Browsing by Subject "1ST 2 YEARS"

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  • Seppala, Elina; Sillanpaa, Saara; Nurminen, Noora; Huhtala, Heini; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Sipila, Markku; Laranne, Jussi; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyoty, Heikki (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). OBJECTIVES:The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms were recorded by a questionnaire every 3-6 months. RESULTS:Altogether 610 AOM episodes were reported during the follow-up. 9.8% of the stool samples were positive for HRV and 6.8% for HEV. HRV positivity peaked at the age of 3-6 months declining gradually after this age, whereas HEV positivity peaked later, at the age of 12-24 months. The risk of AOM was increased in children who were HEV positive at least once at the age of 6-12 months (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], P=0.023) or who were HRV positive at least once at the age of 18-24 months (OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.0-5.2], P=0.042). Having an older sibling, short breast-feeding and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also significantly associated with AOM. CONCLUSIONS: HRV and HEV infections are frequent during the first months of life. The observed trend for increased risk of AOM in HRV and HEV positive children is in line with the results from hospital series suggesting that these viruses may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of AOM. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Harris, Vanessa; Ali, Asad; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri; Kazi, Momin; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Giaquinto, Carlo; de Weerth, Carolina; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders. We conducted a nested, matched case-control study comparing the pre-vaccination intestinal microbiota composition between 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV-responders, 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV non-responders, and 10 healthy Dutch infants. RVV response was defined as an Immunoglobulin A of >= 20 IU/mL following Rotarix (TM)(RV1) vaccination in an infant with aprevaccination IgA RV1 response correlated with a higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XI and Proteobacteria, including bacteria related to Serratia and Escherichia coli. Remarkably, abundance of these Proteobacteria was also significantly higher in Dutch infants when compared to RV1-non-responders in Pakistan. This small but carefully matched study showed the intestinal microbiota composition to correlate with RV1 seroconversion in Pakistan infants, identifying signatures shared with healthy Dutch infants.
  • Harris, Vanessa C.; Armah, George; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri E.; Parashar, Umesh; Victor, John C.; Tate, Jacqueline; de Weerth, Carolina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Lewis, Kristen D. C.; de Vos, Willem M. (2017)
    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings. Methods. We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana. These infants' microbiomes were then compared with 154 age-matched, healthy Dutch infants' microbiomes, assumed to be RVV responders. Fecal microbiome analysis was performed in all groups using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip. Results. We analyzed findings in 78 Ghanaian infants, including 39 RVV responder and nonresponder pairs. The overall microbiome composition was significantly different between RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.12), and Ghanaian responders were more similar to Dutch infants than nonresponders (P =.002). RVV response correlated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus bovis and a decreased abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in comparisons between both Ghanaian RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.008 vs 0.003) and Dutch infants and Ghanaian nonresponders (FDR, 0.002 vs 0.009). Conclusions. The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries.