Browsing by Subject "11831 Plant biology"

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  • Lalarukh, Irfana; Al-Dhumri, Sami A. A.; Al-Ani, Laith Khalil Tawfeeq; Hussain, Rashid; Al Mutairi, Khalid Awadh; Mansoora, Nida; Amjad, Syeda Fasiha; Abbas, Mohamed H. H.; Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. A.; Poczai, Peter; Meena, Khem Raj; Galal, Tarek M. M. (2022)
    Less nutrient availability and drought stress are some serious concerns of agriculture. Both biotic and abiotic stress factors have the potential to limit crop productivity. However, several organic extracts obtained from moringa leaves may induce immunity in plants under nutritional and drought stress for increasing their survival. Additionally, some rhizobacterial strains have the ability to enhance root growth for better nutrient and water uptake in stress conditions. To cover the knowledge gap on the interactive effects of beneficial rhizobacteria and moringa leaf extracts (MLEs), this study was conducted. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effectiveness of sole and combined use of rhizobacteria and MLEs against nutritional and drought stress in wheat. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) (10(8) CFU ml(-1)) was inoculated to wheat plants with and without foliar-applied MLEs at two different concentrations (MLE 1 = 1:15 v/v and MLE 2 = 1:30 v/v) twice at 25 and 35 days after seed sowing (50 ml per plant) after the establishment of drought stress. Results revealed that Pa + MLE 2 significantly increased fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), lengths of roots and shoot and photosynthetic contents of wheat. A significant enhancement in total soluble sugars, total soluble proteins, calcium, potassium, phosphate, and nitrate contents validated the efficacious effect of Pa + MLE 2 over control-treated plants. Significant decrease in sodium, proline, glycine betaine, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxide (POD) concentrations in wheat cultivated under drought stress conditions also represents the imperative role of Pa + MLE 2 over control. In conclusion, Pa + MLE 2 can alleviate nutritional stress and drought effects in wheat. More research in this field is required to proclaim Pa + MLE 2 as the most effective amendment against drought stress in distinct agroecological zones, different soil types, and contrasting wheat cultivars worldwide.
  • Kjaerbolling, Inge; Vesth, Tammi; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nybo, Jane L.; Theobald, Sebastian; Kildgaard, Sara; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Atsushi; Lyhne, Ellen K.; Kogle, Martin E.; Wiebenga, Ad; Kun, Roland S.; Lubbers, Ronnie J. M.; Makela, Miia R.; Barry, Kerrie; Chovatia, Mansi; Clum, Alicia; Daum, Chris; Haridas, Sajeet; He, Guifen; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Mondo, Stephen; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Simmons, Blake A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Machida, Masayuki; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R. (2020)
    Section Flavi encompasses both harmful and beneficial Aspergillus species, such as Aspergillus oryzae, used in food fermentation and enzyme production, and Aspergillus flavus, food spoiler and mycotoxin producer. Here, we sequence 19 genomes spanning section Flavi and compare 31 fungal genomes including 23 Flavi species. We reassess their phylogenetic relationships and show that the closest relative of A. oryzae is not A. flavus, but A. minisclerotigenes or A. aflatoxiformans and identify high genome diversity, especially in sub-telomeric regions. We predict abundant CAZymes (598 per species) and prolific secondary metabolite gene clusters (73 per species) in section Flavi. However, the observed phenotypes (growth characteristics, polysaccharide degradation) do not necessarily correlate with inferences made from the predicted CAZyme content. Our work, including genomic analyses, phenotypic assays, and identification of secondary metabolites, highlights the genetic and metabolic diversity within section Flavi.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Poczai, Péter (2021)
    Wild relatives of common wheat are an extraordinary source of tolerance to various environmental stresses. The dataset herein presents the effect of water-deficit stress on a core collection of landraces and wild relatives of wheat (including 180 samples belonging to four Triticum and eight Aegilops species [T. boeoticum Bioss., T. urartu Gandilyan., T. durum Def., T. aestivum L., Ae. speltoides Tausch., Ae. tauschii Coss., Ae. caudata L., Ae. umbellulata Zhuk., Ae. neglecta L., Ae. cylindrica Host., Ae. crassa Boiss., and Ae. triuncialis]) in terms of several physiological traits, root and shoot biomasses, and features of root system architecture (RSA). All genetic materials were subjected to water-stress treatment using a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. To screen the most tolerant accessions, three selection indices, such as Smith and Hazel (SH), factor analysis and ideotype‐design (FAI), and the multi-trait genotype-ideotype distance index (MGIDI) were computed. The obtained data can highlight the role of some features of RSA in increasing water-deficit tolerance in some wild relatives of wheat. Moreover, the use of selection indices in the early stage of growth can be highlighted for future research.
