Browsing by Subject "316 Nursing"

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  • Almangush, Alhadi; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Nieminen, Pentti; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2020)
  • Tornivuori, Anna; Tuominen, Outi; Salantera, Sanna; Kosola, Silja (2020)
    Aims To define digital health services that have been studied among chronically ill adolescents and to describe e-health coaching elements that may have an impact on transition outcomes. Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE (Ovid), Pub Med, Scopus and CINAHL on 28 May 2018. Review methods Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2008-May 2018 were reviewed following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were included. The interventions varied significantly in duration and content. E-coaching that included human and social support showed positive impact on transition outcomes. Digital health services incorporated into usual care provide efficient and accessible care. Conclusion E-coaching elements enable tailoring and personalization and present a tool for supporting and motivating chronically ill adolescents during transition of care. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of e-coaching elements. Impact Digital services are considered a means for increasing adolescents' motivation for self-care and for increasing their accessibility to health care. The coaching elements in digital services consist of a theoretical basis, human support, interactive means and social support. Included interventions varied in terms of duration, dose, content and design. Our results may serve the development of digital health services for adolescents in transition. E-coaching can be used to engage and motivate chronically ill adolescents to improve health behaviour and self-management during transition of care.
  • Põlluste, Kaja; Routasalo, Pirkko; Fagerström, Lisbeth; Wagner, Lis (2013)
  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Lähteenmäki, Hanna; Gupta, Shipra; Grigoriadis, Andreas; Sahni, Vaibhav; Suojanen, Juho; Seppänen, Hanna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sakellari, Dimitra; Sorsa, Timo (2021)
    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to propose an efficient strategy based on biomarkers adjunct with an interview/questionnaire covering risk factors for periodontitis for the identification of undiagnosed periodontitis by medical professionals. Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 levels in mouthrinse were analyzed by a point-of-care (PoC)/chairside lateral-flow immunotest, and salivary total MMP-8, total MMP-9 and calprotectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and active MMP-9 by gelatin zymography for 149 Greek patients. Patients underwent a full-mouth oral health examination for diagnosis according to the 2018 classification system of periodontal diseases. In addition, patient characteristics (risk factors: age, gender, education level, smoking and body mass index) were recorded. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis indicated better diagnostic precision to identify undiagnosed periodontitis for oral fluid biomarkers in adjunct with an interview/questionnaire compared with a plain questionnaire (i.e., risk factors): aMMP-8 AUC (95% confidence interval) = 0.834 (0.761-0.906), total MMP-8 = 0.800 (0.722-0.878), active MMP-9 = 0.787 (0.704-0.870), total MMP-9 = 0.773 (0.687-0.858) and calprotectin = 0.773 (0.687-0.858) vs. questionnaire = 0.764 (0.676-0.851). The findings of this study suggest that oral fluid biomarker analysis, such as a rapid aMMP-8 PoC immunotest, could be used as an adjunct to an interview/questionnaire to improve the precision of timely identification of asymptomatic, undiagnosed periodontitis patients by medical professionals. This strategy appears to be viable for referring patients to a dentist for diagnosis and treatment need assessment.
  • Lemetti, Terhi; Voutilainen, Paivi; Stolt, Minna; Eloranta, Sini; Suhonen, Riitta (2017)
    Introduction: Health care systems for older people are becoming more complex and care for older people, in the transition between hospital and primary healthcare requires more systematic collaboration between nurses. This study describes nurses' perceptions of their collaboration when working between hospital and primary healthcare within the older people care chain. Theory and methods: Using a qualitative approach, informed by grounded theory, six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of registered nurses (n = 28) from hospitals (n = 14) and primary -healthcare (n = 14) during 2013. The data were analyzed using dimensional analysis. Findings: Four dimensions of collaboration were identified: 1) Context and Situation, 2) Conditions, 3) Processes and Interactions and 4) The Consequences of nurse-to-nurse collaboration within the older people care chain. These four dimensions were then conceptualized into a model of nurse-to-nurse collaboration. Discussion and conclusion: Improved collaboration is useful for the safe, timely and controlled transfer of older people between hospital and primary healthcare organizations and also in healthcare education. The findings in this study of nurse-to-nurse collaboration provides direction and opportunities to improve collaboration and subsequently, the continuity and integration in older people care in the transition between organizations.
