Browsing by Subject "413 Veterinary science"

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  • Watson, John D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C (2017)
  • Katila, Terttu; Reilas, Tiina; Nivola, Kaisa; Peltonen, Terttu; Virtala, Anna-Maija (2010)
  • Ahonen, Saija J.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes (2013)
  • Kant, Ravi; Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Sigvart-Mattila, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Mecklin , Jukka-Pekka; Saarela, Maria; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar (2014)
  • Adam, Magdy; Salla, Kati; Aho, Riikka; Hänninen, Laura; Taponen, Suvi; Norring, Marianna; Raekallio, Marja; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena (2021)
    Objective To compare the sedative effects of intramuscular xylazine alone or combined with levomethadone or ketamine in calves before cautery disbudding. Study design Randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Animals A total of 28 dairy calves, aged 21 +/- 5 days and weighing 61.0 +/- 9.3 kg (mean +/- standard deviation). Methods Calves were randomly allocated to three groups: xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and levomethadone (0.05 mg kg(-1); group XL), xylazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (1 mg kg(-1); group XK) and xylazine alone (0.2 mg kg(-1); group X). Local anaesthesia (procaine hydrochloride) and meloxicam were administered subcutaneously 15 minutes after sedation and 15 minutes before disbudding. The calves' responses to the administration of local anaesthesia and disbudding were recorded. Sedation was assessed at baseline and at intervals up to 240 minutes postsedation. Times of recumbency, first head lift and first standing were recorded. Drug plasma concentrations were measured. Results Data were obtained from 27 animals. All protocols resulted in sedation sufficient to administer local anaesthesia and to perform disbudding. Sedation scores significantly correlated with drug plasma concentrations (p Conclusions and clinical relevance Levomethadone or ketamine with a low dose of xylazine produced short but sufficient sedation for local anaesthesia and disbudding with minimum resistance.
  • Junkkari, Reija; Simojoki, Heli; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Sankari, Satu; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Mykkanen, Anna (2017)
    Background: Newly weaned horses in Finland are often moved to unheated loose housing systems in which the weanlings have free access to a paddock and a shelter. This practice is considered to be good for the development of young horses. The daily temperatures can stay below -20 degrees C in Finland for several consecutive weeks during the winter season. However, the effect of unheated housing in a cold climatic environment on the respiratory health of weanlings under field conditions has not been studied before. This investigation was an observational field-study comprising 60 weanlings among 11 different voluntary participant rearing farms in Finland. Weanlings were either kept in unheated loose housing systems (n = 36) or in stables (n = 24) and were clinically examined on two separate occasions 58 days apart in cold winter conditions. Results: The odds of clinical respiratory disease were lower in the older foals(log(e) days); OR = 0.009, P = 0.044). The plasma fibrinogen concentration was higher when the available space (m(2)/weanling) in the sleeping hall was smaller (P = 0.014) and it was lower when the sleeping hall was not insulated (P = 0.010). The plasma fibrinogen concentrations at the second examination were lower with a body condition score above 3 (P = 0.070). Standardbreds kept in loose housing systems had a lower body condition score than Finnhorses or Standardbreds kept in stables at both examinations (P = 0.026 and P = 0.007, respectively). Haemoglobin level was lower in weanlings in loose housing systems compared to their counterparts at the first examination (P = 0.037). Finnhorses had higher white blood cell count than Standardbreds at first (P = 0.002) and at the second examination (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Keeping weanling horses in cold loose housing systems does not seem to increase the occurrence of respiratory disease, but special attention should be focused on ventilation, air quality and feeding-practices. Our field study data suggest it might be advantageous to keep Standardbred foals born late in the season in a stable over the Finnish winter.
