Browsing by Subject "2"

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  • Abera, Temesgen; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Land surface temperature (LST) is affected by surface-atmosphere interaction. Yet, the degree to which surface and atmospheric factors impact the magnitude of LST trend is not well established. Here, we used surface energy balance, boosted regression tree model, and satellite observation and reanalysis data to unravel the effects of surface factors (albedo, sensible heat, latent heat, and ground heat) as well as incoming radiation (shortwave and longwave) on LST trends in East Africa (EA). Our result showed that 11% of EA was affected by significant (p <0.05) daytime annual LST trends, which exhibited both cooling of -0.19 K year(-1) (mainly in South Sudan and Sudan) and warming of 0.22 K year(-1) (mainly in Somalia and Kenya). The nighttime LST trends affected a large part of EA (31%) and were dominated by significant warming trend (0.06 K year(-1)). Influenced by contrasting daytime and nighttime LST trends, the diurnal LST range reduced in 15% of EA. The modeling result showed that latent heat flux (32%), incoming longwave radiation (30%), and shortwave radiation (23%) were stronger in explaining daytime LST trend. The effects of surface factors were stronger in both cooling and warming trends, whereas atmospheric factors had stronger control only on surface cooling trends. These results indicate the differential control of surface and atmospheric factors on warming and cooling trends, highlighting the importance of considering both factors for accurate evaluation of the LST trends in the future.
  • Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2019)
    Dioxins are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants whose background levels are still reason for concern. There is mounting evidence from both epidemiological and experimental studies that paternal exposure to the most potent congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), can lower the male/female ratio of offspring. Moreover, in laboratory rodents and zebrafish, TCDD exposure of parent animals has been reported to result in reduced reproductive performance along with other adverse effects in subsequent generations, foremost through the paternal but also via the maternal germline. These impacts have been accompanied by epigenetic alterations in placenta and/or sperm cells, including changes in methylation patterns of imprinted genes. Here, we review recent key studies in this field with an attempt to provide an up-to-date picture of the present state of knowledge to the reader. These studies provide biological plausibility for the potential of dioxin exposure at a critical time-window to induce epigenetic alterations across multiple generations and the significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in mediating these effects. Currently available data do not allow to accurately estimate the human health implications of these findings, although epidemiological evidence on lowered male/female ratio suggests that this effect may take place at realistic human exposure levels.
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Viluksela, Matti (2020)
    Dioxins and related compounds are common environmental contaminants. Although their levels have gone down, they are still of concern, in particular regarding developmental toxicity. The adverse effects of these compounds are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), whose canonical signaling pathway has been unveiled in fair detail. The alternative (non-genomic) pathways are much more obscure. AHR has also proven to be a master regulator of numerous physiological phenomena, which has led to the search of selective AHR modulators with low toxicity. Papers of this Special Issue address the developmental toxicity of dioxins and related compounds as well as selective modulators of AHR and both its canonical and alternative signaling pathways. In addition, new optical and stereoscopic methods for the detection of dioxins are presented. As a whole, this Special Issue provides an up-to-date view on a wide variety of aspects related to dioxin toxicity mechanisms from both original research articles and reviews.
