Browsing by Subject "221 Nano-technology"

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  • Bulatov, Evgeny; Lahtinen, Elmeri; Kivijärvi, Lauri; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Haukka, Matti (2020)
    Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3d printing was utilized to manufacture a solid catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions from polypropylene as a base material and palladium nanoparticles on silica (SilicaCat Pd(0)R815-100 by SiliCycle) as the catalytically active additive. The 3d printed catalyst showed similar activity to that of the pristine powdery commercial catalyst, but with improved practical recoverability and reduced leaching of palladium into solution. Recycling of the printed catalyst led to increase of the induction period of the reactions, attributed to the pseudo-homogeneous catalysis. The reaction is initiated by oxidative addition of aryl iodide to palladium nanoparticles, resulting in formation of soluble molecular species, which then act as the homogeneous catalyst. SLS 3d printing improves handling, overall practicality and recyclability of the catalyst without altering the chemical behaviour of the active component.
  • Wannasarit, Saowanee; Wang, Shiqi; Figueiredo, Patricia; Trujillo Olvera, Claudia Ximenia; Eburnea, Francesca; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Correia, Alexandra; Ding, Yaping; Teesalu, Tambet; Liu, Dongfei; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn; Santos, Hélder A.; Li, Wei (2019)
    Achieving cellular internalization and endosomal escape remains a major challenge for many antitumor therapeutics, especially macromolecular drugs. Viral drug carriers are reported for efficient intracellular delivery, but with limited choices of payloads. In this study, a novel polymeric nanoparticle (ADMAP) is developed, resembling the structure and functional features of a virus. ADMAP is synthesized by grafting endosomolytic poly(lauryl methacrylate‐co‐methacrylic acid) on acetalated dextran. The endosomolytic polymer mimics the capsid protein for endosomal escape, and acetalated dextran resembles the viral core for accommodating payloads. After polymer synthesis, the subsequent controlled nanoprecipitation on a microfluidic device yields uniform nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. At late endosomal pH (5.0), the ADMAP particles successfully destabilize endosomal membranes and release the drug payloads synergistically, resulting in a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with that of free anticancer drugs. Further conjugation of a tumor‐penetrating peptide enhances the antitumor efficacy toward 3D spheroids and finally leads to spheroid disintegration. The unique structure along with the synergistic endosomal escape and drug release make ADMAP nanoparticles favorable for intracellular delivery of antitumor therapeutics.
  • Harjumaki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Farooq, Muhammad; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Osterberg, Monika (2020)
    Transmembrane protein integrins play a key role in cell adhesion. Cell-biomaterial interactions are affected by integrin expression and conformation, which are actively controlled by cells. Although integrin structure and function have been studied in detail, quantitative analyses of integrin-mediated cell-biomaterial interactions are still scarce. Here, we have used atomic force spectroscopy to study how integrin distribution and activation (via intracellular mechanisms in living cells or by divalent cations) affect the interaction of human pluripotent stem cells (WA07) and human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) with promising biomaterials.human recombinant laminin-521 (LN-521) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). Cell adhesion to LN-521-coated probes was remarkably influenced by cell viability, divalent cations, and integrin density in WA07 colonies, indicating that specific bonds between LN-521 and activated integrins play a significant role in the interactions between LN-521 and HepG2 and WA07 cells. In contrast, the interactions between CNF and cells were nonspecific and not influenced by cell viability or the presence of divalent cations. These results shed light on the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion, with direct impact on cell culture and tissue engineering applications.
  • V. Almeida, Patrick; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Helder A. (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014)
  • V. Almeida, Patrick; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Helder A. (2014)
  • Ding, Yaping; Li, Wei; W. Schubert, Dirk; R. Boccaccini, Aldo; A. Roether, Judith; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    Electrospun organic/inorganic hybrid scaffolds have been appealing in tissue regeneration owing to the integrated physiochemical and biological performances. However, the conventional electrospun scaffolds with non-woven structures usually failed to enable deep cell infiltration due to the densely stacked layers among the fibers. Herein, through self-assembly-driven electrospinning, a polyhydroxybutyrate/poly(ε-caprolactone)/58S sol-gel bioactive glass (PHB/PCL/58S) hybrid scaffold with honeycomb-like structures was prepared by manipulating the solution composition and concentration during a one-step electrospinning process. Here, the mechanisms enabling the formation of self-assembled honeycomb-like structures were investigated through comparative studies using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) between PHB/PCL/58S and PHB/PCL/sol-gel silica systems. The obtained honeycomb-like structure was built up from nanofibers with an average diameter of 370 nm and showed a bimodal distribution of pores: large polygonal pores up to hundreds of micrometers within the honeycomb-cells and irregular pores among the nanofibers ranging around few micrometers. The cell-materials interactions were further studied by culturing MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for 7 days. Cell viability, cell morphology and cell infiltration were comparatively investigated as well. While cells merely proliferated on the surface of non-woven structures, MG-63 cells showed extensive proliferation and deep infiltration up to 100~200 μm into the honeycomb-like structure. Moreover, the cellular spatial organization was readily regulated by the honeycomb-like pattern as well. Overall, the newly obtained hybrid scaffold may integrate the enhanced osteogenicity originating from the bioactive components, and the improved cell-material interactions brought by the honeycomb-like structure, making the new scaffold a promising candidate for tissue regeneration.
