Browsing by Subject "315 Sport and fitness sciences"

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  • Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E.; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki M.; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E. (2012)
    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01), but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O(2) delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Marko T.; Ruggiero, Luca; Kuitunen, Sami; Suominen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Mikkola, Aki; Avela, Janne (2020)
    Age-related reduction in muscle force generation capacity is similarly evident across different lower limb muscle groups, yet decline in locomotor performance with age has been shown to depend primarily on reduced ankle extensor muscle function. To better understand why ageing has the largest detrimental effect on ankle joint function during locomotion, we examined maximal ankle and knee extensor force development during a two-leg hopping test in older and young men, and used these forces as a reference to calculate relative operating efforts for the knee and ankle extensors as participants walked, ran and sprinted. We found that, across locomotion modes in both age groups, ankle extensors operated at a greater relative effort compared to knee extensors; however, slightly less pronounced differences between ankle and knee extensor muscle efforts were present among older men, mainly due to a reduction in the ankle extensor force generation during locomotion modes. We consider these findings as evidence that reduced ankle push-off function in older age is driven by a tendency to keep ankle extensor effort during locomotion lower than it would otherwise be, which, in turn, may be an important self-optimisation strategy to prevent locomotor-induced fatigue of ankle extensor muscles.
  • FIDELITY Finnish Degenerative Meni; Sihvonen, Raine; Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Itälä, Ari; Joukainen, Antti; Kalske, Juha; Nurmi, Heikki; Kumm, Jaanika; Sillanpää, Niko; Kiekara, Tommi; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Toivonen, Pirjo; Englund, Martin; Taimela, Simo; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2020)
    Objectives To assess the long-term effects of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) on the development of radiographic knee osteoarthritis, and on knee symptoms and function, at 5 years follow-up. Design Multicentre, randomised, participant- and outcome assessor-blinded, placebo-surgery controlled trial. Setting Orthopaedic departments in five public hospitals in Finland. Participants 146 adults, mean age 52 years (range 35-65 years), with knee symptoms consistent with degenerative medial meniscus tear verified by MRI scan and arthroscopically, and no clinical signs of knee osteoarthritis were randomised. Interventions APM or placebo surgery (diagnostic knee arthroscopy). Main outcome measures We used two indices of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (increase in Kellgren and Lawrence grade >= 1, and increase in Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas radiographic joint space narrowing and osteophyte sum score, respectively), and three validated patient-relevant measures of knee symptoms and function ( Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET), Lysholm, and knee pain after exercise using a numerical rating scale). Results There was a consistent, slightly greater risk for progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the APM group as compared with the placebo surgery group (adjusted absolute risk difference in increase in Kellgren-Lawrence grade >= 1 of 13%, 95% CI -2% to 28%; adjusted absolute mean difference in OARSI sum score 0.7, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.3). There were no relevant between-group differences in the three patient-reported outcomes: adjusted absolute mean differences (APM vs placebo surgery), -1.7 (95% CI -7.7 to 4.3) in WOMET, -2.1 (95% CI -6.8 to 2.6) in Lysholm knee score, and -0.04 (95% CI -0.81 to 0.72) in knee pain after exercise, respectively. The corresponding adjusted absolute risk difference in the presence of mechanical symptoms was 18% (95% CI 5% to 31%); there were more symptoms reported in the APM group. All other secondary outcomes comparisons were similar. Conclusions APM was associated with a slightly increased risk of developing radiographic knee osteoarthritis and no concomitant benefit in patient-relevant outcomes, at 5 years after surgery.