  • Mäkinen, M.; Castren, M.; Huttunen, K.; Sundell, S.; Kaartinen, J.; Ben-Meir, M.; Renholm, M. (2019)
    Objective: The objective of the study is to assess how well the emergency department (ED) personnel succeed in instructing the patient at discharge. Methods: In November and December 2016 at Peijas Hospital ED, Finland, a structured questionnaire was conducted during a phone interview on patients the day after discharge. Results: A total of 132 patients interviewed. Ninety percent had received discharge instructions from the ED staff, most of them (75%) about medication. Almost half of the patients (45%) were satisfied with the communication at discharge, those not satisfied (47%) felt that the staff did not know enough of their background to give discharge instructions. Of the patients, 20% thought that they did not have the opportunity to ask questions during the guidance session, and 41% thought that the session was too short and restricted. Some patients (20%) felt that the instructions were ambiguous, but 63% (83/132) felt they were able to follow them well or very well. Conclusion: The pace of care in the ED is fast and duration of the stay is short. The patients must be able to take responsibility of their self-care. Failure to follow medical discharge instructions could lead to non-compliance. Attention should be paid to enhancing the quality of discharge instructing and the instructions provided by the ED personnel, as recurring visits and inquiry calls add to the ED workload.
  • Syyrilä, Tiina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Härkänen, Marja (2020)
    Abstract Aim To identify the types and frequencies of communication issues (communication pairs, person related, institutional, structural, process, and prescription-related issues) detected in medication incident reports and to compare communication issues that caused moderate or serious harm to patients. Background Communication issues have been found to be amongst the main contributing factors of medication incidents, thus necessitating communication enhancement. Design A sequential exploratory mixed-method design. Methods Medication incident reports from Finland (n=500) for the year 2015 in which communication was marked as a contributing factor were used as the data source. Indicator phrases were used for searching communication issues from free texts of incident reports. The detected issues were analysed statistically, qualitatively, and considering the harm caused to the patient. Citations from free texts were extracted as evidence of issues and were classified following main categories of indicator phrases. The EQUATOR?s SRQR checklist was followed in reporting. Results Twenty-eight communication pairs were identified, with nurse-nurse (68.2%; n=341), nurse-physician (41.6%; n=208), and nurse-patient (9.6%; n=48) pairs being the most frequent. Communication issues existed mostly within unit (76.6%, n=383). The most commonly identified issues were digital communication (68.2%; n=341), lack of communication within a team (39.6%; n=198), false assumptions about work processes (25.6%; n=128) and being unaware of guidelines (25.0%; n=125). Collegial feedback, and communication from patients and relatives were the preventing issues. Moderate harm cases were often linked with lack of communication within the unit, digital communication and not following guidelines. Conclusions The interventions should be prioritized to (a) enhancing communication about work-processes, (b) verbal communication about digital prescriptions between professionals, (c) feedback among professionals, and (f) encouraging patients to communicate about medication. Relevance to clinical practice Upon identifying the most harmful and frequent communication issues, interventions to strengthen medication safety can be implemented.
  • Jeon, Yunsuk; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2017)
    Purpose: To identify competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care and to describe the validity and reliability of the instruments. Design: A scoping review in a systematic manner. Methods: A search in CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ERIC was carried out to identify empirical studies from 1994 to 2015. A narrative synthesis approach was undertaken to analyze the data. Findings: Nine competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care were identified. The instruments used three types of data collection methods: Self-report, observation, and written examinations. The most commonly reported validity method was content validity involving expert panels and reliability tests for internal consistency and inter-rater's consistency. Conclusions: Integrating more than one data collection method may give support to overcoming some of the limitations, such as lack of objectivity and misinterpretation of the assessment results. In an ever-changing environment, perianesthesia nursing competence requires constant reassessment from the perspective of content validity, scoring methods, and reliability.