  • Liu, Che; Wang, Qian; Mäkelä, Annikki; Hökkä, Hannu; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Hölttä, Teemu (2022)
    Waterlogging causes hypoxic or anoxic conditions in soils, which lead to decreases in root and stomatal hydraulic conductance. Although these effects have been observed in a variety of plant species, they have not been quantified continuously over a range of water table depths (WTD) or soil water contents (SWC). To provide a quantitative theoretical framework for tackling this issue, we hypothesized similar mathematical descriptions of waterlogging and drought effects on whole-tree hydraulics and constructed a hierarchical model by connecting optimal stomata and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance models. In the model, the soil-to-root conductance is non-monotonic with WTD to reflect both the limitations by water under low SWC and by hypoxic effects associated with inhibited oxygen diffusion under high SWC. The model was parameterized using priors from literature and data collected over four growing seasons from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees grown in a drained peatland in Finland. Two reference models (RMs) were compared with the new model, RM1 with no belowground hydraulics and RM2 with no waterlogging effects. The new model was more accurate than the RMs in predicting transpiration rate (fitted slope of measured against modeled transpiration rate = 0.991 vs 0.979 (RM1) and 0.984 (RM2), R-2 = 0.801 vs 0.665 (RM1) and 0.776 (RM2)). Particularly, RM2's overestimation of transpiration rate under shallow water table conditions (fitted slope = 0.908, R-2 = 0.697) was considerably reduced by the new model (fitted slope = 0.956, R-2 = 0.711). The limits and potential improvements of the model are discussed.
  • Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Kushunina, Maria; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2022)
    For a long time, the systematics ofAtriplex was based solely on morphological characters and leaf anatomy. The latest worldwide phylogenetic study of Atriplex significantly improved our knowledge about the relationships within the genus, but a new classification has not been put forward thus far. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy of C4-species of Atriplex that are native to Russia. Seven species are classified into two sections, A. sect. Obione (incl. A. sect. Sclerocalymma, syn. nov.) (A. altaica, A. centralasiatica, A. rosea, A. sibirica, and A. sphaeromorpha), and A. sect. Obionopsis (incl. A. sect. Psammophila, syn. nov.) (A. fominii and A. tatarica). Although the majority of Eurasian C4-species have similar morphology, leafy inflorescence is a typical character for A. sect. Obione. The members ofA. sect. Obionopsis are characterised mostly by aphyllous inflorescences, but some species (A. laciniata, A. pratovii, and A. tornabenei) have leafy inflorescences. Geographically, almost all members ofA. sect. Obione are confined to Central Asia, although A. rosea is a typical Mediterranean element and A. argentea occurs in North America. The representatives ofA. sect. Obionopsis are distributed mostly in the Mediterranean and the Irano-Turanian floristic region. The alien status of A. rosea, A. sibirica and A. tatarica is discussed. Atriplex flabellum, a desert species from the Irano-Turanian region, is reported for the first time from Russia (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, North Siberia) as a casual alien. This species occupies a phylogenetic position distant from both aforementioned sections. An identification key to all C4-species of the genus growing in Russia is given, and a sectional checklist with updated nomenclature and revised synonymy is provided.
  • Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Sennikov, Alexander N.; Nilova, Maya; Kushunina, Maria; Belyaeva, Irina; Zaika, Maxim A.; Hanáček, Pavel (2021)
    A distinctive new species, Sesuvium curassavicum Sukhor. (Aizoaceae: Sesuvioideae), restricted to the Caribbean Basin (Kingdom of the Netherlands: Curacao and Bonaire Islands, North Colombia: La Guajira Department, and North Venezuela: Falcon State), is described and illustrated. It differs from all other perennial species growing in the West Indies by its papillate stems and wrinkled seeds. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA (ITS) and three plastid regions (rps16 gene intron, atpB-rbcL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacers), S. curassavicum is included in the 'American' clade, but its relationships are not fully resolved. The samples of the plants known as S. microphyllum fall within the 'Sesuvium portulacastrum' clade, and for that reason this species is considered here as a synonym of S. portulacastrum being an ecological form of the latter species. Sesuvium revolutifolium, S. ortegae and S. revolutum, described from cultivated plants are established as earlier synonyms of S. verrucosum, for which S. revolutifolium has priority and is proposed here as the correct name. These three species names seem to share the same provenance which cannot be Cuba, as stated in the protologue for S. revolutifolium, but rather Mexico. The name Sesuvium sessile is discussed and merged with S. portulacastrum. A new diagnostic key to the Sesuvium species in the West Indies is provided. In total, we accept for the West Indies the following species: S. curassavicum, S. humifusum, S. maritimum, S. portulacastrum and S. rubriflorum. The origins of collections of the neotype of Radiana petiolata and the holotypes of Sesuvium microphyllum and S. spathulatum are clarified.
  • Haapalainen, Minna; Latvala, Satu; Wickstrom, Annika; Wang, Jinhui; Pirhonen, Minna; Nissinen, Anne I. (2020)
    A previously unknown haplotype of the plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) was found in cultivated carrots and parsnips in eastern Finland. That same haplotype was found in western Finland, over 300 km away, in the family Polygonaceae, the species Fallopia convolvulus (wild buckwheat) and Persicaria lapathifolia (pale persicaria) growing as weeds within carrot and parsnip fields. The infected plants, both apiaceous and polygonaceous, showed symptoms of foliar discolouration. This is the first report of Lso bacteria in plants of the family Polygonaceae. The finding that the polygonaceous plants infected with a previously unknown haplotype of Lso were growing among the apiaceous plants infected with Lso haplotype C suggests that these two haplotypes might be transmitted by different vectors. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the new haplotype, called haplotype H, is distinct from the previously characterized haplotypes and appears to have diverged early from their common ancestor. Multi-locus sequence analysis revealed four different sequence types (strains) within the haplotype H. These findings suggest that the haplotype H is likely to be endemic in northern Europe and that the genetic diversity within the Lso species is higher than previously assumed.
  • Iida, Hiroyuki; Takada, Shinobu (2021)
    The cloning of the ATML1 gene, encoding an HD-ZIP class IV transcription factor, was first reported in 1996. Because ATML1 mRNA was preferentially detected in the shoot epidermis, cis-regulatory sequences of ATML1 have been used to drive gene expression in the outermost cells of the shoot apical meristem and leaves, even before the function of ATML1 was understood. Later studies revealed that ATML1 is required for developmental processes related to shoot epidermal specification and differentiation. Consistent with its central role in epidermal development, ATML1 activity has been revealed to be restricted to the outermost cells via several regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we look back on the history of ATML1 research and provide a perspective for future studies.
  • Wang, Kai; Liu, Mengxia; Cui, Fuqiang; Asiegbu, Fred (2021)
    High-quality RNA is required for accurate gene expression and transcriptome analysis. The current methods of RNA extraction from berry fruits are either time-consuming or expensive. To simplify the conventional phenol chloroform based RNA extraction method, we modified the protocol with less steps as well as the removal of the use of phenol. In this protocol, the extraction buffer is composed of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and Dithiothreitol (DTT). The method facilitates efficient removal of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds from both fruit pulp and fruit peel. Additionally, the protocol is phenol free and less toxic than traditional phenol-containing method. High-quality RNA, with RNA Integrity Number value > 8, isolated by this method is applicable for RNA sequencing and qPCR. Only 3-4 working hours are required for one batch of RNA isolation. Our method replaces the use of phenol-chloroform with chloroform, making the extraction less toxic. The bilberry friut RNA is of high-quality and purity with less time input. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Lienart, Camilla; Cirtwill, Alyssa R.; Hedgespeth, Melanie L.; Bradshaw, Clare (2022)
    Allochthonous subsidies to marine ecosystems have mainly focused on biogeochemical cycles, but there has also been recent interest in how terrestrial carbon (C) influences marine food webs. In the Baltic Sea, pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollen is found in large amounts in shallow bays in early summer. Pollen is a significant C-source in freshwater ecosystems and may also be important in coastal food webs. We examined the consumption of pollen and autochthonous resources by benthic invertebrates in shallow bays of the Baltic Sea. We used stable isotopes to estimate diets and reconstructed consumer-resource networks (food webs) for grazers and particulate organic matter (POM)-feeders to compare how these different guilds used pollen. We found that P. sylvestris pollen was consumed in small amounts by a variety of animals and in some cases made up a sizeable proportion of invertebrates' diets. However, invertebrates generally depended less on pollen than other resources. The degree of pollen consumption was related to feeding traits, with generalist invertebrate grazers consuming more pollen (> 10% of diet) than the more specialist POM-feeders (< 5% of diet contributed by pollen). POM-feeders may consume additional microbially-degraded pollen which was not identifiable in our model. We suggest that pollen is a small but substantial allochthonous C-source in shallow bay food webs of the Baltic Sea, with the potential to affect the dynamics of these ecosystems.
  • Lim, Kean-Jin; Paasela, Tanja; Harju, Anni; Venalainen, Martti; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Karkkainen, Katri; Teeri, Teemu H. (2021)
    We studied the stress response of five-year-old Scots pine xylem to mechanical wounding using RNA sequencing. In general, we observed a bimodal response in pine xylem after wounding. Transcripts associated with water deficit stress, defence, and cell wall modification were induced at the earliest time point of three hours; at the same time, growth-related processes were down-regulated. A second temporal wave was triggered either at the middle and/or at the late time points (one and four days). Secondary metabolism, such as stilbene and lignan biosynthesis started one day after wounding. Scots pine synthesises the stilbenes pinosylvin and its monomethyl ether both as constitutive and induced defence compounds. Stilbene biosynthesis is induced by wounding, pathogens and UV stress, but is also developmentally regulated when heartwood is formed. Comparison of wounding responses to heartwood formation shows that many induced processes (in addition to stilbene biosynthesis) are similar and relate to defence or desiccation stress, but often specific transcripts are up-regulated in the developmental and wounding induced contexts. Pine resin biosynthesis was not induced in response to wounding, at least not during the first four days.
  • Sageman-Furnas, Katelyn; Nurmi, Markus; Contag, Meike; Ploetner, Bjoern; Alseekh, Saleh; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Smith, Lisa M.; Laitinen, Roosa A. E. (2022)
    Hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions are important in revealing the consequences of epistatic interactions in plants. F-1 hybrids between the A. thaliana accessions displaying either defense or developmental phenotypes have been revealing the roles of the underlying epistatic genes. The interaction of two naturally occurring alleles of the OUTGROWTH-ASSOCIATED KINASE (OAK) gene in Sha and Lag2-2, previously shown to cause a similar phenotype in a different allelic combination in A. thaliana, was required for the hybrid phenotype. Outgrowth formation in the hybrids was associated with reduced levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in petioles and the application of these hormones mitigated the formation of the outgrowths. Moreover, different abiotic stresses were found to mitigate the outgrowth phenotype. The involvement of stress and hormone signaling in outgrowth formation was supported by a global transcriptome analysis, which additionally revealed that TCP1, a transcription factor known to regulate leaf growth and symmetry, was downregulated in the outgrowth tissue. These results demonstrate that a combination of natural alleles of OAK regulates growth and development through the integration of hormone and stress signals and highlight the importance of natural variation as a resource to discover the function of gene variants that are not present in the most studied accessions of A. thaliana.
  • Aphalo, Pedro J. (2020)
    Most photobiologists sooner or later have to measure light absorption, reflection and/or transmission by objects such as plant leaves, optical filters or solutes in a liquid medium. The physical quantities we measure may vary: absorbance, optical density, absorptance, transmittance and reflectance. In addition to these extensive properties of objects we use intensive properties such as the molar extinction coefficient and refractive index. This article disusses the defintions of these quantities and exemplifies some of their uses in research in the field plant photobiology including the study and application of UV radiation. It also touches on some less frequently discussed alspects such as the effect of the angle of incidence on the reflectance at the surface of windows and optical filters.
  • Piirainen, Mikko; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Salo, Pertti; Velmala, Saara (2021)
    The herbarium accessions amount to 20,000 specimens, including 10,578 phanerogams and pteridophytes, 1,094 specimens of bryophytes, 3 specimens of algae, 6,391 specimens of fungi and 1,934 specimens of lichens. Some details of noteworthy accessions are given here.
  • Pascual, Jesus; Rahikainen, Moona; Angeleri, Martina; Alegre, Sara; Gossens, Richard; Shapiguzov, Alexey; Heinonen, Arttu; Trotta, Andrea; Durian, Guido; Winter, Zsofia; Sinkkonen, Jari; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko; Whelan, James; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa (2021)
    Mitochondria are tightly embedded within metabolic and regulatory networks that optimize plant performance in response to environmental challenges. The best-known mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway involves stress-induced activation of the transcription factor NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 17 (ANAC017), which initiates protective responses to stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Posttranslational control of the elicited responses, however, remains poorly understood. Previous studies linked protein phosphatase 2A subunit PP2A-B'gamma, a key negative regulator of stress responses, with reversible phosphorylation of ACONITASE 3 (ACO3). Here we report on ACO3 and its phosphorylation at Ser91 as key components of stress regulation that are induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. Targeted mass spectrometry-based proteomics revealed that the abundance and phosphorylation of ACO3 increased under stress, which required signaling through ANAC017. Phosphomimetic mutation at ACO3-Ser91 and accumulation of ACO3(S91D)-YFP promoted the expression of genes related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, ACO3 contributed to plant tolerance against ultraviolet B (UV-B) or antimycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings demonstrate that ACO3 is both a target and mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction signaling, and critical for achieving stress tolerance in Arabidopsis leaves.
  • Alberto Ramirez-Valiente, Jose; Sole-Medina, Aida; Pyhajarvi, Tanja; Savolainen, Outi; Heer, Katrin; Opgenoorth, Lars; Danusevicius, Darius; Jose Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan (2021)
    Early-stage fitness variation has been seldom evaluated at broad scales in forest tree species, despite the long tradition of studying climate-driven intraspecific genetic variation. In this study, we evaluated the role of climate in driving patterns of population differentiation at early-life stages in Pinus sylvestris and explored the fitness and growth consequences of seed transfer within the species range. We monitored seedling emergence, survival and growth over a 2-yr period in a multi-site common garden experiment which included 18 European populations and spanned 25 degrees in latitude and 1700 m in elevation. Climate-fitness functions showed that populations exhibited higher seedling survival and growth at temperatures similar to their home environment, which is consistent with local adaptation. Northern populations experienced lower survival and growth at warmer sites, contrary to previous studies on later life stages. Seed mass was higher in populations from warmer areas and was positively associated with survival and growth at more southern sites. Finally, we did not detect a survival-growth trade-off; on the contrary, bigger seedlings exhibited higher survival probabilities under most climatic conditions. In conclusion, our results reveal that contrasting temperature regimes have played an important role in driving the divergent evolution of P. sylvestris populations at early-life stages.