  • Iljukov, Sergei; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Uusitalo, Arja L. T.; Peltonen, Juha E.; Schumacher, Yorck O. (2020)
    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performances of female middle- and long-distance runners before and after the implementation of a new antidoping strategy (the Athlete Biological Passport [ABP]) in a country accused of systematic doping. A retrospective analysis of the results of Russian National Championships from 2008 to 2017 was performed. The 8 best female performances for the 800-m, 1500-m, 3000-m steeplechase, 5000-m, and 10,000-m events from the semifinals and finals were analyzed. The yearly number of athletes fulfilling standard qualifications for international competitions was also evaluated. Overall, numbers of athletes banned for doping in 2008-2017 were calculated. As a result, 4 events (800, 1500, 5000 [all P
  • Lensu, S.; Pekkala, S.P.; Mäkinen, A.; Karstunen, N.; Turpeinen, A.T.; Hulmi, J.J.; Silvennoinen, M.M.; Ma, H.; Kujala, U.M.; Karvinen, S.; Koch, L.G.; Britton, S.L.; Kainulainen, H. (2019)
    Background Physical activity and dietary intake of dairy products are associated with improved metabolic health. Dairy products are rich with branched chain amino acids that are essential for energy production. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the benefit of the sub-chronic effects of running and intake of milk protein supplements, we studied Low Capacity Runner rats (LCR), a rodent exercise model with risk for metabolic disorders. We especially focused on the role of Sirtuins, energy level dependent proteins that affect many cellular metabolic processes. Methods Forty-seven adult LCR female rats sedentary or running voluntarily in wheels were fed normal chow and given supplements of either whey or milk protein drink (PD)-supplemented water, or water only for 21 weeks. Physiological responses were measured in vivo. Blood lipids were determined from serum. Mitochondrial markers and Sirtuins (Sirt1-7) including downstream targets were measured in plantaris muscle by western blotting. Results For the first 10 weeks whey-drinking rats ran about 50% less compared to other groups; still, in all runners glucose tolerance improved and triglycerides decreased. Generally, running induced a ∼six-fold increase in running capacity and a ∼8% decrease in % body fat. Together with running, protein supplements increased the relative lean mass of the total body weight by ∼11%. In comparison with sedentary controls, running and whey increased HDL (21%) and whey, with or without running, lowered LDL (−34%). Running increased mitochondrial biogenesis and Sirtuins 3 and 4. When combined with exercise, both whey and milk protein drink induced about a 4-fold increase in Sirt3, compared to runners drinking water only, and about a 2-fold increase compared to the respective sedentary group. Protein supplements, with or without running, enhanced the phosphorylation level of the acetyl-coA-carboxylase, suggesting increased fat oxidation. Both supplemented diets increased Sirt5 and Sirt7 without an additional effect from exercise. Running diminished and PD supplement increased Sirt6. Conclusion We demonstrate in rats new sub-chronic effects of milk proteins on metabolism that involve Sirtuins and their downstream targets in skeletal muscle. The results show that running and milk proteins act on reducing the risk factors of metabolic disorders and suggest that the underlying mechanisms may involve Sirtuins. Notably, we found that milk protein supplements have some favorable effects on metabolism even without running.
  • Nurmi, Janne T.; Itälä, Ari; Sihvonen, Raine; Sillanpää, Petri; Kannus, Pekka; Sievänen, Harri; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2017)
  • Vaara, Jani P.; Santtila, Matti; Vasankari, Tommi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mäntysaari, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Vaara, Elina; Kyröläinen, Heikki (2020)
    Introduction Physical fitness is strongly related to health and may offer valuable information about public health. We investigated trends in physical fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and anthropometry of young healthy adult Finnish men in representative population-based samples between 2003 and 2015. Methods Three independent cross-sectional samples of 18- to 35-year-old Finnish men were assessed in 2003 (n = 889), 2008 (n = 803), and 2015 (n = 690). Cardiorespiratory (VO(2)max) and muscular fitness (1-minute sit-ups and push-ups), body mass, and height were measured. Self-reported LTPA was assessed. Results After adjusting for age, education, and smoking, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in 2003 (mean: 43.5, 95%CI: 42.9-44.1 mL/kg/min) compared to 2008 (41.3, 95%CI: 40.7-41.9 mL/kg/min) and 2015 (40.6, 95%CI: 40.0-41.2 mL/kg/min) (P <.001), whereas no difference was observed between 2008 and 2015. The lowest values in muscular fitness were observed in 2003, while no clear trends were further noticed. The adjusted BMI was higher in 2008 (25.1, 95%CI: 24.9-25.4) and 2015 (25.3, 95%CI: 25.3, 95%CI: 25.0-25.6) compared to 2003 (24.5, 95%CI: 24.3-24.8) (P <.005). In 2015, a higher proportion of individuals exercised at least four times per week compared to 2003 and 2008 (P <.05). Conclusion The decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness that took place between 2003 and 2008 plateaued after 2008. The plateau is in accordance with the previously observed trend of 5-10 years younger Finnish men. Moreover, muscular fitness was for the most part higher in 2008 and 2015 compared to 2003. Efforts directed to promote regular physical activity and improve physical fitness are needed.