  • Kajander-Unkuri, Satu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Meretoja, Riitta; Raisanen, Anu; Saarikoski, Mikko; Salminen, Leena; Suhonen, Riitta (2016)
    Self-assessment is widely used to assess competence in health care, although there is evidence of the weaknesses of self-assessment in the literature. In general, the process of self-assessment has been found to stimulate students' deep-level learning and problem-solving skills. Nursing students need to develop their self-assessment skills in order to identify their learning and ensure up-to-date outcomes and safe practice. This study aims to assess the congruence between graduating nursing students' self-assessment and their mentors' assessments concerning nurse competence with particular focus on nursing skills. The data were collected in November December 2011 in the last week of final clinical placement of nurse education. Completed questionnaires were received from 60 students and 50 mentors. From these, 42 student mentor pairs were matched for the sample of this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. Comparisons between the assessments showed that students assessed their nurse competence as higher than their mentors (VAS 64.5 +/- 12.2 vs. 56.7 +/- 19.0). In nursing skills, the assessments were closer to each other (VAS 75.4 +/- 12.8 vs. 72.2 +/- 16.7); however, students' assessments still remained higher than those of mentors'. No congruent assessments were found between students and mentors. Compared to mentors' assessments, students overestimated their nurse competence. However, the results may be due to different understanding of nurse competence, and more research is needed on students' self-assessment by comparing students' assessments with those of peers, mentors and/or educators or knowledge tests. Nursing students should practise self-assessment during their nurse education. Mentors would also benefit practising in assessing students' nurse competence. (C) 2015 Australian College of Nursing Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Ylönen, Minna; Viljamaa, Jaakko; Isoaho, Hannu; Junttila, Kristiina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suhonen, Riitta (2019)
    Background: Previous research has revealed nurses' knowledge gaps in venous leg ulcer (VLU) nursing care, and continuing education is needed. The closer nurses' perceived knowledge is to their evidence-based theoretical knowledge, the better possibilities they have to conduct evidence-based VLU nursing care. Objectives: To assess the congruence between nurses' perceived and theoretical knowledge about VLU nursing care before and after an internet-based education about VLU nursing care (eVLU). Design: Quasi-experimental study with intervention and comparison groups and pre- and post-measurements. Setting: Home health care in two Finnish municipalities. Participants: Nurses (n = 946) working in home health care were invited to participate. In the intervention group, 239 nurses and 229 nurses in the comparison group met the inclusion criteria, and they were all recruited to the study. Method: Nurses were divided into intervention and comparison groups with lottery between the municipalities. Nurses in both groups took care of patients with VLU according to their organizations' instructions. In addition to this, nurses in the intervention group received a 6-week eVLU while those in the comparison group did not. Data were collected with a questionnaire about perceived and theoretical knowledge before education, at six weeks, and at 10 weeks. The percentages of congruence were calculated at every measurement point, and the McNemar test was used to detect statistical significance of changes between measurements. Results: The increase of congruence was more often statistically significant in the intervention group than in the comparison group. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the congruence between perceived and theoretical knowledge will be higher among nurses receiving eVLU. Because of the low participation and drop-outs, the results should be interpreted with caution.
  • Catena, Fausto; Moore, Frederick; Ansaloni, Luca; Leppaniemi, Ari; Sartelli, Massimo; Peitzmann, Andrew B.; Biffl, Walt; Coccolini, Frederico; Di Saverio, Salomone; De Simone, Belinda; Pisano, Michele; Moore, Ernest E. (2014)
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2021)
    Aim: To describe the development and implementation of a Dialogical Family Guidance (DFG) intervention, aimed at families with a child with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Design: The DFG components are presented and the content of a DFG training course. Professionals' experiences after the DFG training were evaluated. Methods: Dialogical Family Guidance development phases and implementation process are examined. The Revised Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence checklist (SQUIRE 2.0) was used to provide a framework for reporting new knowledge. Results: The DFG training course seemed to increase possibilities of a more independent role as a nurse to deliver the DFG family intervention. The project showed that the use of dialogue can be difficult for some professionals. Analysis of the questionnaire completed after DFG training reported a high level of satisfaction. DFG training offered a new approach to deliver knowledge and understanding to families using dialogue, including tailored psychoeducation and emotional and practical guidance.
  • Pitkänen, Tiina; Rastas, Taina; Tamminen, Paula (2019)
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2018)
    Introduction: Emergency nurses are expected to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). The aim of this systematic review was to describe educational interventions promoting EBP and their outcomes among emergency nurses, compared with no education, to inform clinicians and researchers about effective educational interventions suitable for use in emergency departments (EDs). Methods: CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched to identify studies published between January 1, 2006 and October 20, 2016 describing educational interventions designed to promote EBP among emergency nurses. 711 studies were identified and screened; 10 were selected for inclusion and quality assessment. The studies were analyzed using deductive content analysis, and the review's results are presented in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Ten relevant studies on nine different self-developed educational interventions were identified. Eight studies had highly significant or significant results. Interventions involving face-to-face contact led to significant or highly significant effects on patient benefits and emergency nurses' knowledge, skills, and behavior. Interventions using written self-directed learning material led to significant improvements in nurses' knowledge of EBP. All the descriptions of the interventions were incomplete, and the reported details varied considerably between the studies. Conclusions: There have been few studies on educational interventions to promote EBP among emergency nurses but the available results are promising.
  • Resal, Tamas; Bor, Renata; Szanto, Kata; Fabian, Anna; Rutka, Mariann; Sacco, Marco; Ribaldone, Davide Guiseppe; Molander, Pauliina; Nancey, Stephane; Kopytov, Uri; Vavricka, Stephan; Drobne, David; Lukas, Milan; Farkas, Klaudia; Szepes, Zoltan; Molnar, Tamas (2021)
    Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a challenge to healthcare. Staff and patients are at increased risk during an examination or intervention, so certain restrictions ought to be introduced. Hence, we aimed to measure the effect of the pandemic on endoscopy units in real-life settings. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, carried out between 7 April and 15 June 2020. Responds came from many countries, and the participation was voluntary. The survey contained 40 questions, which evaluated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the endoscopy units and assessed the infection control. Results: A total of 312 questionnaires were filled, 120 from Hungary, and 192 internationally, and 54 questionnaires (17.3%) were sent from high-risk countries; 84.9% of the gastroenterologists declared that they read the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) statement, while only 32.1% participated in any advanced training at their workplace. Overall, 92.1% of gastroenterologists realized risk stratification, and 72.1% claimed to have enough protective equipment. In 52.6% of the endoscopy units, at least one endoscopist had to discontinue the work due to any risk factor, while 40.6% reported that the reduced staff did not affect the workflow. Gastroenterologists considered that the five most important examinations both in low and high-risk patients are the following: lower/upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with hemodynamic instability, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in obstructive jaundice, foreign body in the esophagus, ERCP in acute biliary pancreatitis, and iron deficiency anemia with hemodynamic instability, which correlates well with the ESGE recommendation. Significant correlation was found in the usage of the necessary protective equipment in high-risk patients depending on the countries (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The survey found weak correlation in preliminary training depending on countries; nevertheless, in Hungary during the examined period, endoscopists considered the recommendations more strictly than in other countries. Although many physicians left the endoscopy lab, the workflow was not affected, probably due to the reduced number of examinations.
  • Perttilä, Niko M.; Öhman, Hanna; Strandberg, Timo E.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Raivio, Minna; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Savikko, Niina; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2018)
    Introduction No study has investigated how exercise modifies the effect of fall-related drugs (FRDs) on falls among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate how exercise intervention and FRDs interact with fall risk among patients with AD. Methods In the FINALEX trial, community-dwelling persons with AD received either home-based or group-based exercise twice weekly for 1 year (n = 129); the control group received normal care (n = 65). The number of falls was based on spouses' fall diaries. We examined the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for falls among both non-users and users of various FRDs (antihypertensives, psychotropics, drugs with anticholinergic properties [DAPs]) in both control and combined intervention groups. Results Between the intervention and control groups, there was no difference in the number of falls among those without antihypertensives or psychotropics. In the intervention group taking antihypertensives, the IRR was 0.5 falls/person-year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-0.6), while in the control group, the IRR was 1.5 falls/person-year (95% CI 1.2-1.8) [p <0.001 for group, p = 0.067 for medication, p <0.001 for interaction]. Among patients using psychotropics, the intervention group had an IRR of 0.7 falls/person-year (95% CI 0.6-0.9), while the control group had an IRR of 2.0 falls/person-year (95% CI 1.6-2.5) [p <0.001 for group, p = 0.071 for medication, p <0.001 for interaction]. There was a significant difference in falls between the intervention and control groups not using DAPs (0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), and between the intervention and control groups using DAPs (1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.3; 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1) [p <0.001 for group, p = 0.014 for medication, p = 0.97 for interaction]. Conclusion Exercise has the potential to decrease the risk for falls among people with AD using antihypertensives and psychotropics.
