabilized by a modest additional support from the local magnetic field. The middle and southern parts of F-M are likely unstable even if the magnetic field support is taken into account. We claim that the clumps in F-M may be supported by turbulence and magnetic fields against gravitational collapse. Finally, we identified for the first time a massive (similar to 200 M-circle dot, collapsing starless clump candidate, "c8," in G035.39-00.33. The magnetic field surrounding "c8" is likely pinched, hinting at an accretion flow along the filament.
  • Cockell, Charles S.; Harrison, Jesse P.; Stevens, Adam H.; Payler, Samuel J.; Hughes, Scott S.; Nawotniak, Shannon E. Kobs; Brady, Allyson L.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Sehlke, Alexander; Beaton, Kara H.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Schwendner, Petra; Wadsworth, Jennifer; Landenmark, Hanna; Cane, Rosie; Dickinson, Andrew W.; Nicholson, Natasha; Perera, Liam; Lim, Darlene S. S. (2019)
    A major objective in the exploration of Mars is to test the hypothesis that the planet hosted life. Even in the absence of life, the mapping of habitable and uninhabitable environments is an essential task in developing a complete understanding of the geological and aqueous history of Mars and, as a consequence, understanding what factors caused Earth to take a different trajectory of biological potential. We carried out the aseptic collection of samples and comparison of the bacterial and archaeal communities associated with basaltic fumaroles and rocks of varying weathering states in Hawai'i to test four hypotheses concerning the diversity of life in these environments. Using high-throughput sequencing, we found that all these materials are inhabited by a low-diversity biota. Multivariate analyses of bacterial community data showed a clear separation between sites that have active fumaroles and other sites that comprised relict fumaroles, unaltered, and syn-emplacement basalts. Contrary to our hypothesis that high water flow environments, such as fumaroles with active mineral leaching, would be sites of high biological diversity, alpha diversity was lower in active fumaroles compared to relict or nonfumarolic sites, potentially due to high-temperature constraints on microbial diversity in fumarolic sites. A comparison of these data with communities inhabiting unaltered and weathered basaltic rocks in Idaho suggests that bacterial taxon composition of basaltic materials varies between sites, although the archaeal communities were similar in Hawai'i and Idaho. The taxa present in both sites suggest that most of them obtain organic carbon compounds from the atmosphere and from phototrophs and that some of them, including archaeal taxa, cycle fixed nitrogen. The low diversity shows that, on Earth, extreme basaltic terrains are environments on the edge of sustaining life with implications for the biological potential of similar environments on Mars and their exploration by robots and humans.
  • Enqvist, Kari; Hardwick, Robert J.; Tenkanen, Tommi; Vennin, Vincent; Wands, David (2018)
    We show that in the Feebly Interacting Massive Particle (FIMP) model of Dark Matter (DM), one may express the inflationary energy scale H-* as a function of three otherwise unrelated quantities, the DM isocurvature perturbation amplitude, its mass and its self-coupling constant, independently of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The FIMP model assumes that there exists a real scalar particle that alone constitutes the DM content of the Universe and couples to the Standard Model via a Higgs portal. We consider carefully the various astrophysical, cosmological and model constraints, accounting also for variations in inflationary dynamics and the reheating history, to derive a robust estimate for H-* that is con fined to a relatively narrow range. We point out that, within the context of the FIMP DM model, one may thus determine H-* reliably even in the absence of observable tensor perturbations.
  • Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Dergham, Joan; Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Williams, Iwan P. (2021)
    In this study, we investigate the ablation properties of bolides capable of producing meteorites. The casual dashcam recordings from many locations of the Chelyabinsk superbolide associated with the atmospheric entry of an 18 m in diameter near-Earth object (NEO) have provided an excellent opportunity to reconstruct its atmospheric trajectory, deceleration, and heliocentric orbit. In this study, we focus on the study of the ablation properties of the Chelyabinsk bolide on the basis of its deceleration and fragmentation. We explore whether meteoroids exhibiting abrupt fragmentation can be studied by analyzing segments of the trajectory that do not include a disruption episode. We apply that approach to the lower part of the trajectory of the Chelyabinsk bolide to demonstrate that the obtained parameters are consistent. To do that, we implemented a numerical (Runge-Kutta) method appropriate for deriving the ablation properties of bolides based on observations. The method was successfully tested with the cases previously published in the literature. Our model yields fits that agree with observations reasonably well. It also produces a good fit to the main observed characteristics of Chelyabinsk superbolide and provides its averaged ablation coefficient sigma =( )0.034 s(2) km(-2). Our study also explores the main implications for impact hazard, concluding that tens of meters in diameter NEOs encountering the Earth in grazing trajectories and exhibiting low geocentric velocities are penetrating deeper into the atmosphere than previously thought and, as such, are capable of producing meteorites and even damage on the ground.
  • Juusola, Liisa; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Ganse, Urs; Battarbee, Markus; Brito, Thiago; Grandin, Maxime; Turc, Lucile; Palmroth, Minna (2018)
    The origin of the flapping motions of the current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail is one of the most interesting questions of magnetospheric dynamics yet to be solved. We have used a polar plane simulation from the global hybrid-Vlasov model Vlasiator to study the characteristics and source of current sheet flapping in the center of the magnetotail. The characteristics of the simulated signatures agree with observations reported in the literature. The flapping is initiated by a hemispherically asymmetric magnetopause perturbation, created by subsolar magnetopause reconnection, that is capable of displacing the tail current sheet from its nominal position. The current sheet displacement propagates downtail at the same pace as the driving magnetopause perturbation. The initial current sheet displacement launches a standing magnetosonic wave within the tail resonance cavity. The travel time of the wave within the local cavity determines the period of the subsequent flapping signatures. Compression of the tail lobes due to added flux affects the cross-sectional width of the resonance cavity as well as the magnetosonic speed within the cavity. These in turn modify the wave travel time and flapping period. The compression of the resonance cavity may also provide additional energy to the standing wave, which may lead to strengthening of the flapping signature. It may be possible that the suggested mechanism could act as a source of kink-like waves that have been observed to be emitted from the center of the tail and to propagate toward the dawn and dusk flanks.
  • Räsänen, Syksy (2002)
    This is an introduction to the ekpyrotic scenario, with an emphasis on the two contexts of brane cosmology and primordial universe scenarios. A self-contained introduction to brane cosmology and a qualitative overview and comparison of the inflationary, pre-big bang and ekpyrotic scenarios are given as background. The ekpyrotic scenario is then presented in more detail, stressing various problems.
  • Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Ostensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Kern, J. W.; Bloemen, S.; Blay, P.; Pursimo, T.; Kuutma, T.; Slumstrup, D.; Saajasto, M.; Nielsen, L. D.; Harmanen, J.; Winans, A. J.; Foster, H. M.; Rowe, L. (2016)
    We report a new subdwarf B pulsator, PG 1142-037, discovered during the first full-length campaign of K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. 14 periodicities have been detected between 0.9 and 2.5 hr with amplitudes below 0.35 parts-per-thousand. We have been able to associate all of the pulsations with low-degree, 1
