Browsing by Subject "311 Basic medicine"

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  • Harma, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Mäkelä, Rami; Happonen, Antti; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Knuuttila, Matias; Kohonen, Pekka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Kallioniemi, Olli; Nees, Matthias (2010)
  • Wicker, Nicolas; Carles, Annaïck; Mills, Ian; Wolf, Maija; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Edgren, Henrik; Boileau, Fabrice; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Schalken, Jack; Neal, David; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Poch, Olivier (2007)
  • Riederer, Monika; Ojala, Pauli J.; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Tritscher, Michaela; Hermansson, Martin; Watzer, Bernhard; Schweer, Horst; Desoye, Gernot; Heinemann, Akos; Frank, Sasa (2010)
  • Campbell, Tom; Neuvonen, Tuomas (2007)
    306-channel magnetoencephalography, coregistered with high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, was used with 10 healthy participants to test if repetition adapts subsequent processing of sounds in a sequence and whether this adaptation influenced the orientation of the dipolar sources in the auditory cortex. Auditory Nlm responses to 1 kHz pure tones were indexed by clusters of sensors situated bilaterally over the temporal lobes. Nlm was augmented in amplitude at an interstimulus interval of 16 s relative to 1 s.This neuromagnetic amplitude augment occurred in dipoles in the vicinity of the auditory cortex, without significant shifts in the dipolar orientation. Recent repetition thus adapts auditory cortical neurons, in a manner subject to recovery after a period of silence.
  • Autio, Reija; Saarela, Matti; Jarvinen, Anna-Kaarina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Astola, Jaakko (2009)
  • Pittman, Alan M.; Naranjo, Silvia; Jalava, Sanni E.; Twiss, Philip; Ma, Yussanne; Olver, Bianca; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Qureshi, Mobshra; Broderick, Peter; van Wezel, Tom; Morreau, Hans; Tuupanen, Sari; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Eva Alonso, M.; Manzanares, Miguel; Gavilan, Angela; Visakorpi, Tapio; Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose; Houlston, Richard S. (2010)
  • Blom, Jan Tomas; Bergelin, Nina; Annika, Meinander; Christoffer, Löf; Slotte, Peter; Eriksson, John; Törnquist, Kid (2010)
  • Inouye, Michael; Silander, Kaisa; Hämäläinen, Eija; Salomaa, Veikko; Harald, Kennet; Jousilahti, Pekka; Mannisto, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Saarela, Janna; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Palotie, Aarno; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Peltonen, Leena (2010)
  • Coleman, Sarah Kate; Cai, Chunlin; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Korpi, Esa R.; Keinanen, Kari (2010)
  • Jäkälä, Pauliina; Vapaatalo, Heikki (2010)
  • Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2009)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important functions in plant stress responses and development. In plants, ozone and pathogen infection induce an extracellular oxidative burst that is involved in the regulation of cell death. However, very little is known about how plants can perceive ROS and regulate the initiation and the containment of cell death. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), that is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS. Plants with an insertion in GRI display an ozone-sensitive phenotype. GRI is an Arabidopsis ortholog of the tobacco flower-specific Stig1 gene. The GRI protein appears to be processed in leaves with a release of an N-terminal fragment of the protein. Infiltration of the N-terminal fragment of the GRI protein into leaves caused cell death in a superoxide-and salicylic acid-dependent manner. Analysis of the extracellular GRI protein yields information on how plants can initiate ROS-induced cell death during stress response and development.
  • Veijola, Lea Irene; Oksanen, Aino Mirjam; Sipponen, Pentti Ilmari; Rautelin, Hilpi Iris Kaarina (2010)
  • Sairanen, Mikko; Lucas, Guilherme; Ernfors, Patrik; Castrén, Maija; Castren, Eero (2005)
    Antidepressants increase proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. We investigated the role of BDNF signaling in antidepressant-induced neurogenesis by using transgenic mice with either reduced BDNF levels (BDNF+/-) or impaired trkB activation (trkB.T1-overexpressing mice). In both transgenic strains, chronic (21 d) imipramine treatment increased the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells to degree similar to that seen in wild-type mice 24 h after BrdU administration, although the basal proliferation rate was increased in both transgenic strains. Three weeks after BrdU administration and the last antidepressant injection, the amount of newborn (BrdU- or TUC-4-positive) cells was significantly reduced in both BDNF+/- and trkB.T1-overexpressing mice, which suggests that normal BDNF signaling is required for the long-term survival of newborn hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the antidepressant-induced increase in the surviving BrdU- positive neurons seen in wild-type mice 3 weeks after treatment was essentially lost in mice with reduced BDNF signaling. Furthermore, we observed that chronic treatment with imipramine or fluoxetine produced a temporally similar increase in both BrdU- positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeled neurons in the dentate gyrus, indicating that these drugs simultaneously increase both neurogenesis and neuronal elimination. These data suggest that antidepressants increase turnover of hippocampal neurons rather than neurogenesis per se and that BDNF signaling is required for the long-term survival of newborn neurons in mouse hippocampus.
  • Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (2010)
  • Scheinin, Ilari; Ferreira, Jose A.; Knuutila, Sakari; Meijer, Gerrit A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Ylstra, Bauke (2010)
  • Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnove (2010)
    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.
  • Autio, Reija; Kilpinen, Sami; Saarela, Matti; Kallioniemi, Olli; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Astola, Jaakko (2009)
  • Toivonen, H T T; Onkamo, P; Vasko, K; Ollikainen, V; Sevon, P; Mannila, H; Herr, M; Kere, J (2000)
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Rintala, Mirva; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Pollanen, Eija; Alen, Markku; Sipila, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Rahkila, Paavo; Oresic, Matej; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2010)
    High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
  • Lyra, Anna; Krogius-Kurikka, Lotta; Nikkila, Janne; Malinen, Erja; Kajander, Kajsa; Kurikka, Kyosti; Korpela, Riitta Anneli; Palva, Airi (2010)