  • Hägglund, Harriet; Uusitalo, Arja; Peltonen, Juha; Koponen, Anne Sinikka; Aho, Jyrki; Tiinanen, Suvi; Seppänen, Tapio; Tulppo, Mikko; Tikkanen, Heikki Olavi (2012)
  • Manninen, Iida-Kaisa; Blomgren, Karin; Elokiuru, Rauno; Lehto, Mika; Makinen, Laura K.; Klockars, Tuomas (2019)
    Our research aimed to study the prevalence, concerns, and treatment practices related to cauliflower ear among Finnish wrestlers and judokas. In total, 32 Finnish wrestlers and 31 judokas completed a questionnaire at training sessions or at a competition. All participants were adults competing at the national or international levels. We also took lateral digital photographs of participants' ears. A senior author graded the overall appearance of the auricles on a scale from 0 to 5 (0 = normal auricle, 5 = extreme cauliflower ear). Cauliflower ear was more prevalent among male athletes (84%, 46/55) than female athletes (0%, 0/8, P <.001). Almost all (96%) had sought treatment for an auricular hematoma. The most prevalent treatment modality was needle aspiration (96%). Most (76%) had received treatment from individuals not representing the healthcare profession. Only one athlete reported receiving successful treatment. No complications from treatment were reported. Almost all participants (96%) reported some symptom from the cauliflower ear, typically pain. None regretted their cauliflower ear(s), and 41% of athletes with cauliflower ear considered it desirable. Cauliflower ear is a common and symptomatic deformity among high-level Finnish wrestlers and judokas. Despite the symptoms, it is accepted and sometimes even desired among the athletes.
  • Jantunen, Hanna; Wasenius, Niko; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    The aim of the study was to examine the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression during a 10-year follow-up. This prospective study included 1036 men and women (mean age at baseline = 61.2 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with a questionnaire, HRQoL with SF36 and depression symptoms with Beck's depression inventory (BDI). The association between the change in LTPA and change in HRQoL and BDI were investigated with sex-stratified general linear models adjusted for age, smoking, educational attainment, comorbidity score, and baseline value of outcomes. One standard deviation (SD) increase in LTPA was associated with increase in physical summary component of HRQoL in women (B = 0.7 unit, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3, P = 0.032) and in men (B = 0.8 unit, 95% CI = 0.2-1.5, P = 0.014). In women, the 1SD increase in LTPA was also associated with an increase in mental summary component score (B = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-1.7, P = 0.005) and a reduction in depressive symptoms (B = -0.7, 95% CI = -1.1 to -0.2, P = 0.003). In conclusion, increase in the volume of LTPA over a 10-year period in late adulthood was associated with improved HRQoL in both men and women, and also diminished depressive symptoms in women. The findings support the promotion of physical activity in later years to enhance HRQoL and mental well-being.
  • Leppänen, Mari; Parkkari, Jari; Vasankari, Tommi; Äyrämo, Sami; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Krosshaug, Tron; Kannus, Pekka; Pasanen, Kati (2021)
    Background: Studies investigating biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries in sport-specific tasks are needed. Purpose: To investigate the association between change of direction (COD) biomechanics in a 180-degree pivot turn and knee injury risk among youth team sport players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 258 female and male basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in the baseline COD test and follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 489 player-legs. Injuries, practice, and game exposure were registered for 12 months. The COD test consisted of a quick ball pass before and after a high-speed 180-degree pivot turn on the force plates. The following variables were analyzed: peak vertical ground-reaction force (N/kg); peak trunk lateral flexion angle (degree); peak knee flexion angle (degree); peak knee valgus angle (degree); peak knee flexion moment (N.m/kg); peak knee abduction moment (N.m/kg); and peak knee internal and external rotation moments (N.m/kg). Legs were analyzed separately and the mean of 3 trials was used in the analysis. Main outcome measure was a new acute noncontact knee injury. Results: A total of 18 new noncontact knee injuries were registered (0.3 injuries/1000 hours of exposure). Female players sustained 14 knee injuries and male players 4. A higher rate of knee injuries was observed in female players compared with male players (incidence rate ratio, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1-21.7). Of all knee injuries, 8 were anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, all in female players. Female players displayed significantly larger peak knee valgus angles compared with male players (mean for female and male players, respectively: 13.9 degrees +/- 9.4 degrees and 2.0 degrees +/- 8.5 degrees). No significant associations between biomechanical variables and knee injury risk were found. Conclusion: Female players were at increased risk of knee and ACL injury compared with male players. Female players performed the 180-degree pivot turn with significantly larger knee valgus compared with male players. However, none of the investigated variables was associated with knee injury risk in youth basketball and floorball players.
  • Girka, Anastasiia; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Äyrämö, Sami (2020)
    Protruding impact peak is one of the features of vertical ground reaction force (GRF) that is related to injury risk while running. The present research is dedicated to predicting GRF impact peak appearance by setting a binary classification problem. Kinematic data, namely a number of raw signals in the sagittal plane, collected by the Vicon motion capture system (Oxford Metrics Group, UK) were employed as predictors. Therefore, the input data for the predictive model are presented as a multi-channel time series. Deep learning techniques, namely five convolutional neural network (CNN) models were applied to the binary classification analysis, based on a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression,k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and random forest algorithms. SVM, logistic regression, and random forest classifiers demonstrated performances that do not statistically significantly differ. The best classification accuracy achieved is 81.09% +/- 2.58%. Due to good performance of the models, this study serves as groundwork for further application of deep learning approaches to predicting kinetic information based on this kind of input data.
  • Sipilä, Raija; Mikkelsson, Marja; Honkanen, Mari; Malmivaara, Antti; Komulainen, Jorma (2019)
    Objective: To describe a project to develop guideline implementation tools (GItools) for rehabilitation guidelines, and a collaboration between a guideline producer and a healthcare organization to implement guidelines into care pathways. Design: Descriptive case study. Methods: A national guideline organization in Finland launched a 3-year project in 2015 to implement rehabilitation recommendations. Usability of the GItools was evaluated and improved, based on literature, workshops and surveys. An implementation plan guided the production of the GItools. An implementation plan was developed to integrate the shoulder disorders guideline into a care pathway at Paijat-Hame district rehabilitation unit. The implementation plan was produced in 3 facilitated workshops, which included brainstorming, snowballing, prioritizing and short lectures. Results: Twenty implementation plans and 119 different GItools for 22 guidelines were developed. The GItools, in particular patient material, were perceived as useful for the facilitation of guideline implementation. Four seminars and 14 sessions of continuous medical education were arranged. A plan was developed and executed for the implementation of the shoulder disorders guideline. Conclusion: It is feasible for a guideline producer to systematically include GItools into rehabilitation guidelines. This implementation project was an example of a successful collaboration between a guideline producer and a healthcare organization.
  • Rintala, Aki; Päivärinne, Ville; Hakala, Sanna; Paltamaa, Jaana; Heinonen, Ari; Karvanen, Juha; Sjögren, Tuulikki (2019)
    Objective: To study the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning in stroke. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases from January 2000 to May 2018. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria applied the patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design framework as follows: (P) stroke; (I) technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions; (C) any comparison without the use of technology; (0) physical functioning; (S) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search identified in total 693 studies, and the screening of 162 full-text studies revealed 13 eligible studies. Data Extraction: The studies were screened using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and assessed for methodological quality and quality of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed if applicable. Data Synthesis: A total of 13 studies were included, and online video monitoring was the most used technology. Seven outcomes of physical functioning were identified-activities of daily living (ADL), upper extremity functioning, lower extremity functioning, balance, walking, physical activity, and participation. A meta-analysis of 6 RCTs indicated that technology-based distance physical rehabilitation had a similar effect on ADL (standard mean difference 0.06; 95% confidence interval: -0.22 to 0.35, P=.67) compared to the combination of traditional treatments (usual care, similar and other treatment). Similar results were obtained for other outcomes, except inconsistent findings were noted for walking. Methodological quality of the studies and quality of evidence were considered low. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning might be similar compared to traditional treatments in stroke. Further research should be performed to confirm the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions for improving physical functioning of persons with stroke. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Munukka, Matti; Waller, Benjamin; Häkkinen, Arja; Nieminen, Miika T.; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Kujala, Urho M.; Paloneva, Juha; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Heinonen, Ari (2020)
    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis to study the effects, those 4 months of aquatic resistance training have on self-assessed symptoms and quality of life in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA), after the intervention and after a 12-month follow-up period. Methods A total of 87 post-menopausal volunteer women, aged 60-68 years, with mild knee OA were recruited in a randomized, controlled, 4-month aquatic training trial (RCT) and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 43) and a control (n = 44) group. The intervention group participated in 48 supervised aquatic resistance training sessions over 4 months while the control group maintained their usual level of physical activity. Additionally, 77 participants completed the 12-month post-intervention follow-up period. Self-assessed symptoms were estimated using the OA-specific Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Health-related Quality of life (HRQoL) using the generic Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Results After 4 months of aquatic resistance training, there was a significant decrease in the stiffness dimension of WOMAC -8.5 mm (95% CI = -14.9 to -2.0, P = .006) in the training group compared to the controls. After the cessation of the training, this benefit was no longer observed during the 12-month follow-up. No between-group differences were observed in any of the SF-36 dimensions. Conclusions The results of this study show that participation in an intensive aquatic resistance training program did not have any short- or long-term impact on pain and physical function or quality of life in women with mild knee OA. However, a small short-term decrease in knee stiffness was observed.