  • Zola, S.; Valtonen, M.; Bhatta, G.; Goyal, A.; Debski, B.; Baran, A.; Krzesinski, J.; Siwak, M.; Ciprini, S.; Gopakumar, A.; Jermak, H.; Nilsson, K.; Reichart, D.; Matsumoto, K.; Sadakane, K.; Gazeas, K.; Kidger, M.; Piirola, V.; Alicavus, F.; Baliyan, K. S.; Berdyugin, A.; Boyd, D.; Campas Torrent, M.; Campos, F.; Carrillo Gómez, J.; Caton, D. B.; Chavushyan, V.; Dalessio, J.; Dimitrov, D.; Drozdz, M.; Er, H.; Erdem, A.; Escartin Pérez, A.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Garcia, F.; Gómez Pinilla, F.; Gopinathan, M.; Haislip, J. B.; Harmanen, J.; Hudec, R.; Hurst, G.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Jelinek, M.; Joshi, A.; Kagitani, M.; Kaur, N.; Keel, W. C.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Lee, B. C.; Lindfors, E.; Lozano de Haro, J.; Moore, J. P.; Mugrauer, M.; Naves Nogues, R.; Neely, A. W.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogloza, W.; Okano, S.; Pandey, J. C.; Perri, M.; Pihajoki, P.; Poyner, G.; Provencal, J.; Pursimo, T.; Raj, A.; Reinthal, R.; Sadegi, S.; Sakanoi, T.; [Unknown], Sameer; Salto González, J.-L.; Schweyer, T.; Soldán Alfaro, F. C.; Karaman, N.; Sonbas, E.; Steele, I.; Stocke, J. T.; Strobl, J.; Takalo, L. O.; Tomov, T.; Tremosa Espasa, L.; Valdes, J. R.; Valero Pérez, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Webb, J. R.; Yoneda, M.; Zejmo, M.; Zheng, W.; Telting, J.; Saario, J.; Reynolds, T.; Kvammen, A.; Gafton, E.; Karjalainen, R.; Blay, P. (2016)
    We analyse the light curve in the R band of the blazar OJ287, gathered during the 2015/2016 observing season. We did a search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) using several methods over a wide range of timescales. No statistically significant periods were found in the high-frequency domain both in the ground-based data and in Kepler observations. In the longer-period domain, the Lomb–Scargle periodogram revealed several peaks above the 99% significance level. The longest one—about 95 days—corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) period of the more massive black hole. The 43-day period could be an alias, or it can be attributed to accretion in the form of a two-armed spiral wave.
  • Martikainen, Julia; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, M.; Videen, Gorden; Muinonen, Karri Olavi (2019)
    We present a new physics-based approach to model the absolute reflectance spectra of asteroid (4) Vesta. The spectral models are derived by utilizing a ray-optics code that simulates light scattering by particles large compared to the wavelength of the incident light. In the light of the spectral data obtained by the Dawn spacecraft, we use howardite powder to model Vesta's surface regolith and its particle size distribution for 10-200 mu m sized particles. Our results show that the modelled spectrum mimics well the observations. The best match was found using a power-law particle size distribution with an index 3.2. This suggests that Vesta's regolith is dominated by howardite particles
  • Valtonen, Mauri J.; Zola, Staszek; Pihajoki, Pauli; Enestam, Sissi; Lehto, Harry J.; Dey, Lankeswar; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Drozdz, Marek; Ogloza, Waldemar; Zejmos, Michal; Gupta, Alok C.; Pursimo, Tapio; Ciprini, Stefano; Kidger, Mark; Nilsson, Kari; Berdyugin, Andrei; Piirola, Vilppu; Jermak, Helen; Hudec, Rene; Laine, Seppo (2019)
    In the binary black hole model of OJ. 287, the secondary black hole orbits a much more massive primary, and impacts on the primary accretion disk at predictable times. We update the parameters of the disk, the viscosity, alpha, and the mass accretion rate, . We find alpha = 0.26 +/- 0.1 and = 0.08 +/- 0.04 in Eddington units. The former value is consistent with Coroniti, and the latter with Marscher & Jorstad. Predictions are made for the 2019 July 30 superflare in OJ. 287. We expect that it will take place simultaneously at the Spitzer infrared channels, as well as in the optical, and that therefore the timing of the flare in optical can be accurately determined from Spitzer observations. We also discuss in detail the light curve of the 2015 flare, and find that the radiating volume has regions where bremsstrahlung dominates, as well as regions that radiate primarily in synchrotron radiation. The former region produces the unpolarized first flare, while the latter region gives rise to a highly polarized second flare.