Browsing by Subject "3D imaging"

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  • Ylitalo, Tuomo; Finnilä, Mikko A. J.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Karhula, Sakari S.; Suhonen, Heikki; Valkealahti, Maarit; Lehenkari, Petri; Haeggström, Edward; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Heikki J. (2019)
    One of the earliest changes in osteoarthritis (OA) is a surface discontinuity of the articular cartilage (AC), and these surface changes become gradually more complex with OA progression. We recently developed a contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (mu CT) method for visualizing AC surface in detail. The present study aims to introduce a mu CT analysis technique to parameterize these complex AC surface features and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these parameters to quantify degenerated AC surface. Osteochondral plugs (n = 35) extracted from 19 patients undergoing joint surgery were stained with phosphotungstic acid and imaged using mu CT. The surface micro-topography of AC was analyzed with developed method. Standard root mean square roughness (R-q) was calculated as a reference, and the Area Under Curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the acquired quantitative parameters with semi-quantitative visual grading of mu CT image stacks. The parameters quantifying the complex micro-topography of AC surface exhibited good sensitivity and specificity in identifying surface continuity (AUC: 0.93, [0.80 0.99]), fissures (AUC: 0.94, [0.83 0.99]) and fibrillation (AUC: 0.98, [0.88 1.0]). Standard R-q was significantly smaller compared with the complex roughness (CRq) already with mild surface changes with all surface reference parameters - continuity, fibrillation, and fissure sum. Furthermore, only CRq showed a significant difference when comparing the intact surface with lowest fissure sum score. These results indicate that the presented method for evaluating complex AC surfaces exhibit potential to identify early OA changes in superficial AC and is dynamic throughout OA progression. (c) 2019 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research (R) Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. Society. 9999:1-12, 2019.
  • Rasa, Kimmo; Vihera-Aarnio, Anneli; Rytkonen, Peetu; Hyvaluoma, Jari; Kaseva, Janne; Suhonen, Heikki; Jyske, Tuula (2021)
    Novel bioeconomic approaches call for increasingly faster production of lignocellulosic biomass and its bettertailored use for higher added value. The high-yield capacity and structural properties of willows (Salix spp.) suggest their excellent potential for the production of designed biochar for use in agronomic, electronic and technical applications. All these applications rely on the internal pore structure of biochar. However, we lack an in-depth quantitative understanding of the interlinkages between the feedstock properties and the physical quality of the biochar produced. We studied quantitatively how the clonal and within-plant properties of five different willow clones (hybrids of Salix schwerinii E.L. Wolf) affected the micrometre-scale pore properties of the produced biochars (pyrolyzed at + 462 ?C). The porosity and pore size distribution were analysed before and after slow pyrolysis by X-ray microtomography and image analysis. We also studied the potential of conventional low-cost fibre analysis techniques to be used to predict biochar pore properties directly from fresh feedstock. The total porosity (0.55?0.62) and the pore size distribution of willow wood and derived biochars varied between clones. Approximately two-thirds of the biochar total porosity was associated with pores formed by wood fibres. Pyrolysis levelled off the structural variation detected between and within the clones. Pyrolysis-induced shrinkage reduced the pore sizes and narrowed the pore size distribution. The results suggest that conventional fibre analysis techniques could be utilized to predict biochar homogeneity. Short rotation coppice willows are suitable feedstock to produce homogenous biochar precursor for production of bio-based carbon materials to be used in high value-added technical applications. The structural homogeneity of the feedstock and produced biochar can be enhanced by selecting proper harvesting strategy and clones used in plantations. From the industrial perspective, comprehensive understanding of feedstock properties helps to control quality of the produced biochar.