Browsing by Subject "314 Health sciences"

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  • Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Rissanen, Aila; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Kaprio, Jaakko; Oresic, Matej (2007)
    Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference) and ten weight concordant control pairs aged 24-27 years were identified from a large population-based study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic clamp technique, and body composition by DEXA (% body fat) and by MRI (subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat). Global characterization of lipid molecular species in serum was performed by a lipidomics strategy using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Obesity, independent of genetic influences, was primarily related to increases in lysophosphatidylcholines, lipids found in proinflammatory and proatherogenic conditions and to decreases in ether phospholipids, which are known to have antioxidant properties. These lipid changes were associated with insulin resistance, a pathogonomic characteristic of acquired obesity in these young adult twins. Our results show that obesity, already in its early stages and independent of genetic influences, is associated with deleterious alterations in the lipid metabolism known to facilitate atherogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance.
  • Näkki, Annu; Kouhia, Sanna T.; Saarela, Janna; Harilainen, Arsi; Tallroth, Kaj; Videman, Tapio; Battie, Michele C.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Peltonen, Leena; Kujala, Urho M. (2010)
    BACKGROUND: In search for genes predisposing to osteoarthritis (OA), several genome wide scans have provided evidence for linkage on 2q. In this study we targeted a 470 kb region on 2q11.2 presenting the locus with most evidence for linkage to severe OA of distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) in our genome wide scan families. METHODS: We genotyped 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this 470 kb region comprising six genes belonging to the interleukin 1 superfamily and monitored for association with individual SNPs and SNP haplotypes among severe familial hand OA cases (material extended from our previous linkage study; n = 134), unrelated end-stage bilateral primary knee OA cases (n = 113), and population based controls (n = 436). RESULTS: Four SNPs in the IL1R1 gene, mapping to a 125 kb LD block, provided evidence for association with hand OA in family-based and case-control analysis, the strongest association being with SNP rs2287047 (p-value = 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an association between severe hand OA and IL1R1 gene. This gene represents a highly relevant biological candidate since it encodes protein that is a known modulator of inflammatory processes associated with joint destruction and resides within a locus providing consistent evidence for linkage to hand OA. As the observed association did not fully explain the linkage obtained in the previous study, it is plausible that also other variants in this genome region predispose to hand OA.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2007)
  • Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo (2008)
  • Hemilä, Harri (2005)
    In their paper discussing the assessment of blinding in clinical trials, Bang et al. based their analysis on the premise that "all participants randomly guess their assignment... This is the most ideal scenario in reality". However, this premise makes an implicit assumption that the drug does not differ from placebo in any physiological effects that a person could observe subjectively, which is a very strong assumption. If a drug is truly effective, such as penicillin for pneumococcal pneumonia, both the patient and the physician can infer the treatment with high certainty by subjective observations. Thus, when the drug is truly effective, we are expecting "breaking of blindness".
  • Hemilä, Harri (2008)
    In their paper discussing the importance of double-blinding in controlled trials, Furberg and Soliman stated that one of the established and fundamental principles for avoiding the problem of bias is to keep the study participants and the investigators blinded, or masked, to the identity of the assigned interventions. As a support to this argument they described the subgroup findings of Karlowski et al.s trial, which examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation on the commoncold[2,3]. Furberg and Soliman put a great weight on the importance of double-blinding, yet they are lax on other fundamental principles of controlled trial.
  • Ronkainen, Paula H. A.; Pöllänen, Eija; Törmäkangas, Timo; Tiainen, Kristina; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko (2008)
  • Seiluri, Tina; Lahti, Jouni Markku Mikael; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea (2011)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. METHODS: The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers). The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of occupational class differences at follow-up. Women in routine non-manual and manual classes and men in the manual class tended to be more often physically inactive in their leisure-time (<14 MET hours/week) and to be less often active (>30 MET hours/week) than those in the top two classes. Adjustment for the covariates did not substantially affect the observed occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity emerged over the follow-up period among both women and men. Leisure-time physical activity needs to be promoted among ageing employees, especially among manual workers.
  • Shamseer, Larissa; Vohra, Sunita; Bax, Renske; Spee, Leo; Madderom, Marieke; Hemilä, Harri (2008)
  • Hemilä, Harri (2007)
    Experts of controlled clinical trials argue that decisions on medical interventions should be based on clinically relevant outcomes and not on surrogates such as laboratory measurements. There are quite a few examples in which the effect on a surrogate end point substantially diverged from the effect on a clinically relevant outcome. In this respect, the recent paper by Bruno et al. is problematic as it proposed higher vitamin E intakes for smokers on the basis of greater disappearance rate of alpha-tocopherol in the plasma of smokers. The disappearance rate is a surrogate end point with no validated relation to any clinically relevant outcome.
  • HaavioMannila, E; Kontula, O (1997)
  • Kantola, Taru; Mäklin, Suvi; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Räsänen, Pirjo; Rissanen, Anne; Roine, Risto; Sintonen, Harri; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena (2010)