  • Cooke, Marie; Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Dwan, Toni; Mitchell, Marion (2020)
    Background Pharmacological interventions for sleep (analgesic, sedative and hypnotic agents) can both disrupt and induce sleep and have many negative side effects within the intensive care population. The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies to assist with sleep has been studied but given the variety of modalities and methodological limitations no reliable conclusions have been drawn. Objective To synthesise research findings regarding the effectiveness of using complementary and alternative medicine interventions within the domains of mind and body practices (relaxation techniques, acupuncture) and natural biologically based products (herbs, vitamins, minerals, probiotics) on sleep quality and quantity in adult intensive care patients. Review method used Systematic review Data sources Five databases were searched in August 2018 and updated in February 2019 and 2020. Review methods: Searches were limited to peer reviewed randomised controlled trials, published in English involving adult populations in intensive care units. Interventions were related to the complementary and alternative medicine domains of mind and body practices and natural products. Included studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Results Seventeen studies were included. The interventions used varied: 4 investigated melatonin; 4 music +/- another therapy; 3 acupressure; 2 aromatherapy and 1 each for relaxation and imagery, reflexology, bright light exposure and inspiratory muscle training. Measurement of sleep quantity and quality was also varied: 5 studies used objective measures such as Polysomnography and Bispectral index with the remaining using subjective patient or clinician assessment (for example, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, observation). Given the different interventions, outcomes and measures used in the studies a meta-analysis was not possible. Generally, the results support the use of complementary and alternative medicine for assisting with sleep with 11 out of 17 trials reporting significant results for the interventions examined. Conclusions Complementary and alternative medicine interventions, in particular, melatonin and music, have shown promise for improving sleep in adults with critically conditions; however, further research that addresses the limitations of small sample sizes and improved techniques for measuring sleep is needed.
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Roitto, H. M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2019)
    Our aim was to investigate how energy intake modifies the association of the stage of dementia with health related quality of life (HRQoL) among institutionalized older people. A cross-sectional sample of 538 older long-term care residents with dementia in Helsinki, Finland were assessed with HRQoL (15D), energy intake (from one to two days), and the stage of dementia by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. The energy intakes were standardized by z-scores to include both men and women in the same analyses. Severity of dementia was associated with HRQoL (15D index in CDR 0.5-1: 0.65 (0.11), CDR 2: 0.60 (0.10), CDR 3: 0.52 (0.10)). When the three groups of dementia severity were divided according to their energy intake quartiles, there was an association between the HRQoL and the stage of dementia (p <0.001) and energy intake (p = 0.013); however, no interaction was observed (p = 0.30). While partial correlation analysis showed that energy intake correlated with HRQoL among residents with very mild/mild or moderate dementia, this was not observed among those with severe dementia. In moderate dementia, the dimensions of mobility and usual activities correlated significantly with higher energy intake. Both energy intake and severity of dementia are associated with HRQoL.
  • Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta (2015)
    Background: Nursing practice takes place in a social framework, in which environmental elements and interpersonal relations interact. Ethical climate of the work unit is an important element affecting nurses' professional and ethical practice. Nevertheless, whatever the environmental circumstances, nurses are expected to be professionally competent providing high-quality care ethically and clinically. Aim: This study examined newly graduated nurses' perception of the ethical climate of their work environment and its association with their self-assessed professional competence, turnover intentions and job satisfaction. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational research design was applied. Participants consisted of 318 newly graduated nurses. Data were collected electronically and analysed statistically. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval and permissions to use instruments and conduct the study were obtained according to required procedures. Data were rendered anonymous to protect participant confidentiality. Completing the questionnaire was interpreted as consent to participate. Findings: Nurses' overall perception of the ethical climate was positive. More positive perceptions related to peers, patients and physicians, and less positive to hospitals and managers. Strong associations were found between perceived ethical climate and self-assessed competence, turnover intentions in terms of changing job, and job satisfaction in terms of quality of care. Nurses at a higher competence level with positive views of job satisfaction and low turnover intentions perceived the climate significantly more positively. Conclusion: Nursing management responsible for and having the power to implement changes should understand their contribution in ethical leadership, as well as the multidimensional nature of nurses' work environment and the interaction between work-related factors in planning developmental measures. Future research should focus on issues in nurse managers' ethical leadership in creating ethical work environments. There is also a need for knowledge of newly graduated nurses' views of factors which act as enhancers or barriers to positive ethical climates to develop. Interventions, continuing education courses, and discussions designed to promote positive ethical climates should be developed for managers, nurses, and multi-professional teams.