  • Laakkonen, Eija K.; Soliymani, Rabah; Karvinen, Sira; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.; Baumann, Marc; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko; Lalowski, Maciej (2017)
    Female middle age is characterized by a decline in skeletal muscle mass and performance, predisposing women to sarcopenia, functional limitations, and metabolic dysfunction as they age. Menopausal loss of ovarian function leading to low circulating level of 17-estradiol has been suggested as a contributing factor to aging-related muscle deterioration. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown and thus far androgens have been considered as a major anabolic hormone for skeletal muscle. We utilized muscle samples from 24 pre- and postmenopausal women to establish proteome-wide profiles, associated with the difference in age (30-34 years old vs. 54-62 years old), menopausal status (premenopausal vs. postmenopausal), and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT; user vs. nonuser). None of the premenopausal women used hormonal medication while the postmenopausal women were monozygotic (MZ) cotwin pairs of whom the other sister was current HRT user or the other had never used HRT. Label-free proteomic analyses resulted in the quantification of 797 muscle proteins of which 145 proteins were for the first time associated with female aging using proteomics. Furthermore, we identified 17-estradiol as a potential upstream regulator of the observed differences in muscle energy pathways. These findings pinpoint the underlying molecular mechanisms of the metabolic dysfunction accruing upon menopause, thus having implications for understanding the complex functional interactions between female reproductive hormones and health.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Valtonen, Juha; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Slotte, Sari; Reunamo, Jyrki (2019)
    We explored 10–11 year-old children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to describe how it is distributed within weekdays, weekend days, the segments of a schoolday and how it meets the global recommendation of ≥ 60 min daily MVPA. Participants were from two fourth classes (N = 33, 20 boys, 13 girls) in the city of Vantaa, capitol area of Finland. PA was measured using a Polar Active® (PAC) wrist-worn accelerometer. A diary supported the accelerometer data. Raw metabolic equivalent (MET) data from accelerometers were transmitted to computer, organized and uploaded to SPSS. We used MET-thresholds moderate PA (MPA) ≥ 3 < 6, vigorous (VPA) ≥ 6 and consequently moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) ≥ 3. Average daily MVPA was 92 min. Differences between weekdays and weekend days existed, but they were at least partly caused by the weather. Global recommendation was met by 21 %, more often by girls than boys. However, almost everyone met the recommendation ≥ 4 a week. Segments of the schoolday (lessons, long recesses, short recesses and lunch breaks) were physically quite active with 5, 12, 4 and 8 min, respectively. Hypothetically summed up schoolday accumulated 50 min MVPA. Boys accumulated quite systematically slightly more MVPA during schooldays and leisure time. Schooldays play an important role in children’s total MVPA and the current situation is decent. However, teacher educators, decision makers, school administration, principals, teachers and school staff should still aim at finding new ways of making the schooldays even more physically active.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Tikkanen-Dolenc, Heidi; Wadén, Johan; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Saraheimo, Markku; Elonen, Nina; Hietala, Kustaa; Summanen, Paula; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the development of severe diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Tallqvist, Nina; Anttila, Heidi; Kallinen, Mauri; Koskinen, Eerika; Hämäläinen, Harri; Kauppila, Anna-Maija; Täckman, Anni; Vainionpää, Aki; Arokoski, Jari; Hiekkala, Sinikka (2019)
    Background and purpose: The purpose of the Finnish Spinal Cord Injury Study (FinSCI) is to identify factors related to the health and functioning of people with spinal cord injury, their challenges with accessibility, and how such factors are interconnected. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used as a structured framework in the study. Design: Protocol of mixed methods study. Results: Study participants were recruited from all 3 spinal cord injury outpatient clinics in Finland. The final target group consists of 1,789 subjects with spinal cord injury. The final questionnaire was formed from 5 different patient-reported instruments. The spinal cord injury-specified instruments are the Spinal Cord Injury Secondary Condition Scale, the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, and the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory Short Form. In addition, questions from the following generic instruments were chosen after a selection process: the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, PROM'S (R), and the National Study of Health, Well-being and Service, FinSote. Altogether, the final questionnaire covers 64 ICF categories and consists of 151 ICF-linked questions. Conclusion: The formulated questionnaire covers widely different aspects of health, functioning and accessibility. The questionnaire results and subsequent interviews will help in developing care and rehabilitation policies and services for people with spinal cord injury.