  • Kamarainen, A.; Jokinen, K.; Linden, L. (2020)
    The addition of Sphagnum to peat-based growing media ('Sphagnum replacement') influences plant performance. The primary physical effect of Sphagnum addition appears to be enhanced water retention. Good performance of plants cultivated in Sphagnum seems partly explainable in terms of its water retention properties. The large body of nutrient solution retained in Sphagnum can delay disadvantageous changes in its concentration during cultivation. The physical quantity of Sphagnum per unit volume, i.e. its bulk density, governs the volume of retained water and thus determines the strength of effects contributing to plant performance. When subjected to severe drought, plants cultivated in Sphagnum did not show clear signs of water deficit up to at least 1,572 hPa of matric suction, which is the estimated wilting point for plants grown in light peat. Using Sphagnum to replace peat in the growing medium appears advantageous to plants not only during drought but also during ordinary greenhouse cultivation.
  • Susi, Hanna; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2021)
    Human alteration of natural habitats may change the processes governing species interactions in wild communities. Wild populations are increasingly impacted by agricultural intensification, yet it is unknown whether this alters biodiversity mediation of disease dynamics. We investigated the association between plant diversity (species richness, diversity) and infection risk (virus richness, prevalence) in populations of Plantago lanceolata in natural landscapes as well as those occurring at the edges of cultivated fields. Altogether, 27 P. lanceolata populations were surveyed for population characteristics and sampled for PCR detection of five recently characterized viruses. We find that plant species richness and diversity correlated negatively with virus infection prevalence. Virus species richness declined with increasing plant diversity and richness in natural populations while in agricultural edge populations species richness was moderately higher, and not associated with plant richness. This difference was not explained by changes in host richness between these two habitats, suggesting potential pathogen spill-over and increased transmission of viruses across the agro-ecological interface. Host population connectivity significantly decreased virus infection prevalence. We conclude that human use of landscapes may change the ecological laws by which natural communities are formed with far reaching implications for ecosystem functioning and disease.
  • Castillejo, Cristina; Waurich, Veronika; Wagner, Henning; Ramos, Ruben; Oiza, Nicolas; Munoz, Pilar; Trivino, Juan C.; Caruana, Julie; Liu, Zhongchi; Cobo, Nicolas; Hardigan, Michael A.; Knapp, Steven J.; Vallarino, Jose G.; Osorio, Sonia; Martin-Pizarro, Carmen; Pose, David; Toivainen, Tuomas; Hytonen, Timo; Oh, Youngjae; Barbey, Christopher R.; Whitaker, Vance M.; Lee, Seonghee; Olbricht, Klaus; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Amaya, Iraida (2020)
    Independent mutations in the transcription factor MYB10 cause most of the anthocyanin variation observed in diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and octoploid cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The fruits of diploid and octoploid strawberry (Fragaria spp) show substantial natural variation in color due to distinct anthocyanin accumulation and distribution patterns. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled by a clade of R2R3 MYB transcription factors, among which MYB10 is the main activator in strawberry fruit. Here, we show that mutations in MYB10 cause most of the variation in anthocyanin accumulation and distribution observed in diploid woodland strawberry (F. vesca) and octoploid cultivated strawberry (F. xananassa). Using a mapping-by-sequencing approach, we identified a gypsy-transposon in MYB10 that truncates the protein and knocks out anthocyanin biosynthesis in a white-fruited F. vesca ecotype. Two additional loss-of-function mutations in MYB10 were identified among geographically diverse white-fruited F. vesca ecotypes. Genetic and transcriptomic analyses of octoploid Fragaria spp revealed that FaMYB10-2, one of three MYB10 homoeologs identified, regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in developing fruit. Furthermore, independent mutations in MYB10-2 are the underlying cause of natural variation in fruit skin and flesh color in octoploid strawberry. We identified a CACTA-like transposon (FaEnSpm-2) insertion in the MYB10-2 promoter of red-fleshed accessions that was associated with enhanced expression. Our findings suggest that cis-regulatory elements in FaEnSpm-2 are responsible for enhanced MYB10-2 expression and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit flesh.