  • GEMO Study Collaborators; EMBRACE Collaborators; kConFab Investigators; HEBON Investigators; GENEPSO Investigators; Consortium Investigators Modifiers; Barnes, Daniel R.; Rookus, Matti A.; McGuffog, Lesley; Aittomäki, Kristiina (2020)
    Purpose We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks forBRCA1andBRCA2pathogenic variant carriers. Methods Retrospective cohort data on 18,935BRCA1and 12,339BRCA2female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. Results The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk forBRCA1carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33],P = 3x10(-72)). ForBRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36],P = 7x10(-50)). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk forBRCA1(HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40],P = 3x10(-22)) andBRCA2(HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60],P = 4x10(-12)) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. Conclusion Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks forBRCA1/2carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
  • Esteban, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Ismael; Hamscher, Gerd; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Korkalainen, Merja; Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Håkansson, Helen (2021)
    Young adult wild-type and aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout (AHRKO) mice of both sexes and the C57BL/6J background were exposed to 10 weekly oral doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; total dose of 200 ?g/kg bw) to further characterize the observed impacts of AHR as well as TCDD on the retinoid system. Unexposed AHRKO mice harboured heavier kidneys, lighter livers and lower serum all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and retinol (REOH) concentrations than wild-type mice. Results from the present study also point to a role for the murine AHR in the control of circulating REOH and ATRA concentrations. In wild-type mice, TCDD elevated liver weight and reduced thymus weight, and drastically reduced the hepatic concentrations of 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14dihydro-retinoic acid (CORA) and retinyl palmitate (REPA). In female wild-type mice, TCDD increased the hepatic concentration of ATRA as well as the renal and circulating REOH concentrations. Renal CORA concentrations were substantially diminished in wild-type male mice exclusively following TCDD-exposure, with a similar tendency in serum. In contrast, TCDD did not affect any of these toxicity or retinoid system parameters in AHRKO mice. Finally, a distinct sex difference occurred in kidney concentrations of all the analysed retinoid forms. Together, these results strengthen the evidence of a mandatory role of AHR in TCDD-induced retinoid disruption, and suggest that the previously reported accumulation of several retinoid forms in the liver of AHRKO mice is a line-specific phenomenon. Our data further support participation of AHR in the control of liver and kidney development in mice.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; Abd El-Haleem, Lamiaa E.; Bräse, Stefan; Polamo, Mika; Nieger, Martin; Brown, Alan B. (2019)
    Herein, we report the synthesis of 5,12-dihydropyrazino[2,3-c:5,6-c ' ]difuro[2,3-c:4,5-c ']-diquinoline-6,14(5H,12H)diones, 2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl- butane-1,4-diones and 4-(benzo-[d]oxazol-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-1H-[4,5]oxazolo[3,2-a]pyridine-1-one. The new candidates were synthesized and identified by different spectroscopic techniques, and X-ray crystallography.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; Bräse, Stefan; Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; Abd El-Haleem, Lamiaa E.; Nieger, Martin (2020)
    The manuscript describes the synthesis of new racemic and chiral linked paracyclophane assigned asN-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbamoyl)-5'-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carboxamide. The procedure depends upon the reaction of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)hydrazide with 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)isocyanate. To prepare the homochiral linked paracyclophane of a compound, the enantioselectivity of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbaldehyde (enantiomeric purity 60% ee), was oxidized to the corresponding acid, which on chlorination, gave the corresponding acid chloride of [2.2]paracyclophane. Following up on the same procedure applied for the preparation of racemic-carbamoyl and purified by HPLC purification, we succeeded to obtain the targetSp-Sp-N-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbamoyl)-5'-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carboxamide. SubjectingN-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)hydrazide to various isothiocyanates, the corresponding paracyclophanyl-acylthiosemicarbazides were obtained. The latter compounds were then cyclized to a new series of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones. 5-(1,4(1,4)-Dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines were also synthesized in good yields via internal cyclization of the same paracyclophanyl-acylthiosemicarbazides. NMR, IR, and mass spectra (HRMS) were used to elucidate the structure of the obtained products. The X-ray structure analysis was also used as an unambiguous tool to elucidate the structure of the products.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Abd El-Aal, Amal S.; Braese, Stefan; Nieger, Martin (2021)
    A synthesis of benzo[e][1,2,4]triazines and 1,2,4-triazolospiro[4,5]deca-2,6,9-trien-8-ones has been developed from reactions of amidrazones with 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone in EtOAc containing 0.5 mL of piperidine. This highly regioselective and one-pot process provided rapid access to 1,2,4-triazolospiro[4,5]deca-2,6,9-trien-8-ones (60%-70%) and benzo[e][1,2,4]triazines (11%-18%). On reacting amidrazones with 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in an EtOAc/piperidine mixture, the reaction proceeded to give 5-hydroxy-2-(piperidin-1-yl)naphthalene-1,4-dione. The structures of the isolated products were proved by infrared, NMR (2D-NMR), mass spectra, and elemental analyses in addition to X-ray structure analysis. The reaction mechanisms are discussed. The anticancer screening of selected compounds showed broad-spectrum anticancer activity against most melanoma cancer cell lines, ovarian cancer OVCAR-3, central nervous system cancer SF-295 and U251, non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H23, renal cancer SN12C, and colon cancer HCT-15 and HCT-116. The selected compounds exhibited moderate to weak anticancer activity to other cell lines.