  • Yu, Yoshihiko; Creighton, Erica K.; Buckley, Reuben M.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Buckley, Reuben M.; Aberdein, Danielle; Alves, Paulo C.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Bergström, Tomas F.; Boyko, Adam R.; Brockman, Jeffrey A.; Casal, Margret L.; Castelhano, Marta G.; Distl, Ottmar; Dodman, Nicholas H.; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Fogle, Jonathan E.; Forman, Oliver P.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Ginns, Edward I.; Häggström, Jens; Harvey, Robert J.; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Haase, Bianca; Helps, Christopher R.; Hernandez, Isabel; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Kaukonen, Maria; Kaelin, Christopher B.; Kosho, Tomoki; Leclerc, Emilie; Lear, Teri L.; Leeb, Tosso; Li, Ronald H.L.; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Magnuson, Mark A.; Malik, Richard; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Munday, John S.; Murphy, William J.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Peterson-Jones, Simon M.; Rothschild, Max F.; Rusbridge, Clare; Shapiro, Beth; Stern, Joshua A.; Swanson, William F.; Terio, Karen A.; Todhunter, Rory J.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilcox, Elizabeth A.; Wildschutte, Julia H.; Yu, Yoshihiko; Lyons, Leslie A. (2020)
    An inherited neurologic syndrome in a family of mixed-breed Oriental cats has been characterized as forebrain commissural malformation, concurrent with ventriculomegaly and interhemispheric cysts. However, the genetic basis for this autosomal recessive syndrome in cats is unknown. Forty-three cats were genotyped on the Illumina Infinium Feline 63K iSelect DNA Array and used for analyses. Genome-wide association studies, including a sib-transmission disequilibrium test and a case-control association analysis, and homozygosity mapping, identified a critical region on cat chromosome A3. Short-read whole genome sequencing was completed for a cat trio segregating with the syndrome. A homozygous 7 bp deletion in growth differentiation factor 7 (GDF7) (c.221_227delGCCGCGC [p.Arg74Profs]) was identified in affected cats, by comparison to the 99 Lives Cat variant dataset, validated using Sanger sequencing and genotyped by fragment analyses. This variant was not identified in 192 unaffected cats in the 99 Lives dataset. The variant segregated concordantly in an extended pedigree. In mice, GDF7 mRNA is expressed within the roof plate when commissural axons initiate ventrally-directed growth. This finding emphasized the importance of GDF7 in the neurodevelopmental process in the mammalian brain. A genetic test can be developed for use by cat breeders to eradicate this variant.
  • Reinsalu, Olavi; Scheler, Ott; Mikelsaar, Ruth; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Hallap, Triin; Jaakma, Ülle; Padrik, Peeter; Kavak, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Kurg, Ants (2019)
    Background: Usage of sexed semen that allows to choose the gender of the calves, is commonly practiced in livestock industry as a profitable breeding alternative, especially in dairy farming. The flow cytometric cell sorting is the only commercially available method for bovine sperm sexing. For validation of the sexing procedure several methods have been developed including sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques. Latter usually include the use of pre-labelled nucleotides for probe synthesis which is relatively expensive approach compared to combined application of aminoallyl-dUTP and chemical binding of fluorescent dyes. Here a sex determining dual colour bovine sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation method is presented which is considered more cost-effective technique than the previously reported approaches. Results: The reliability of sex chromosome identifying probes, designed in silico, was proven on bovine metaphase plate chromosomes and through comparison with a commercially available standard method. In the dual colour FISH experiments of unsexed and sexed bovine sperm samples the hybridisation efficiency was at least 98%, whereas the determined sex ratios were not statistically different from the expected. Very few cells carried both of the sex chromosome-specific signals (less than 0.2%). Conclusions: A protocol for a dual colour bovine sperm FISH method is provided which is cost-effective, simple and fast for sex determination of spermatozoa in bull semen samples.
  • Felix, Benjamin; Sevellec, Yann; Palma, Federica; Douarre, Pierre Emmanuel; Felten, Arnaud; Radomski, Nicolas; Mallet, Ludovic; Blanchard, Yannick; Leroux, Aurelie; Soumet, Christophe; Bridier, Arnaud; Piveteau, Pascal; Ascensio, Eliette; Hebraud, Michel; Karpiskova, Renata; Gelbicova, Tereza; Torresi, Marina; Pomilio, Francesco; Camma, Cesare; Di Pasquale, Adriano; Skjerdal, Taran; Pietzka, Ariane; Ruppitsch, Werner; Canelhas, Monica Ricao; Papic, Bojan; Hurtado, Ana; Wullings, Bart; Bulawova, Hana; Castro, Hanna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu; Steingolde, Zanete; Kramarenko, Toomas; Cabanova, Lenka; Szymczak, Barbara; Gareis, Manfred; Oswaldi, Verena; Marti, Elisabet; Seyfarth, Anne-Mette; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Guillier, Laurent; Roussel, Sophie (2022)
    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes listeriosis, a serious foodborne illness. In the nature-to-human transmission route, Lm can prosper in various ecological niches. Soil and decaying organic matter are its primary reservoirs. Certain clonal complexes (CCs) are over-represented in food production and represent a challenge to food safety. To gain new understanding of Lm adaptation mechanisms in food, the genetic background of strains found in animals and environment should be investigated in comparison to that of food strains. Twenty-one partners, including food, environment, veterinary and public health laboratories, constructed a dataset of 1484 genomes originating from Lm strains collected in 19 European countries. This dataset encompasses a large number of CCs occurring worldwide, covers many diverse habitats and is balanced between ecological compartments and geographic regions. The dataset presented here will contribute to improve our understanding of Lm ecology and should aid in the surveillance of Lm. This dataset provides a basis for the discovery of the genetic traits underlying Lm adaptation to different ecological niches.
  • Aromaa, M.; Rajamäki, M. M.; Lilja-Maula, L. (2021)
    To promote successful breeding against brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS), it is important to assess how BOAS signs progress during young adulthood and how evaluation age and ageing affect the results of chosen breeding selection tools. The aims of this study were to assess how veterinary-assessed and owner-reported BOAS signs and exercise test results change when dogs age. Eight English Bulldogs, 25 French Bulldogs, and 31 Pugs that had undergone previous evaluation were re-examined 2- 3 years later. An owner questionnaire regarding BOAS signs, a veterinary assessment of BOAS severity, and exercise, ie walk tests were re-performed. In Pugs, both 6-min walking distance and 1,000-m time worsened and the initial evaluation age had a significant effect on the 1,000-m time. No significant changes were seen in the results of the French Bulldogs but a negative effect on the 1,000-m time was seen with weight gain. Exercise test statistics were not performed with regard to English Bulldogs due to low sample size. The veterinary-assessed BOAS severity class remained the same in the majority of dogs and the BOAS grade worsened mostly in those dogs that were initially evaluated at less than two years of age. Most owners reported no major changes in BOAS severity. BOAS grading and walk tests were easy to repeat and results remained relatively constant in dogs initially evaluated at over two years of age, supporting the use of these breeding selection tools. However, further, large-scale offspring studies are still needed.
  • Pausch, Hubert; Venhoranta, Heli; Wurmser, Christine; Hakala, Kalle; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Sironen, Anu; Vingborg, Rikke K.; Lohi, Hannes; Soderquist, Lennart; Fries, Ruedi; Andersson, Magnus (2016)
    Background: Artificial insemination is widely used in many cattle breeding programs. Semen samples of breeding bulls are collected and closely examined immediately after collection at artificial insemination centers. Only ejaculates without anomalous findings are retained for artificial insemination. Although morphological aberrations of the spermatozoa are a frequent reason for discarding ejaculates, the genetic determinants underlying poor semen quality are scarcely understood. Results: A tail stump sperm defect was observed in three bulls of the Swedish Red cattle breed. The spermatozoa of affected bulls were immotile because of severely disorganized tails indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. We genotyped three affected bulls and 18 unaffected male half-sibs at 46,035 SNPs and performed homozygosity mapping to map the fertility disorder to an 8.42 Mb interval on bovine chromosome 13. The analysis of whole-genome re-sequencing data of an affected bull and 300 unaffected animals from eleven cattle breeds other than Swedish Red revealed a 1 bp deletion (Chr13: 24,301,425 bp, ss1815612719) in the eleventh exon of the armadillo repeat containing 3-encoding gene (ARMC3) that was compatible with the supposed recessive mode of inheritance. The deletion is expected to alter the reading frame and to induce premature translation termination (p.A451fs26). The mutated protein is shortened by 401 amino acids (46 %) and lacks domains that are likely essential for normal protein function. Conclusions: We report the phenotypic and genetic characterization of a sterilizing tail stump sperm defect in the Swedish Red cattle breed. Exploiting high-density genotypes and massive re-sequencing data enabled us to identify the most likely causal mutation for the fertility disorder in bovine ARMC3. Our results provide the basis for monitoring the mutated variant in the Swedish Red cattle population and for the early identification of infertile animals.
  • Lahti, Leo; Torrente, Aurora; Elo, Laura L.; Brazma, Alvis; Rung, Johan (2013)
  • Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Syrjä, Pernilla; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Hundi, Sruthi; Karkamo, Veera; Viitmaa, Ranno; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Inherited skeletal disorders affect both humans and animals. In the current study, we have performed series of clinical, pathological and genetic examinations to characterize a previously unreported skeletal disease in the Karelian Bear Dog (KBD) breed. The disease was recognized in seven KBD puppies with a variable presentation of skeletal hypomineralization, growth retardation, seizures and movement difficulties. Exome sequencing of one affected dog revealed a homozygous missense variant (c. 1301T > G; p. V434G) in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene, ALPL. The identified recessive variant showed full segregation with the disease in a cohort of 509 KBDs with a carrier frequency of 0.17 and was absent from 303 dogs from control breeds. In humans, recessive and dominant ALPL mutations cause hypophosphatasia (HPP), a metabolic bone disease with highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations, ranging from lethal perinatal hypomineralization to a relatively mild dental disease. Our study reports the first naturally occurring HPP in animals, resembling the human infantile form. The canine HPP model may serve as a preclinical model while a genetic test will assist in breeding programs.
