Browsing by Subject "119 Other natural sciences"

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  • Cirkovic, Elena (2021)
    With the increasing environmental degradation in spaces most affected by climate change such as the Arctic, and the extension of anthropogenic environmental problems even into the Earth's orbit, international law is confronted with some unprecedented challenges. Much of the legal dialogue surrounding this question is taking place in the abstract, such that there are no exact proposals for methodological and practical applications in lawmaking. In this Article, I argue that current governance relevant to the Arctic and outer space precedes an understanding of these spaces. Critical posthumanism, and other approaches, point out the continuation of strict boundaries that have been set up between the human body and the environment. International law's formalist doctrinal deductions exacerbate these boundaries. I propose an approach to lawmaking under a broad term: the cosmolegal. The cosmolegal proposal challenges distinctions between human-made and non-human "laws"-scientific and social laws-and questions the foundational determination of both. The framework I suggest in this Article, therefore, requires a new approximation to accuracy in lawmaking, which could be achieved by greater interdisciplinarity and acceptance of ontological pluralism. This Article is divided into two broader sections. The first section focuses on two environmental problems: A) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Arctic and B) orbital debris. The second section argues for a different ontology of law and human self-understanding in the context of the unknown. It proposes "cosmolegality" in an attempt to approximate the inclusion and representation of 'everything considered to be non-human.
  • Wirtanen, Gun; Pärssinen, Raimo; Ruralia Institute, Seinäjoki; University Management (Turun ammattikorkeakoulu, 2018)
    Reports / Turku University of Applied Sciences
    Jokainen osio alkaa omalla abstraktilla tai on julkaistu laajennettuna abstraktina
  • Dillen, Mathias; Groom, Quentin; Chagnoux, Simon; Güntsch, Anton; Hardisty, Alex; Haston, Elspeth; Livermore, Laurence; Runnel, Veljo; Schulman, Leif; Willemse, Luc; Wu, Zhengzhe; Phillips, Sarah (2019)
    Background More and more herbaria are digitising their collections. Images of specimens are made available online to facilitate access to them and allow extraction of information from them. Transcription of the data written on specimens is critical for general discoverability and enables incorporation into large aggregated research datasets. Different methods, such as crowdsourcing and artificial intelligence, are being developed to optimise transcription, but herbarium specimens pose difficulties in data extraction for many reasons. New information To provide developers of transcription methods with a means of optimisation, we have compiled a benchmark dataset of 1,800 herbarium specimen images with corresponding transcribed data. These images originate from nine different collections and include specimens that reflect the multiple potential obstacles that transcription methods may encounter, such as differences in language, text format (printed or handwritten), specimen age and nomenclatural type status. We are making these specimens available with a Creative Commons Zero licence waiver and with permanent online storage of the data. By doing this, we are minimising the obstacles to the use of these images for transcription training. This benchmark dataset of images may also be used where a defined and documented set of herbarium specimens is needed, such as for the extraction of morphological traits, handwriting recognition and colour analysis of specimens.
  • Rautiainen, Aapo; Wernick, Iddo; Waggoner, Paul E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Kauppi, Pekka E. (2011)
  • Mingfeng, Wang; Jie, Su; Landy, Jack; Leppäranta, Matti; Lei, Guan (2020)
    Abstract Melt ponds occupy a large fraction of the Arctic sea ice surface during spring and summer. The fraction and distribution of melt ponds have considerable impacts on Arctic climate and ecosystem by reducing the albedo. There is an urgency to obtain improved accuracy and a wider coverage of melt pond fraction (MPF) data for studying these processes. MPF information has generally been acquired from optical imagery. Conventional MPF algorithms based on high-resolution optical sensors have treated melt ponds as features with constant reflectance; however, the spectral reflectance of ponds can vary greatly, even at a local scale. Here we use Sentinel-2 imagery to demonstrate those previous algorithms assuming fixed melt pond-reflectance greatly underestimate MPF. We propose a new algorithm (?LinearPolar?) based on the polar coordinate transformation that treats melt ponds as variable-reflectance features and calculates MPF across the vector between melt pond and bare ice axes. The angular coordinate ? of the polar coordinate system, which is only associated with pond fraction rather than reflectance, is used to determinate MPF. By comparing the new algorithm and previous methods with IceBridge optical imagery data, across a variety of Sentinel-2 images with melt ponds at various stages of development, we show that the RMSE value of the LinearPolar algorithm is about 30% lower than for the previous algorithms. Moreover, based on a sensitivity test, the new algorithm is also less sensitive to the subjective threshold for melt pond reflectance than previous algorithms.
  • Bergsten, Johannes; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Biström, Olof (2020)
    We review the species of Bidessus of Madagascar and describe Bidessus anjozorobe sp. nov. from material collected in Anjozorobe forest. Anjozorobe is part of the Anjozorobe-Angavo Protected Area, which is an important corridor of transition forest between typical eastern humid forests and the residual sub-humid forest of the Central Highlands. Bidessus longistriga Regimbart, 1895 and Bidessus perexiguus Kolbe, 1883 are widespread but endemic low-altitude species on Madagascar. Bidessus nesioticus Guignot, 1956 is an alpine species described from near the peak of the Ankaratra mountain massifs at 2500 m a.s.l. We recollected the species for the first time since its description, in Ankaratra and in a new area above 2000 m a.s.l. in the Andringitra mountain further south. Bidessus cf. nero Gschwendtner, 1933 is tentatively recorded for Madagascar for the first time but further studies are needed to test the status of mainland and insular populations. Bidessus apicidens Bistrom & Sanfilippo, 1986 has not been recollected on Madagascar since 1970. All species are endemic to Madagascar except potentially Bidessus cf. ceratus and Bidessus cf. nero described from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively. The older records of the two non-endemic species Bidessus complicatus Sharp, 1904 and Bidessus ovoideus Regimbart, 1895 on Madagascar could not be verified.
  • Tuomisto, Jouko; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Tukiainen, Erkki; Pekkanen, Juha; Tuomisto, Jouni T. (2016)
    A number of studies have found an association between the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and type 2 diabetes. Causality has remained uncertain. This study describes the pharmacokinetic behavior of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) both in a theoretical model based on elimination rate constants, and in a group of 409 adult surgical patients with known PCDD/F concentrations and dietary information. A model assuming 10% annual decrease in past PCDD/F intake, predicted the measured profile of TEQ (toxic equivalents) in the patient population fairly well. The dominant determinant of PCDD/F level was age, and the level in patients was also associated with consumption of animal source products. Predicted daily intakes correlated with diet, but also with body mass index (BMI), indicating that high BMI was preceded by high consumption of foods containing PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that a third factor, e. g. high intake of animal source foods, could explain both higher levels of POPs in the body and higher incidence of type 2 diabetes, and BMI is not sufficient in describing the confounding caused by diet. Thus, to fully address the causality between POPs and type 2 diabetes, careful studies considering the pharmacokinetics of the studied compounds, and including the analysis of food consumption, are needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sennikov, Alexander N.; Kurtto, Arto (2017)
  • Palonen, V.; Uusitalo, J.; Seppälä, E.; Oinonen, M. (2017)
    Radiocarbon measurements can be used to deduce the proportion of renewable to fossil carbon in materials. While these biofraction measurements are performed routinely on solid and liquid substances, measurements of gaseous samples, such as methane, are still scarce. As a pioneering effort, we have developed a field-capable sampling system for the selective capture of CH4 for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. The system allows for biofraction measurements of methane by accelerator mass spectrometry. In environmental research, radiocarbon measurements of methane can be used for fingerprinting different sources of methane emissions. In metrology and industry, biofraction measurements can be utilized to characterize biogas/natural gas mixtures within gas-line networks. In this work, the portable sampling system is described in detail and reference measurements of biofractions of gaseous fuel samples are presented. Low-concentration (1-ppm-CH4) sampling for environmental applications appears feasible but has not been fully tested at present. This development allows for multitude of future applications ranging from Arctic methane emissions to biogas insertion to gas networks. Published by AIP Publishing.
  • Benham, Claudia F.; Verbrugge, Laura N. H. (2020)
  • Vanhatalo, Jarno; Hartmann, Marcelo; Veneranta, Lari (2020)
    Species distribution models (SDM) are a key tool in ecology, conservation and management of natural resources. Two key components of the state-of-the-art SDMs are the description for species distribution response along environmental covariates and the spatial random effect that captures deviations from the distribution patterns explained by environmental covariates. Joint species distribution models (JSDMs) additionally include interspecific correlations which have been shown to improve their descriptive and predictive performance compared to single species models. However, current JSDMs are restricted to hierarchical generalized linear modeling framework. Their limitation is that parametric models have trouble in explaining changes in abundance due, for example, highly non-linear physical tolerance limits which is particularly important when predicting species distribution in new areas or under scenarios of environmental change. On the other hand, semi-parametric response functions have been shown to improve the predictive performance of SDMs in these tasks in single species models. Here, we propose JSDMs where the responses to environmental covariates are modeled with additive multivariate Gaussian processes coded as linear models of coregionalization. These allow inference for wide range of functional forms and interspecific correlations between the responses. We propose also an efficient approach for inference with Laplace approximation and parameterization of the interspecific covariance matrices on the euclidean space. We demonstrate the benefits of our model with two small scale examples and one real world case study. We use cross-validation to compare the proposed model to analogous semi-parametric single species models and parametric single and joint species models in interpolation and extrapolation tasks. The proposed model outperforms the alternative models in all cases. We also show that the proposed model can be seen as an extension of the current state-of-the-art JSDMs to semi-parametric models.
  • Luttinen, Arto; Lehtonen, Elina; Bohm, Katja; Lindholm, Tanja Marjukka; Söderlund, Ulf; Salminen, Johanna (2022)
    We have reappraised the age and composition of the mid-Proterozoic Häme dyke swarm in southern Finland. The dominant trend of the dykes of this swarm is NW to WNW. Petrographic observations and geochemical data indicate uniform, tholeiitic low- Mg parental magmas for all of the dykes. Nevertheless, the variability in incompatible trace element ratios, such as Zr/Y and La/Nb, provides evidence of changing mantle melting conditions and variable crustal contamination. Our ID-TIMS 207Pb/206Pb ages for four low-Zr/Y-type dykes indicate emplacement at 1639 ± 3 Ma, whereas the most reliable previously published ages suggest emplacement of the high-Zr/Y-type dykes at 1642 ± 2 Ma. We propose that the Häme dyke swarm, and possibly also the other mid- Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southern Finland, records a progressive decrease in Zr/Y values due to magma generation under developing areas of thinned lithosphere. We consider that the formation of mafic magmas was most probably associated with the upwelling of hot convective mantle in an extensional setting possibly related to the nearby Gothian orogeny. The generation of tholeiitic magmas below continental lithosphere was probably promoted by the elevated mantle temperature underneath the Nuna supercontinent. We speculate that the origin of most of the relatively small mid-Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms, anorthosites, rapakivi granites, and associated rocks found across Nuna was similarly triggered by extensional plate tectonics and the convection of anomalous hot upper mantle below the supercontinent.
  • Sennikov, Alexander; Lazkov, Georgy (2013)
    Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.