Browsing by Subject "411 Agriculture and forestry"

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  • Mäkelä, Pirjo (2005)
  • University of Helsinki, Global Development Studies; University of Helsinki, Global Development Studies; Gould, Jeremy; Siitonen, Lauri; (University of Helsinki, Institute of Development Studies, 2007)
    Interkont books
  • Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2009)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important functions in plant stress responses and development. In plants, ozone and pathogen infection induce an extracellular oxidative burst that is involved in the regulation of cell death. However, very little is known about how plants can perceive ROS and regulate the initiation and the containment of cell death. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), that is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS. Plants with an insertion in GRI display an ozone-sensitive phenotype. GRI is an Arabidopsis ortholog of the tobacco flower-specific Stig1 gene. The GRI protein appears to be processed in leaves with a release of an N-terminal fragment of the protein. Infiltration of the N-terminal fragment of the GRI protein into leaves caused cell death in a superoxide-and salicylic acid-dependent manner. Analysis of the extracellular GRI protein yields information on how plants can initiate ROS-induced cell death during stress response and development.
  • Vesala, Timo; Launiainen, Samuli; Kolari, Pasi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sevanto, S.; Hari, Pertti; Nikinmaa, E.; Kaski, Petteri; Mannila, Heikki; Ukkonen, Esko; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P. (2010)
  • Laurila, Heikki Arvid; Karjalainen, Mika; Kleemola, Jouko; Hyyppa, Juha (2010)
  • Kantola, Tuula; Vastaranta, Mikko; Yu, Xiaowei; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Markus; Talvitie, Mervi; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Solberg, Svein; Hyyppä, Juha (2010)
    Climate change and rising temperatures have been observed to be related to the increase of forest insect damage in the boreal zone. The common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) is regarded as a significant threat to boreal pine forests. Defoliation by D. pini can cause severe growth loss and tree mortality in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (Pinaceae). In this study, logistic LASSO regression, Random Forest (RF) and Most Similar Neighbor method (MSN) were investigated for predicting the defoliation level of individual Scots pines using the features derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and aerial images. Classification accuracies from 83.7% (kappa 0.67) to 88.1% (kappa 0.76) were obtained depending on the method. The most accurate result was produced using RF with a combination of data from the two sensors, while the accuracies when using ALS and image features separately were 80.7% and 87.4%, respectively. Evidently, the combination of ALS and aerial images in detecting needle losses is capable of providing satisfactory estimates for individual trees.
  • Säisä, Marjatta; Salminen, Matti; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka (2010)
    Microsatellite DNA based analysis of the pattern of genetic diversity among three coastal and five freshwater populations of pikeperch Sander lucioperca in the northern part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin indicated marked genetic differentiation between the coastal and lake populations. The Fst between these population groups was as high as 0.25 and Rst=0.32. In general, the lake populations showed higher genetic diversity than the coastal ones. In terms of genetic distance, the three coastal populations (Vanhankaupunginlahti, Västanfjärd and Taivassalo) grouped tightly together. The freshwater samples formed a looser group, in which the northern Lake Kemijärvi showed greater distance from the southern lakes than these did from each other. The two lake populations originally established through stockings (Lakes Painio and Averia) grouped near to their source population of Lake Lohjanjärvi and their diversity level was nearly the same. Safeguarding the unique Baltic coastal populations of S. lucioperca against gene flow from increasing hatchery releases using freshwater S. lucioperca should be a high management priority.
  • Holopainen, Markus; Haapanen, Reija; Karjalainen, Mika; Vastaranta, Mikko; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Tuominen, Sakari; Hyyppä, Hannu (2010)
  • Yu, X.; Hyyppä, J.; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko (2010)
  • Sievänen, Risto; Nikinmaa, Eero; Nygren, Pekka; Ozier- Lafontaine, Harry; Perttunen, Jari; Hakula, Harri (2000)
  • Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Canadell, J. G.; Silvius, M.; Kwadijk, J.; Wosten, H.; Jauhiainen, J. (2010)
  • Vavrova, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2009)
    "Litter quality and environmental effects on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) fine woody debris (FWD) decomposition were examined in three forestry-drained peatlands representing different site types along a climatic gradient from the north boreal (Northern Finland) to south (Southern Finland) and hemiboreal (Central Estonia) conditions. Decomposition (percent mass loss) of FWD with diameter <= 10 mm (twigs) and FWD with diameter > 10 mm (branches) was measured using the litter bag method over 1-4-year periods. Overall, decomposition rates increased from north to south, the rate constants (k values) varying from 0.128 to 0.188 year(-1) and from 0.066 to 0.127 year(-1) for twigs and branches, respectively. On average, twigs had lost 34%, 19% and 19%, and branches 25%, 17% and 11% of their initial mass after 2 years of decomposition at the hemiboreal, south boreal and north boreal sites, respectively. After 4 years at the south boreal site the values were 48% for twigs and 42% for branches. Based on earlier studies, we suggest that the decomposition rates that we determined may be used for estimating Scots pine FWD decomposition in the boreal zone, also in upland forests. Explanatory models accounted for 50.4% and 71.2% of the total variation in FWD decomposition rates when the first two and all years were considered, respectively. The variables most related to FWD decomposition included the initial ash, water extractives and Klason lignin content of litter, and cumulative site precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration. Simulations of inputs and decomposition of Scots pine FWD and needle litter in south boreal conditions over a 60-year period showed that 72 g m(-2) of organic matter from FWD vs. 365 g m(-2) from needles accumulated in the forest floor. The annual inputs varied from 5.7 to 15.6 g m(-2) and from 92 to 152 g m(-2) for FWD and needles, respectively. Each thinning caused an increase in FWD inputs, Up to 510 g m(-2), while the needle inputs did not change dramatically. Because the annual FWD inputs were lowered following the thinnings, the overall effect of thinnings on C accumulation from FWD was slightly negative. The contribution of FWD to soil C accumulation, relative to needle litter, seems to be rather minor in boreal Scots pine forests. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."
  • Väisänen, Rauno; Heliövaara, Kari (Finnish Zoological Publishing Board, 1994)
    Annales zoologici Fennici
  • Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo; Folta, Kevin; Rantanen, Marja; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Elomaa, Paula (2009)
  • Manninen, Terhikki; Korhonen, Lauri; Voipio, Pekka; Lahtinen, Panu; Stenberg, Pauline (2009)
  • Strakova, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija (2010)
    Changes in the structure of plant communities may have much more impact on ecosystem carbon (C) cycling than any phenotypic responses to environmental changes. We studied these impacts via the response of plant litter quality, at the level of species and community, to persistent water-level (WL) drawdown in peatlands. We studied three sites with different nutrient regimes, and water-level manipulations at two time scales. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), Klason lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C and several nutrients. The litters formed four chemically distinct groups: non-graminoid foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. Direct effects of WL drawdown on litter quality at the species level were overruled by indirect effects via changes in litter type composition. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litters. Short-term (years) responses of the litter inputs to WL drawdown were small. In longterm (decades), total litter inputs increased, due to increased tree litter inputs. Simultaneously, the litter type composition and its chemical quality at the community level greatly changed. The changes that we documented will strongly affect soil properties and C cycle of peatlands.