  • Rautiainen, Swarna; Laaksonen, Timo; Koivuniemi, Raili (2021)
    Adipose‐derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ASCs) are an adult stem cell population able to self‐renew and differentiate into numerous cell lineages. ASCs provide a promising future for therapeutic angiogenesis due to their ability to promote blood vessel formation. Specifically, their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs) and pericyte‐like cells and to secrete angiogenesis‐promoting growth factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs) makes them an ideal option in cell therapy and in regenerative medicine in conditions including tissue ischemia. In recent angiogenesis research, ASCs have often been co‐cultured with an endothelial cell (EC) type in order to form mature vessel‐like networks in specific culture conditions. In this review, we introduce co‐culture systems and co‐transplantation studies between ASCs and ECs. In co‐cultures, the cells communicate via direct cell–cell contact or via paracrine signaling. Most often, ASCs are found in the perivascular niche lining the vessels, where they stabilize the vascular structures and express common pericyte surface proteins. In co‐cultures, ASCs modulate endothelial cells and induce angiogenesis by promoting tube formation, partly via secretion of EVs. In vivo co-transplantation of ASCs and ECs showed improved formation of functional vessels over a single cell type transplantation. Adipose tissue as a cell source for both mesenchymal stem cells and ECs for co‐transplantation serves as a prominent option for therapeutic angiogenesis and blood perfusion in vivo.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Seemen, Helina; Rähn, Mihkel; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Thin mixed and nanolaminate films of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were grown by atomic layer deposition from the corresponding metal chlorides and water. The films were grown at 350 degrees C in order to ensure ZrO2 crystallization in the as-deposited state. The relative thicknesses of layers in the structure of the nanolaminates were controlled in order to maximize the content of metastable polymorphs of ZrO2 that have higher permittivity than that of the stable monoclinic ZrO2 . The multilayer films demonstrated interfacial charge polarization and saturative magnetization in external fields. The conductivity of the films could be switched between high and low resistance states by applying voltages of alternating polarity. (C) 2018 The Electrochemical Society.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Seemen, Helina; Rähn, Mihkel; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Nanocrystalline HfO2:Al2O3 mixture films and nanolaminates were grown by atomic layer deposition at 350 degrees C from metal chloride precursors and water. Formation of metastable HfO2 polymorphs versus monoclinic phase was affected by the relative amount and thickness of constituent oxide layers. The films exhibited saturative magnetization and charge polarization in externally applied fields at room temperature. The films also demonstrated resistive switching behavior with considerable window between low and high resistance states. (C) The Author(s) 2018. Published by ECS.
  • Kalam, Kristjan; Seemen, Helina; Ritslaid, Peeter; Rähn, Mihkel; Tamm, Aile; Kukli, Kaupo; Kasikov, Aarne; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Duenas, Salvador; Castan, Helena; Garcia, Hector (2018)
    Thin solid films consisting of ZrO2 and Fe2O3 were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 400 degrees C. Metastable phases of ZrO2 were stabilized by Fe2O3 doping. The number of alternating ZrO2 and Fe2O3 deposition cycles were varied in order to achieve films with different cation ratios. The influence of annealing on the composition and structure of the thin films was investigated. Additionally, the influence of composition and structure on electrical and magnetic properties was studied. Several samples exhibited a measurable saturation magnetization and most of the samples exhibited a charge polarization. Both phenomena were observed in the sample with a Zr/Fe atomic ratio of 2.0.
  • Iivonen, Tomi; Kaipio, Mikko; Hatanpää, Timo; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Räisänen, Jyrki; Kim, Jiyeon; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2019)
    In this work, we have studied the applicability of Co(BTSA)(2)(THF) [BTSA = bis(trimethylsilyl)amido] (THF = tetrahydrofuran) in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of cobalt oxide thin films. When adducted with THF, the resulting Co(BTSA)(2)(THF) showed good volatility and could be evaporated at 55 degrees C, which enabled film deposition in the temperature range of 75-250 degrees C. Water was used as the coreactant, which led to the formation of Co(II) oxide films. The saturative growth mode characteristic to ALD was confirmed with respect to both precursors at deposition temperatures of 100 and 200 degrees C. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements, the films contain both cubic rock salt and hexagonal wurtzite phases of CoO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the primary oxidation state of cobalt in the films is +2. The film composition was analyzed using time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, which revealed the main impurities in the films to be H and Si. The Si impurities originate from the BTSA ligand and increased with increasing deposition temperature, which indicates that Co(BTSA)(2)(THF) is best suited for low-temperature deposition. To gain insight into the surface chemistry of the deposition process, an in situ reaction mechanism study was conducted using quadrupole mass spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. Based on the in situ experiments, it can be concluded that film growth occurs via a ligand exchange mechanism. Published by the AVS.
  • Li, Xinzhi; Vehkamaki, Marko; Heikkila, Mikko; Mattinen, Miika; Putkonen, Matti; Leskela, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2021)
    This article describes the deposition of AlF3/polyimide nanolaminate film by inorganic-organic atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 170 degrees C. AlCl3 and TiF4 were used as precursors for AlF3. Polyimide layers were deposited from PMDA (pyromellitic dianhydride, 1,2,3,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride) and DAH (1,6-diaminohexane). With field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray reflection (XRR) analysis, it was found that the topmost layer (nominally 10 nm in thickness) of the nanolaminate film (100 nm total thickness) changed when exposed to the atmosphere. After all, the effect on roughness was minimal. The length of a delay time between the AlF3 and polyimide depositions was found to affect the sharpness of the nanolaminate structure. Electrical properties of AlF3/polyimide nanolaminate films were measured, indicating an increase in dielectric constant compared to single AlF3 and a decrease in leakage current compared to polyimide films, respectively.
  • Väyrynen, Katja; Hatanpää, Timo; Mattinen, Miika; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Räisänen, Jyrki; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Ritala, Mikko; Leskela, Markku (2019)
    Intermetallics form a versatile group of materials that possess unique properties ranging from superconductivity to giant magnetoresistance. The intermetallic Co-Sn and Ni-Sn compounds are promising materials for magnetic applications as well as for anodes in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a method is presented for the preparation of Co3Sn2 and Ni3Sn2 thin films using diamine adducts of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) chlorides, CoCl2(TMEDA) and NiCl2(TMPDA) (TMEDA = N,N,N ',N '-tetramethylethylenediamine, TMPDA = N,N,N ',N '-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine) combined with tributyltin hydride. The films are grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), a technique that enables conformal film deposition with sub-nanometer thickness control. The Co3Sn2 process fulfills the typical ALD qualifications, such as self-limiting growth, excellent film uniformity, and conformal coverage of a trench structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows reflections characteristic to the hexagonal Co3Sn2 phase, which confirms that the films are, indeed, intermetallic instead of being mere alloys of Co and Sn. The films are extremely pure with impurity levels each below 1.0 at.%. Ni3Sn2 films similarly exhibit the expected XRD reflections for the intermetallic phase and are of high purity. The Co3Sn2 film show magnetic hysteresis with high coercivity values exceeding 500 Oe, indicating great potential in terms of applicability of the films.
  • Mattinen, Miika; Wree, Jan-Lucas; Stegmann, Niklas; Ciftyurek, Engin; El Achhab, Mhamed; King, Peter J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Schierbaum, Klaus D.; Devi, Anjana; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Heteroleptic bis(tert-butylimido)bis(N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinato) compounds of molybdenum and tungsten are introduced as precursors for atomic layer deposition of tungsten and molybdenum oxide thin films using ozone as the oxygen source. Both precursors have similar thermal properties but exhibit different growth behaviors. With the molybdenum precursor, high growth rates up to 2 angstrom/cycle at 300 degrees C and extremely uniform films are obtained, although the surface reactions are not completely saturative. The corresponding tungsten precursor enables saturative film growth with a lower growth rate of 0.45 angstrom/cycle at 300 degrees C. Highly pure films of both metal oxides are deposited, and their phase as well as stoichiometry can be tuned by changing the deposition conditions. The WO films the crystallize as gamma-WO3 at 300 degrees C and above, whereas films deposited at lower temperatures are amorphous. Molybdenum oxide can be deposited as either amorphous (= 325 degrees C) films. MoOr films are further characterized by synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy and temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. A suboxide MoOx film deposited at 275 degrees C is demonstrated to serve as an efficient hydrogen gas sensor at a low operating temperature of 120 degrees C.