  • Quitt, Pia R.; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Wielaender, Franziska; Karkamo, Veera; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Dengler, Berett; Leeb, Tosso; Lohi, Hannes; Fischer, Andrea (2021)
    Background Shaking puppy syndrome is commonly attributed to abnormal myelination of the central nervous system. Hypothesis/Objectives To report the long-term clinical course and the imaging characteristics of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy in German Shepherd dogs. Animals and Methods Three related litters with 11 affected dogs. Results The 11 affected dogs experienced coarse, side-to-side tremors of the head and trunk, which interfered with normal goal-oriented movements and disappeared at rest. Signs were noticed shortly after birth. Nine dogs were euthanized, 3 dogs underwent pathological examination, and 2 littermates were raised by their breeder. Tremors improved gradually until 6 to 7 months of age. Adult dogs walked with severe residual pelvic limb ataxia. One dog developed epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures at 15 months of age. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed homogenous hyperintense signal of the entire subcortical white matter in 3 affected 7-week-old dogs and a hypointense signal in a presumably unaffected littermate. Subcortical white matter appeared isointense to gray matter at 15 and 27 weeks of age on repeated MRI. Abnormal white matter signal with failure to display normal gray-white matter contrast persisted into adulthood. Cerebellar arbor vitae was not visible at any time point. Clinical signs, MRI findings, and pathological examinations were indicative of a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. All parents of the affected litters shared a common ancestor and relatedness of the puppies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusion We describe a novel hypomyelinating leukodystrophy in German Shepherd dogs with a suspected inherited origin.
  • Leeb, Tosso; Leuthard, Fabienne; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Kiener, Sarah; Letko, Anna; Roosje, Petra; Welle, Monika M.; Gailbreath, Katherine L.; Cannon, Andrea; Linek, Monika; Banovic, Frane; Olivry, Thierry; White, Stephen D.; Batcher, Kevin; Bannasch, Danika; Minor, Katie M.; Mickelson, James R.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Casal, Margret L. (2020)
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) in humans encompasses multiple subtypes that exhibit a wide array of skin lesions and, in some cases, are associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated dogs with exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus (ECLE), a dog-specific form of chronic CLE that is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 14 cases and 29 controls confirmed a previously published result that the causative variant maps to chromosome 18. Autozygosity mapping refined the ECLE locus to a 493 kb critical interval. Filtering of whole genome sequence data from two cases against 654 controls revealed a single private protein-changing variant in this critical interval, UNC93B1:c.1438C>A or p.Pro480Thr. The homozygous mutant genotype was exclusively observed in 23 ECLE affected German Shorthaired Pointers and an ECLE affected Vizsla, but absent from 845 controls. UNC93B1 is a transmembrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum and endolysosomes, which is required for correct trafficking of several Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The p.Pro480Thr variant is predicted to affect the C-terminal tail of the UNC93B1 that has recently been shown to restrict TLR7 mediated autoimmunity via an interaction with syndecan binding protein (SDCBP). The functional knowledge on UNC93B1 strongly suggests that p.Pro480Thr is causing ECLE in dogs. These dogs therefore represent an interesting spontaneous model for human lupus erythematosus. Our results warrant further investigations of whether genetic variants affecting the C-terminus of UNC93B1 might be involved in specific subsets of CLE or SLE cases in humans and other species.
  • Hitti-Malin, Rebekkah J.; Burmeister, Louise M.; Lingaas, Frode; Kaukonen, Maria; Pettinen, Inka; Lohi, Hannes; Sargan, David; Mellersh, Cathryn S. (2021)
    Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) describes a group of hereditary diseases characterized by photoreceptor cell death in the retina, leading to visual impairment. Despite the identification of multiple PRA-causing variants, extensive heterogeneity of PRA is observed across and within dog breeds, with many still genetically unsolved. This study sought to elucidate the causal variant for a distinct form of PRA in the Shetland sheepdog, using a whole-genome sequencing approach. Filtering variants from a single PRA-affected Shetland sheepdog genome compared to 176 genomes of other breeds identified a single nucleotide variant in exon 11 of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome-2 gene (BBS2) (c.1222G > C; p.Ala408Pro). Genotyping 1386 canids of 155 dog breeds, 15 cross breeds and 8 wolves indicated the c.1222G > C variant was only segregated within Shetland sheepdogs. Out of 505 Shetland sheepdogs, seven were homozygous for the variant. Clinical history and photographs for three homozygotes indicated the presence of a novel phenotype. In addition to PRA, additional clinical features in homozygous dogs support the discovery of a novel syndromic PRA in the breed. The development and utilization of a diagnostic DNA test aim to prevent the mutation from becoming more prevalent in the breed.
