Browsing by Subject "212 Civil and Construction engineering"

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  • Buhl, Henrik; Andersen, Michael; Kerosuo, Hannele (Polyteknisk Forlag, 2017)
    The aim of this paper is to contribute to new collaborative processes in construction practice, which are challenged by a traditional understanding of teams in construction project management. A dynamic innovative and open-ended expansive process is requested and badly needed. The development and implementation of new technology require a parallel process of developing the use of technology and the social processes of its use. Knotworking represents a distributed collaborative expertise in pursuit of a task that is organised among designers from different design disciplines and other players in a construction process. In Finland and Denmark experiments with Knotworking is being developed and tested: Experiments with Knots, how can it change or create new objects and solutions in construction? The method of the study is action research and applied ethnography that is a practice-oriented approach to contribute to change processes. The degree of authors’ participation varied from being a facilitator, consultant or observer in the Danish case and from being a facilitator and observant in the Finnish case. The data collection was a participant observation in a Finish and Danish case. The participants of the experiments were architects, contractors, energy specialists, HVAC design engineers, structural engineers, a cost calculator, representatives of property owners and researchers. The data was saved in digital format using several video cameras. We also gathered BIM documents, process charts, advisors’ reports and photographs. Experiments with Knots have the potential to break inertia in construction, multiple solutions will persist and it implies learning by experimenting with the new practice. The Knots are organised to solve specific problems or tasks requiring multidisciplinary expertise. Working with Knots as a successful process requires intensive collaboration across organizational boundaries and hierarchies through object-oriented actions, i.e. objects of activities that include both material and cognitive constructions which lead to entail directionality, purpose, and meaning to collective activities.
  • Mäki, Tarja; Kerosuo, Hannele (2020)
    This study explores designers, engineers, and managers sharing their knowledge and resolving design-related issues during construction site meetings. It provides new insights into the collaboration and the expertise of the different partners. In addition, the study provides new knowledge of using LPS in the design phase and its influence on the site meeting discussions in the construction phase. The research data comprise video recordings of 17 site meetings in two BIM-based renovation projects. Based on the data, the construction managers were the most active in addressing issues; however, all partners were actively involved in the discussion and shared their expertise to address the open questions. The use of the Last Planner System in the design phase seemed to decrease the number of design-related open questions in the construction phase. The findings emphasize the need to develop more collaborative design management methods and practices for sharing each expertise.
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Toppinen, Anne; Toivonen, Ritva (2020)
    Wood as a renewable construction material presents positive human health, well-being and sustainability-related features. Several studies have indicated its lower carbon footprint compared to the main alternative construction materials and its physiological and psychological characteristics have positive impacts on human health. The objective of this study is to investigate how young adults perceive the health, well-being and sustainability impacts of wooden interior materials. The findings from the four focus groups indicate that generally the image of wooden materials is positive although some concerns were identified. Further, wood as an interior material is perceived to have mainly positive psychological impacts on human health and well-being. From a sustainability perspective, participants recognized both negative and positive impacts of wooden materials mainly relating to environmental sustainability. Findings also revealed that although participants appreciate health and sustainability in the contexts of housing and particularly interior materials, still the materials' appearance and the financial situation of young participants' households dictate their criteria for choosing housing. The study results suggest that positive health impacts of wood, as well as its broader sustainability impacts, should be better acknowledged and promoted more broadly in society. This could result in greater appreciation towards wood and wooden materials among consumers.
  • Kerosuo, Hannele; Mäki, Tarja; Korpela, Jenni (2013)
    Knotworking represents a distributed collaborative expertise in pursuit of a task that is organized among designers from different design disciplines. Construction processes involve phases and tasks that cannot be solved in one organization only, as integration of expert knowledge from various sources is needed. Through knotworking, groups of people, tasks and tools are set to work intensively for a short period of time to solve a problem or accomplish a task. Knotworking requires intensive collaboration across organizational boundaries and hierarchies. The practice of knotworking has been developed and applied in the development of healthcare organizations, libraries and school-university relationships, but it has not previously been applied in the construction industry. In this paper, we describe the concept of knotworking and the findings of a case study that we completed in the Finnish construction industry. We will also compare the similarities and differences of the Big Room and knotworking in terms of participants, duration, target, space/infrastructure, benefits and challenges. Finally, we present some suggestions for further research and experimentation on knotworking in construction projects.
  • Rautanen, Sanna-Leena; White, Pamela (2018)
    This study was made in Nepal’s Tarai plains, where rapid population growth over the past decade has transformed a large number of rural bazaars and roadside hubs into vibrant small towns. This study draws a portrait of a distinctly successful small-town water supply scheme and its service provider, the Murgia Water Users and Sanitation Association. Exploring this particular case with regards to social, technological, financial and organisational systems, and by comparing the performance of this case against 63 other water service providers in Nepal, the study asks: how could there be more of this type of successful water service provider? This scheme was constructed during the bilateral Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Support Programme Phase III, Nepal-Finland cooperation (1999–2005), using the typical rural approach, namely community management, with strong capacity building. Since then the service modality in this study case has evolved towards a professional community-managed service delivery. The success is rooted in good water governance principles: participation, responsiveness, financial transparency, accountability and overall strong commitment and vision, as well as strong technical assistance. They have resulted in re-investment in both the capital maintenance expenditure and into new infrastructure, even into an entirely new water supply scheme.
  • Bhatta, Shiv; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Kiviluoma, Panu; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta (2019)
  • Mäki, Tarja; Kerosuo, Hannele; Koskenvesa, Anssi (2020)
    This study examines the learning processes of the adoption of the Last Planner System (LPS) and mechanisms of learning indicating the successes and failures of their establishment in three organisations. The organisations under study are a public building agency, an engineering office, and a construction company. One practice-based methodology by Engeström and Sannino of organisational learning based on the theory of expansive learning was applied in the analysis. The ethnographic research data included the observation of LPS adoption processes and the interviews of the participants. This study links the epistemic learning actions of the theory of expansive learning to the adoption process of LPS. It also reveals the mechanisms that indicate the success or failure of the adoption process. A successful adoption process seems to require strong ownership, enough time, resources, and opportunities for learning together in practical project work, and the combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches.
  • Salo, Johanna; Andersson, Aino Maria Alice; Mikkola, Raimo Olavi; Kredics, Laszlo; Viljanen, Martti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka (International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate - ISIAQ, 2015)
    Penicillium expansum was identified as a major contaminant in indoor air, settled dust and materials of several buildings connected to indoor air related health complaints. This fungus emitted large quantities of exudates when cultivated on laboratory media. The exudates proved toxic towards four different mammalian test cells up to 10000 fold dilution. Toxins identified by LC-MS/MS were communesins and chaetoglobosin. Air dispersal of the toxic exudates was investigated with an experimental set-up where natural convection was generated by temperature gradient. It was found that the exudate with the contained toxins became airborne transported from the warmer surface to the colder surface. The results thus demonstrate transportation of microbially produced toxic substances across the air space. The role of liquid emissions from indoor molds represents a novel mechanism for human exposure in mold contaminated buildings. In this paper we report that vapor condensed from the indoor air of building affected with molds Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus calidoustus and Penicillium expansum contained substances that were acutely toxic when exposed to mammalian cells in vitro. The results encourage further study of condensed indoor water vapor as a tool to assess the presence of airborne substances with possible adverse health effects.
  • Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Tiittanen, Pekka; Taimisto, Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Salonen, Raimo O.; Lanki, Timo (2019)
    A six-month winter-spring study was conducted in a suburb of the northern European city of Kuopio, Finland, to identify and quantify factors determining daily personal exposure and home indoor levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter