Browsing by Subject "1960s"

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  • Timonen, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this thesis is to research Japan-U.S. Security Treaty protests in 1960 in global context. The Anpo-protests were selected as research topic because not much research was found of the protests. Anpo-protests begun in 1959 and ended in late 1960. The main motive was to oppose revision of U.S.-Japan Security Treaty but eventually protests led to resignation of the prime minister Kishi Nobusuke. The protests were the largest in Japanese history and left their legacy to Japanese political history and civil society. Scholars have researched Anpo-protests to some extent. However, the Anpo-protests have not been analysed in Worldwide context of Cold war which is why transnational history got selected as primary theoretical framework for this thesis. This thesis uses the Japan Times as the primary source. The Japan Times is Japan’s oldest English language newspaper firstly published in 1897. As for main method theory-guided content analysis was used. Analysis was carried out with coding in which Atlas.ti software was used. Theory of historical study of images got selected as second theoretical framework after transnational history because this thesis aims to construct comprehensive image of the Anpo-protests from the lens of the Japan Times. The research question asks how the Anpo-protests are portrayed in the Japan Times. The goal of the research question is to find out whether the Anpo-protests were portrayed as transnational in the Japan Times. This thesis is interested if the Anpo-protests had transnational influences. The results of the analysis indicate that the Japan Times is mainly interested certain issues, such as who are protesting, why they are protesting and how the protests are carried out. The codes that appear most frequently are communism, students and protests techniques. During the analysis over 1200 codes were reduced into 16 categories which were evolved further into themes. The themes are social unity of Japanese people, legitimacy and transnationalism. Social unity represents how people who were breaking the cohesion of society are judged on the newspaper. Legitimacy deals with the issue of what is legal and what is not. Transnationalism pays interests on transnational influences of the Anpo-protests such as peace activism, communism and democratic ideals. All themes express change in Japanese society. Results explain how the conception of peace, democracy, authority, violence and social unity changed due the Anpo-protests. The results indicate that Anpo-protests were portrayed transnationally to some extent on the Japan Times. Thus, Anpo-protests may have had some transnational connections. Broader analysis would offer more reliable results and thus this thesis serves only as a brief outlook to the Anpo-protests. However, this thesis offers valuable information of the Japan Times itself and of the major change in Japanese society that has often left without notice. Anpo-protests itself served as transnational influence on other protests which evolved later in the 1960s.
  • Ojanen, Mikko (Electroacoustic Music Studies Network, 2014)
    In this paper, I explore different examples of how the new means of performing music in concert and happening settings manifested in the early years of electroacoustic music in Finland. No single point when electroacoustic music arrived in Finland can be pointed out. The development was slow and the central-European trends never landed in Finland in their pure form. Experimental concert performances of the radical young generation of musicians played a significant role in the emergence of the electronic medium in the Finnish music scene. The young composers and artists absorbed influences quite freely. Although their work can be seen even as a conscious protest against tradition, influences from the works of Karlheinz Stockhausen and John Cage, for example, were strong. This paper focuses on the works that expanded the traditional organization of a concert performance, introduced new means to perform electroacoustic music or applied electronic music technology beyond a music concert setting. These include, for example, film music, art exhibitions, happenings and even poem reading events. The examples are gathered from the works of composers Henrik Otto Donner (1939–2013) and Erkki Salmenhaara (1941–2002), avant-garde artist Mauri Antero Numminen (b. 1940), experimental film maker Eino Ruutsalo (1921–2001), as well as their close collaborator, electronic musical instrument designer Erkki Kurenniemi (b. 1941).
  • Krekola, Joni (University of Helsinki Department of Social Science History, 2008)
    The legacy of Lenin in Finland, especially since the late Cold War era of the 1960s, is the subject of this article. Lenin’s grip on Finland is explained by his personal contribution to the history of Finland, an issue that has been debated since the gaining of independence in 1917. After the first demonizing decades and the Second World War, Lenin’s public representations became more positive in Finland. A museum was dedicated to him in 1946, and later Lenin started to appear in names and statues that still exist in Finland. In this respect, but to a far lesser extent,Finland resembles the Eastern European countries that became People’s Democracies.
  • Ojanen, Mikko; Lassfolk, Kai (Electroacoustic Music Studies Network, 2012)
    Erkki Kurenniemi was a central figure in the Finnish experimental and avant-garde scene during the 1960s and early 1970s. He collaborated with several Finnish and Swedish composers and artists, designed a series of unique electronic instruments and founded the first electronic music studio in Finland in 1962. Kurenniemi’s technologically oriented approach to the composition process challenges the traditional idea of the realization of a musical work – and blurs the definition and meaning of the work-concept. Kurenniemi’s compositions can be roughly divided into two categories: “official” pre-planned works and material tapes. Kurenniemi produced a large amount of electroacoustic material to be used in compositions by him or other composers. Some of this material ended up on audio releases as such and gained the status of a musical work. The use of raw, unedited and unprocessed material gives an interesting starting point in analysing the definition and meaning of the work-concept in electroacoustic music. Here, an overview of Kurenniemi’s electroacoustic music is presented with special interest in material tapes and instrument demonstrations that either have so far remained as such or that have been considered as musical works. Recently, there has been a growing international interest in Kurenniemi’s work, both in the form of art exhibition exposure, audio releases, academic research as well as a film documentary by Mika Taanila. The transformation process of material tapes into pieces of art still continues due to audio releases of previously unpublished material.