  • Puurunen, Jenni; Sulkama, Sini; Tiira, Katriina; Araujo, Cesar; Lehtonen, Marko; Hanhineva, Kati; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes. Methods: We collected fresh plasma samples from 22 German Shepherds with varying ADHD-like behaviours. All dogs were on the same controlled diet for 2 weeks prior to sampling. A liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed to identify plasma metabolites correlating with the ADHD-like behaviour of the dogs. Results: 649 molecular features correlated with ADHD-like behavioural scores (p(raw) <0.05), and three of them [sn-1 LysoPC(18: 3), PC(18: 3/18: 2) and sn-1 LysoPE(18: 2)] had significant correlations also after FDR correction (pFDR <0.05). Phospholipids were found to negatively correlate with ADHD-like behavioural scores, whereas tryptophan metabolites 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) had negative and positive correlations with ADHD-like behavioural scores, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified associations between canine ADHD-like behaviours and metabolites that are involved in lipid and tryptophan metabolisms. The identified metabolites share similarity with earlier findings in human and rodent ADHD models. However, a larger replication study is warranted to validate the discoveries prior to further studies to understand the biological role of the identified metabolites in canine ADHD-like behaviours.
  • Ottka, Claudia; Vapalahti, Katariina; Puurunen, Jenni; Vahtera, Laura; Lohi, Hannes (2021)
    Background Metabolomics has been proven to be an invaluable research tool by providing comprehensive insight into systemic metabolism. However, the lack of scalable and quantitative methods with known reference intervals (RIs) and documented reproducibility has prevented the use of metabolomics in the clinical setting. Objective The objective of this study was to validate the developed quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics platform for canine serum and plasma samples and determine optimal sample handling conditions for its use. Methods Altogether, 8247 canine samples were analyzed using a Bruker's 500 MHz NMR spectrometer. Using statistical approaches derived from international guidelines, we studied method precision, measurand stability in various long- and short-term storage conditions, as well as the effect of prolonged contact with red blood cells (RBCs), and differences among blood collection tubes. We also screened interferences with lipemia, hemolysis, and bilirubinemia. The results were compared against routine clinical chemistry methods, and RIs were defined for all measurands. Results We determined RIs for 123 measurands, most of which were previously unpublished. The reproducibility of the results of the NMR platform appeared generally outstanding, and the integrity of the results can be ensured by following standard blood drawing and processing guidelines. Conclusions Owing to the advantages of quantitative results, high reproducibility, and scalability, this canine metabolomics platform holds great potential for numerous clinical and research applications to improve canine health and well-being.
  • Cooper, Ann E.; Ahonen, Saija; Rowlan, Jessica S.; Duncan, Alison; Seppala, Eija H.; Vanhapelto, Paivi; Lohi, Hannes; Komaromy, Andras M. (2014)
  • Sarviaho, R.; Hakosalo, O.; Tiira, K.; Sulkama, S.; Niskanen, J. E.; Hytonen, M. K.; Sillanpää, M. J.; Lohi, H. (2020)
    The complex phenotypic and genetic nature of anxieties hampers progress in unravelling their molecular etiologies. Dogs present extensive natural variation in fear and anxiety behaviour and could advance the understanding of the molecular background of behaviour due to their unique breeding history and genetic architecture. As dogs live as part of human families under constant care and monitoring, information from their behaviour and experiences are easily available. Here we have studied the genetic background of fearfulness in the Great Dane breed. Dogs were scored and categorised into cases and controls based on the results of the validated owner-completed behavioural survey. A genome-wide association study in a cohort of 124 dogs with and without socialisation as a covariate revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 11. Whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing revealed extensive regions of opposite homozygosity in the same locus on chromosome 11 between the cases and controls with interesting neuronal candidate genes such as MAPK9/JNK2, a known hippocampal regulator of anxiety. Further characterisation of the identified locus will pave the way for molecular understanding of fear in dogs and may provide a natural animal model for human anxieties.