  • Iivonen, Tomi; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Popov, Georgi; Nieminen, Heta-Elisa; Kaipio, Mikko; Kemell, Marianna; Mattinen, Miika; Meinander, Kristoffer; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2019)
    Herein, we report an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for Cu2O thin films using copper(II) acetate [Cu(OAc)(2)] and water vapor as precursors. This precursor combination enables the deposition of phase-pure, polycrystalline, and impurity-free Cu2O thin films at temperatures of 180-220 degrees C. The deposition of Cu(I) oxide films from a Cu(II) precursor without the use of a reducing agent is explained by the thermally induced reduction of Cu(OAc)(2) to the volatile copper(I) acetate, CuOAc. In addition to the optimization of ALD process parameters and characterization of film properties, we studied the Cu2O films in the fabrication of photoconductor devices. Our proof-of-concept devices show that approx- imately 20 nm thick Cu2O films can be used for photodetection in the visible wavelength range and that the thin film photoconductors exhibit improved device characteristics in comparison to bulk Cu2O crystals.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Santos, Helder A. (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
  • Liu, Dongfei; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Tao; Li, Wei; Huang, Yao; Lu, Xiyi; Liu, Zehua; Zhang, Weixia; Zhou, Zheng; Ding, Qirui; Almeida Santos, Helder; Yin, Guoyong; Fan, Jin (2018)
    New treatment strategies for spinal cord injury with good therapeutic efficacy are actively pursued. Here, acetalated dextran (AcDX), a biodegradable polymer obtained by modifying vicinal diols of dextran, is demonstrated to protect the traumatically injured spinal cord. To facilitate its administration, AcDX is formulated into microspheres (approximate to 7.2 mu m in diameter) by the droplet microfluidic technique. Intrathecally injected AcDX microspheres effectively reduce the traumatic lesion volume and inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, protect the spinal cord neurons from apoptosis, and ultimately, recover the locomotor function of injured rats. The neuroprotective feature of AcDX microspheres is achieved by sequestering glutamate and calcium ions in cerebrospinal fluid. The scavenging of glutamate and calcium ion reduces the influx of calcium ions into neurons and inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, AcDX microspheres attenuate the expression of proapoptotic proteins, Calpain, and Bax, and enhance the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Overall, AcDX microspheres protect traumatically injured spinal cord by alleviating the glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. This study opens an exciting perspective toward the application of neuroprotective AcDX for the treatment of severe neurological diseases.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Bartolo, Raquel; Santos, Helder A. (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    During the last 20+ years, research into the biomedical application of nanotechnology has helped in reshaping cancer treatment. The clinical use of several passively targeted nanosystems resulted in improved quality of care for patients. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these systems is not superior to the original drugs. Moreover, despite extensive investigations into actively targeted nanocarriers, numerous barriers still remain before their successful clinical translation, including sufficient blood-stream circulation time and efficient tumor targeting. The combination of synthetic nanomaterials with biological elements (e.g., cells, cell membranes, and macromolecules) is presently the cutting-edge research in cancer nanotechnology. The features provided by the biological moieties render the particles with prolonged bloodstream circulation time and homotopic targeting to the tumor site. Moreover, cancer cell membranes serve as sources of neoantigens, useful in the formulation of nanovaccines. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages of biohybrid nanosystems in cancer chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and combined therapy, as well as highlight their preparation methods and clinical translatability.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Fusciello, Manlio; Groeneveldt, Christianne; Capasso, Cristian; Chiaro, Jacopo; Feola, Sara; Liu, Zehua; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Recent approaches in the treatment of cancer focus on involving the immune system to control the tumor growth. The administration of immunotherapies, like checkpoint inhibitors, has shown impressive results in the long term survival of patients. Cancer vaccines are being investigated as further tools to prime tumor-specific immunity. Biomaterials show potential as adjuvants in the formulation of vaccines, and biomimetic elements derived from the membrane of tumor cells may widen the range of antigens contained in the vaccine. Here, we show how mice presenting an aggressive melanoma tumor model treated twice with the complete nanovaccine formulation showed control on the tumor progression, while in a less aggressive model, the animals showed remission and control on the tumor progression, with a modification in the immunological profile of the tumor microenvironment. We also prove that co-administration of the nanovaccine together with a checkpoint inhibitor increases the efficacy of the treatment (87.5% of the animals responding, with 2 remissions) compared to the checkpoint inhibitor alone in the B16.OVA model. Our platform thereby shows potential applications as a cancer nanovaccine in combination with the standard clinical care treatment for melanoma cancers.
  • Lampsijarvi, Eetu; Heikkilä, Jesse; Kassamakov, Ivan; Salmi, Ari; Haggstrom, E. (IEEE, 2019)
    Ultrasonic bursts from two transducers were stroboscopically imaged with a Schlieren setup. A standard optical lens was used to calibrate the Schlieren images. The inverse Abel transform was used to gain the radial pressure distribution at each point when axial symmetry could be said to apply. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed.