Browsing by Subject "319 Forensic science and other medical sciences"

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  • Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Alves, Cintia; Salazar, Renato; Angustia, Sheila M. T.; Santos, Lorna H.; Anslinger, Katja; Bayer, Birgit; Ayub, Qasim; Wei, Wei; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta; Martinez-Jarreta, Begona; Egyed, Balazs; Balitzki, Beate; Tschumi, Sibylle; Ballard, David; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Barrantes, Xinia; Bassler, Gerhard; Wiest, Tina; Berger, Burkhard; Niederstaetter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Davis, Carey; Budowle, Bruce; Burri, Helen; Borer, Urs; Koller, Christoph; Carvalho, Elizeu F.; Domingues, Patricia M.; Chamoun, Wafaa Takash; Coble, Michael D.; Hill, Carolyn R.; Corach, Daniel; Caputo, Mariela; D'Amato, Maria E.; Davison, Sean; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Ottoni, Claudio; Rickards, Olga; Lu, Di; Jiang, Chengtao; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jonkisz, Anna; Frank, William E.; Furac, Ivana; Gehrig, Christian; Castella, Vincent; Grskovic, Branka; Haas, Cordula; Wobst, Jana; Hadzic, Gavrilo; Drobnic, Katja; Honda, Katsuya; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Di; Li, Yan; Hu, Shengping; Chen, Shenglan; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Lessig, Rudiger; Jakovski, Zlatko; Ilievska, Tanja; Klann, Anja E.; Garcia, Cristina Cano; de Knijff, Peter; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Kondili, Aikaterini; Miniati, Penelope; Vouropoulou, Maria; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Lindner, Iris; Mansour, Issam; Al-Azem, Mouayyad; El Andari, Ansar; Marino, Miguel; Furfuro, Sandra; Locarno, Laura; Martin, Pablo; Luque, Gracia M.; Alonso, Antonio; Miranda, Luis Souto; Moreira, Helena; Mizuno, Natsuko; Iwashima, Yasuki; Moura Neto, Rodrigo S.; Nogueira, Tatiana L. S.; Silva, Rosane; Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kohl, Michael; Nie, Shengjie; Wang, Xianping; Cheng, Baowen; Nunez, Carolina; Martinez de Pancorbo, Marian; Olofsson, Jill K.; Morling, Niels; Onofri, Valerio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Pamjav, Horolma; Volgyi, Antonia; Barany, Gusztav; Pawlowski, Ryszard; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pelotti, Susi; Pepinski, Witold; Abreu-Glowacka, Monica; Phillips, Christopher; Cardenas, Jorge; Rey-Gonzalez, Danel; Salas, Antonio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Toscanini, Ulises; Piccinini, Andrea; Piglionica, Marilidia; Baldassarra, Stefania L.; Ploski, Rafal; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Jastrzebska, Emila; Robino, Carlo; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U.; Guevara, Evelyn; Salvador, Jazelyn; Corazon De Ungria, Maria; Russell Rodriguez, Jae Joseph; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schlauderer, Nicola; Saukko, Pekka; Schneider, Peter M.; Sirker, Miriam; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Oh, Yu Na; Skitsa, Iulia; Ampati, Alexandra; Smith, Tobi-Gail; de Calvit, Lina Solis; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Capal, Thomas; Tillmar, Andreas; Nilsson, Helena; Turrina, Stefania; De Leo, Domenico; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cortellini, Venusia; Wetton, Jon H.; Gwynne, Gareth M.; Jobling, Mark A.; Whittle, Martin R.; Sumita, Denilce R.; Wolanska-Nowak, Paulina; Yong, Rita Y. Y.; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Roewer, Lutz (2014)
    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
  • Kayser, Manfred; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce (2013)
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Baloban, Mikhail; Bublikov, Grigory S.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav Vitaliyevich (2016)
    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes attract attention as probes for in vivo imaging due to their near-infrared (NIR) spectra and use of available in mammalian cells biliverdin (BV) as chromophore. We studied spectral properties of the iRFP670, iRFP682 and iRFP713 proteins and their mutants having Cys residues able to bind BV either in both PAS (Cys15) and GAF (Cys256) domains, in one of these domains, or without these Cys residues. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra and the chromophore binding depend on the location of the Cys residues. Compared with NIR FPs in which BV covalently binds to Cys15 or those that incorporate BV noncovalently, the proteins with BV covalently bound to Cys256 have blue-shifted spectra and higher quantum yield. In dimeric NIR FPs without Cys15, the covalent binding of BV to Cys256 in one monomer allosterically inhibits the covalent binding of BV to the other monomer, whereas the presence of Cys15 allosterically promotes BV binding to Cys256 in both monomers. The NIR FPs with both Cys residues have the narrowest blue-shifted spectra and the highest quantum yield. Our analysis resulted in the iRFP713/Val256Cys protein with the highest brightness in mammalian cells among available NIR FPs.
  • Nwaru, Bright I; McCleary, Nicola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Sheikh, Aziz (2016)
  • Malinen, Erja; Krogius-Kurikka, Lotta Kaisa; Lyra, Anna; Nikkila, Janne; Jaaskelainen, Anne; Rinttila, Teemu; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; von Wright, Atte Johannes; Palva, Airi (2010)
  • Guevara, Evelyn K.; Palo, Jukka U.; King, Jonathan L.; Bus, Magdalena M.; Guillen, Sonia; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti (2021)
    Autosomal DNA data from Peru for human identity testing purposes are scarce in the scientific literature, which hinders obtaining an appropriate portrait of the genetic variation of the resident populations. In this study we genetically characterize five populations from the Northeastern Peruvian Andes (Chachapoyas, Awajun, Wampis, Huancas and Cajamarca). Autosomal short tandem repeat (aSTR) and identity informative single nucleotide polymorphism (iiSNP) data from a total of 233 unrelated individuals are provided, and forensic genetic parameters are calculated for each population and for the combined set Northeastern Peruvian Andes. After correction for multiple testing in the whole dataset of the Northeastern Peruvian Andes, the only departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in locus rs2111980. Twenty one out of 27 aSTR loci exhibited an increased number of alleles due to sequence variation in the repeat motif and flanking regions. For iiSNPs 33% of the loci displayed flanking region variation. The combined random match probability (RMP), assuming independence of all loci (aSTRs and iiSNPs), in the Chachapoyas, the population with the largest samples size (N = 172), was 8.14 x 10(-62) for length-based data while for sequence-based was 4.15 x 10(-67). In the merged dataset (Northeastern Peruvian Andes; N = 233), the combined RMP when including all markers were 2.96 x 10(-61) (length-based) and 3.21 x 10(-66) (sequence-based). These new data help to fill up some of the gaps in the genetic canvas of South America and provide essential length- and sequence-based background information for other forensic genetic studies in Peru.
  • Rene-Martellet, Magalie; Minard, Guillaume; Massot, Raphael; Van Tran Van,; Moro, Claire Valiente; Chabanne, Luc; Mavingui, Patrick (2017)
    Background: Ticks of the group Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) are distributed worldwide and are major pathogen vectors of both dogs and humans. Previous phylogenetic reconstructions have suggested the existence of two main lineages within this group, "Tropical" and "Temperate". Symbiotic interactions contribute to vector development, survival, reproduction and competence. The diversity of microbial communities associated with different populations of R. sanguineus (s.l.) remains poorly characterized, however, this knowledge will aid in future studies of hosts-microbiota-pathogen interactions. To gain insight into the bacterial communities associated with R. sanguineus (s.l.) ticks, 40 specimens from France, Senegal and Arizona were analyzed by high-throughput 16S amplicon sequencing. All tick specimens were taxonomically classified using the mitochondrial 12S rDNA gene, which provides sufficient phylogenetic resolution to discriminate different lineages of R. sanguineus. Results: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) samples from Senegal belonged to the "Tropical" lineage, samples from France belonged to the "Temperate" lineage, whereas both lineages were identified in samples from Arizona. Regardless of origin, each bacterial microbiota was dominated by three genera: Coxiella, Rickettsia and Bacillus. Rickettsia and Coxiella were the two main genera found in females whereas males had a higher proportion of Bacillus. Significant differences of relative abundances were evidenced between specimens from different geographical origins. Conclusions: This study highlights differences in the microbiota composition within R. sanguineus (s.l.) specimens from different genotypes, genders and geographical origins. This knowledge will help in future studies of the symbiotic interactions, biology and vector competence of the R. sanguineus (s.l.) complex.
  • Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helina; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojarvi, Liisa (2016)
    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out-or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p = 0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p = 0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p <0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p = 0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p = 0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p = 0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p = 0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Valtonen, Mia; Palo, Jukka U.; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Nyman, Tommi (2014)
  • Hasegawa, Yuki; Tang, Dave; Takahashi, Naoko; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Suzuki, Harukazu; FANTOM Consortium; Sajantila, Antti (2014)
  • Junttila, Ilkka S.; Vuorio, Alpo; Budowle, Bruce; Laukkala, Tanja; Sajantila, Antti (2018)
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) could cause pilot incapacitation and result in aviation fatalities. The mechanisms could be directly as a consequence of acute hypoglycemia/subacute diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or indirectly as an acute cardiovascular event by contributing to the development of atherosclerosis in coronary or carotid and cerebral arteries. In this study, DM-related fatal flight accidents in the US National Transport Bureau's database between years 2011-2016 were analyzed with special emphasis on postmortem (PM) glucose levels and correlation of toxicological reports with anamnestic information on DM. Additionally, autopsy results on coronary arteries were reviewed. In 43 out of 1491 (similar to 3%) fatal accidents pilots had DM. Postmortem glucose or glycated hemoglobin percentage (Hb1Ac) was measured in 12 of the 43 cases; while antidiabetic medication was found in 14 of the cases (only two of the cases had both glucose measurements and medication). With the increasing prevalence of DM, a possibility of pilot incapacitation due to DM or complications of DM should be actively studied, even if no anamnestic information of DM was available. While PM hypoglycemia is difficult to assess, we propose a systematic investigation based on measurement of glucose, Hb1Ac%, and ketone bodies, and documentation of atherosclerotic lesions in major arteries to identify or rule out DM as a cause of pilot incapacitation.
  • Saarikko, Anne; Mellanen, Eero; Kuusela, Linda; Leikola, Junnu; Karppinen, Atte; Autti, Taina; Virtanen, Pekka; Brandstack, Nina (2020)
    Summary Purpose Black Bone (BB) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing imaging method and a recent alternative to computed tomography (CT) in the examination of cranial deformities. The purpose of this study was to compare BB-MRI and routine 3D-CT in the preoperative evaluation of patients with craniosynostosis. Methods At our center, we have routinely performed preoperative CT of the skull and brain MRI for patients with clinical suspicion of craniosynostosis. We recently changed our MRI protocol into one that includes sequences for the evaluation of both brain anatomy and skull bone and sutures by BB-MRI. A semi-automatic skull segmentation algorithm was developed to facilitate visualization. Both BB-MRI and 3D-CT were performed on 9 patients with clinical craniosynostosis, and the images were evaluated by two craniofacial surgeons, one pediatric neurosurgeon, and two neuroradiologists. Results We obtained informative 3D images using BB-MRI. Six (6/9) patients had scaphocephaly, 1 (1/9) patient had unicoronal synostosis, and 2 (2/9) patients had lambdoid synostosis. The affected synostotic sutures could be identified both by BB-MRI and by 3D-CT in all patients. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for rating the calvarial sutures was high. However, the reliability for rating the intracranial impressions was low by both imaging methods. Conclusion BB-MRI is an alternative to 3D-CT in the preoperative evaluation of patients with craniosynostosis. BB-MRI provides information not only on cranial sutures and intracranial impressions but also on the brain structure in one imaging session. This method can replace ionizing radiation-based methods in analyzing skull deformities.
  • Cervera-Carrascon, Victor; Quixabeira, Dafne C.A.; Havunen, Riikka; Santos, Joao M.; Kutvonen, Emma; Clubb, James H.A.; Siurala, Mikko; Heiniö, Camilla; Zafar, Sadia; Koivula, Teija; Lumen, Dave; Vaha, Marjo; Garcia-Horsman, Arturo; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Sorsa, Suvi; Anttila, Marjukka; Hukkanen, Veijo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2020)
    Despite some promising results, the majority of patients do not benefit from T-cell therapies, as tumors prevent T-cells from entering the tumor, shut down their activity, or downregulate key antigens. Due to their nature and mechanism of action, oncolytic viruses have features that can help overcome many of the barriers currently facing T-cell therapies of solid tumors. This study aims to understand how four different oncolytic viruses (adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus and reovirus) perform in that task. For that purpose, an immunocompetent in vivo tumor model featuring adoptive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy was used. Tumor growth control (p
  • Mariottini, Claudia; Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2021)
    Background: Buprenorphine is abused in several countries notwithstanding its benefits as an analgesic and as an opioid agonist treatment medication. Benzodiazepines and alcohol have previously been associated with buprenorphine toxicity. This study elucidates the role of emerging concomitant drugs in different groups of buprenorphine user deaths. Methods: All cases in the Finnish national post-mortem toxicology database from 2016-2019 in which buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine was a laboratory finding in any post-mortem specimen and age at death of 15-64 years were investigated for cause and manner of death, concurrent drug and alcohol findings, age, and gender. Results: There were 792 deaths with a buprenorphine finding, of which buprenorphine was implicated in poisoning without other opioids in 271 cases (34 %). In this group of buprenorphine poisoning deaths, concomitant benzodiazepines were found in 94 % (clonazepam 53 %), illicit drugs in 63 %, gabapentinoids in 50 % (pregabalin 41 %), alcohol in 41 %, antidepressants in 32 %, and antipsychotics in 28 % of cases; only three deaths showed no benzodiazepines, alcohol, or gabapentinoids. Polydrug use was common regardless of the cause of death. In the age group 15 to 24 years, concomitant use of benzodiazepines and illicit drugs, and buprenorphine poisoning were more prevalent than in the age group 25-64 years. Conclusions: The unprecedentedly high concomitant use of benzodiazepines in buprenorphine user deaths obscures other possible pharmacological risk factors for buprenorphine poisoning that could be relevant for prevention. Higher mortality in the younger age group suggests particularly unsafe drug use patterns that should be addressed.
  • Viinamaki, Jenni; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2016)
    There is a constant demand for the quantification of drug metabolites within post-mortem toxicology. Especially electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry techniques necessitate that calibration is carried out using primary reference standards due to the non-uniform ionization efficiency between parent drugs and their metabolites. As reference standards for metabolites are not readily available and their costs are high, alternative methods for immediate quantification are required. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and corona charged aerosol detection was utilized for the concurrent quantification of 23 drug metabolites using the corresponding parent drug for calibration. Based on this secondary calibration, the quantitative results for the N-demethylated metabolites by each detector were similar to those obtained by the ordinary calibration using reference standards. For O-demethylated metabolites, the differences in detector response caused somewhat larger biases using the secondary calibration. Using the validated secondary calibration, the blood sample data gathered from 633 post-mortem cases was retrospectively reprocessed to discover the combined metabolite-parent concentrations and metabolite to parent ratios for six toxicologically relevant drugs. These results, representing all causes of death, were compared to published data from therapeutic drug monitoring and post-mortem toxicology. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ranta, Helena; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick (2019)
    Estimation of an individual's age has important applications in forensics. In young individuals, it often relies on separate evaluations of permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) development. Here, we analysed the age prediction performance of combined information from PT and TM in an unusual sample of healthy Somalis, born and living in Finland. PT development was staged according to Demirjian et al. (Hum Biol, 1973) and TM development according to Kohler et al. (Ann Anat, 1994), using panoramic radiographs from 803 subjects (397 males, 406 females) aged 3-23years. A sex-specific Bayesian age-estimation model for the multivariate distribution of the stages conditional on age was fitted on PT, TM and PT and TM combined. The age-estimation performances were validated and quantified. The approach combining PT and TM only overestimated age with an ME of -0.031years in males and -0.011years in females, indicating the best age prediction performance.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ranta, Helena; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick (2018)
    AimThe aim of the current study was to retrospectively collect dental panoramic radiographs from Somali children living in Finland, to use the radiographic data to develop a new age estimation model based on the model established by Willems et al. (J Forensic Sci 46(4):893-895, 2001), and to compare the age prediction performances of the Willems et al. model (WM) and the newly developed model.Material and methodsDental panoramic radiographs from 808 healthy Somalis born in Finland were selected. The development of the seven left mandibular permanent teeth, from the central incisor to the second molar, was staged according to Demirjian et al. (Hum Biol 45(2):211-227, 1973). Radiographs with all listed permanent teeth completely developed were excluded. The studied sample consisted of 635 subjects (311 females, 324 males) ranging in age from 4 to 18years. Kappa and weighted Kappa statistics were used to quantify intra- and inter-observer agreement in stage allocation. The collected dataset was used to validate the WM, constructed on a Belgian Caucasian reference sample, and to establish a Somali-specific age estimation model (SM) based on the WM. Both models were validated and their age prediction performances quantified using mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE).ResultsThe SM resulted in a slight underestimation of age when the sex groups were analysed separately or combined, with ME varying between 0.04 (standard deviation (SD) 1.01) and 0.05 (SD 1.04) years, MAE between 0.77 and 0.80years and RMSE between 1.01 and 1.04years. The WM statistically significantly underestimated the age of females, with an ME of 0.20 (SD 1.01) years (p=0.0006). For males, and for females and males combined, no statistically significant ME was observed.ConclusionThe WM and SM were similar in their age prediction performances, and the use of the WM in dental age assessment in the Somali population is justified.
  • Mesihää, Samuel; Ketola, Raimo A.; Pelander, Anna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2017)
    Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-QTOFMS) was evaluated for the identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS). An in-house high mass resolution GC-APCI-QTOFMS test library was developed for 29 nitrogen-containing drugs belonging mostly to synthetic stimulants. The library was based on 12 intra-day measurements of each compound at three different collision energies, 10, 20 and 40 eV. The in-house library mass spectra were compared to mass spectra from a commercial library constructed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI) QTOFMS. The reversed library search scores between the in-house GC-APCI library and the commercial LC-ESI library were compared once a week during a 5-week period by using data measured by GC-APCI-QTOFMS. The protonated molecule was found for all drugs in the full scan mode, and the drugs were successfully identified by both libraries in the targeted MS/MS mode. The GC-APCI library score averaged over all collision energies was as high as 94.4/100 with a high repeatability, while the LC-ESI library score was also high (89.7/100) with a repeatability only slightly worse. These results highlight the merits of GC-APCI-QTOFMS in the analysis of NPS even in situations where the reference standards are not immediately available, taking advantage of the accurate mass measurement of the protonated molecule and product ions, and comparison to existing soft-ionization mass spectral libraries.
  • Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U.; de Leeuw, Wiljo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti (2016)
    Blood samples preserved on FTA cards offer unique opportunities for genetic research. DNA recovered from these cards should be stable for long periods of time. However, it is not well established as how well the DNA stored on FTA card for substantial time periods meets the demands of forensic or genomic DNA analyses and especially so for from post-mortem (PM) samples in which the quality can vary upon initial collection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent degradation on DNA quality and quantity extracted from up to 16 years old post-mortem bloodstained FTA cards. Four random FTA samples from eight time points spanning 1998 to 2013 (n = 32) were collected and extracted in triplicate. The quantity and quality of the extracted DNA samples were determined with Quantifiler (R) Human Plus (HP) Quantification kit. Internal sample and sample-to-sample variation were evaluated by comparing recovered DNA yields. The DNA from the triplicate samplings were subsequently combined and normalized for further analysis. The practical effect of degradation on DNA quality was evaluated from normalized samples both with forensic and pharmacogenetic target markers. Our results suggest that (1) a PM change, e.g. blood clotting prior to sampling, affects the recovered DNA yield, creating both internal and sample-to-sample variation; (2) a negative correlation between the FTA card storage time and DNA quantity (r = -0.836 at the 0.01 level) was observed; (3) a positive correlation (r = 0.738 at the level 0.01) was found between FTA card storage time and degradation levels. However, no inhibition was observed with the method used. The effect of degradation was manifested clearly with functional applications. Although complete STR-profiles were obtained for all samples, there was evidence of degradation manifested as decreased peak heights in the larger-sized amplicons. Lower amplification success was notable with the large 5.1 kb CYP2D6 gene fragment which strongly supports degradation of the stored samples. According to our results, DNA stored on FTA cards is rather stable over a long time period. DNA extracted from this storage medium can be used as human identification purposes as the method used is sufficiently sensitive and amplicon sizes tend to be <400 bp. However, DNA integrity was affected during storage. This effect should be taken into account depending on the intended application especially if high quality DNA and long PCR amplicons are required. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.