Browsing by Subject "416 Food Science"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 464
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Products Nutri; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following an application from H.J. Heinz Supply Chain Europe B.V., submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to 'Nutrimune (R)' and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and upper respiratory tract (URT). The food 'Nutrimune (R)' (a pasteurised cow's skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74) which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that immune defence against pathogens in GI tract and URT is a beneficial physiological effect. One human intervention study from which conclusions can be drawn showed an effect of 'Nutrimune (R)' on immune defence against pathogens in the GI tract and the URT, and the results from one animal study could support an effect of 'Nutrimune (R)' on defence against pathogens in the GI tract. However, there were inconsistencies in the reporting of the process and criteria used for the diagnosis of URTI in the human intervention study, the results of this study have not been replicated, and no evidence was provided for a plausible mechanism by which 'Nutrimune (R)' could exert the claimed effect in vivo in humans. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of 'Nutrimune (R)' and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Patil, Radhika; Karinkanta, Saija; Kannus, Pekka; Tokola, Kari; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Sievanen, Harri (2017)
    Background: Both exercise and vitamin D are recommended means to prevent falls among older adults, but their combined effects on fallinduced injuries are scarcely studied. Methods: A 2-year follow-up of a previous 2-year randomized controlled trial with vitamin D and exercise (Ex) of 409 older home-dwelling women using a factorial 2 x 2 design (D(-)Ex(-), D(+)Ex(-), D(-)Ex(+), D(+)Ex(+)). Besides monthly fall diaries, femoral neck bone mineral density (fn-BMD), and physical functioning were assessed at 1 and 2 years after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, S-25OHD concentrations declined to baseline levels in both supplement groups. The groups did not differ for change in fn-BMD or physical functioning, except for leg extensor muscle strength, which remained about 10% greater in the exercise groups compared with the reference group (D(-)Ex(-)). There were no between-group differences in the rate of all falls, but medically attended injurious falls reduced in D+ Ex-and D(-)Ex(+) groups compared with D(-)Ex(-). However, all former treatment groups had less medically attended injured fallers, HRs (95% CI) being 0.62 (0.39-1.00) for D+ Ex-, 0.46 (0.28-0.76) for D(-)Ex(+), and 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for D(+)Ex(+), compared with D(-)Ex(-). Conclusions: Exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning partly remained 2 years after cessation of supervised training. Although there was no difference in the rate of all falls, former exercise groups continued to have lower rate of medically attended injured fallers compared with referents even 2 years after the intervention. Vitamin D without exercise was associated with less injurious falls with no difference in physical functioning.
  • Zabolotnyy, Serhiy; Sipilainen, Timo (2020)
    The research presents the application of fuzzy logic for synthetic evaluation of strategies for working capital management of twelve food companies from Northern Europe in 2005-2015. A set of financial ratios formed an aggregated indicator reflecting the complexity of relationships between the level and structure of current assets and liabilities of a firm. Based on the proposed indicator, four types of strategies for working capital management were identified and characterized in terms of risk and return preferences. Only a few companies from the sample demonstrated a direct orientation on liquidity or value within their strategies for working capital management. To retain flexibility in short-term financial management, most firms applied moderate policies for current assets and liabilities that helped them in maintaining liquidity and reducing the cost of financing. The integrity of the proposed method for the synthetic evaluation of working capital management makes it a convenient managerial tool suitable for use in firms operating in a turbulent business environment.
  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following an application from Marks and Spencer PLC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a CHO:P ratio = 3.0 on overweight and obese adults in the context of energy restriction. Four out of seven studies lasting <12 weeks reported an effect of a CHO: P ratio
  • Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero Olavi; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2016)
    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P-for trend 0.005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values <0.01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.
  • Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Mire, Emily F.; Dentro, Kara N.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Schuna, John M.; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.; Standage, Martyn; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Onywera, Vincent; Olds, Tim; Matsudo, Victor; Maia, Jose; Maher, Carol; Lambert, Estelle V.; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Hu, Gang; Fogelholm, Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Grp, I. S. C. O. L. E. Res (2015)
    Background: We present a model for reporting accelerometer paradata (process-related data produced from survey administration) collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), a multi-national investigation of >7000 children (averaging 10.5 years of age) sampled from 12 different developed and developing countries and five continents. Methods: ISCOLE employed a 24-hr waist worn 7-day protocol using the ActiGraph GT3X+. Checklists, flow charts, and systematic data queries documented accelerometer paradata from enrollment to data collection and treatment. Paradata included counts of consented and eligible participants, accelerometers distributed for initial and additional monitoring (site specific decisions in the face of initial monitoring failure), inadequate data (e.g., lost/malfunction, insufficient wear time), and averages for waking wear time, valid days of data, participants with valid data (>= 4 valid days of data, including 1 weekend day), and minutes with implausibly high values (>= 20,000 activity counts/min). Results: Of 7806 consented participants, 7372 were deemed eligible to participate, 7314 accelerometers were distributed for initial monitoring and another 106 for additional monitoring. 414 accelerometer data files were inadequate (primarily due to insufficient wear time). Only 29 accelerometers were lost during the implementation of ISCOLE worldwide. The final locked data file consisted of 6553 participant files (90.0% relative to number of participants who completed monitoring) with valid waking wear time, averaging 6.5 valid days and 888.4 minutes/day (14.8 hours). We documented 4762 minutes with implausibly high activity count values from 695 unique participants (9.4% of eligible participants and Conclusions: Detailed accelerometer paradata is useful for standardizing communication, facilitating study management, improving the representative qualities of surveys, tracking study endpoint attainment, comparing studies, and ultimately anticipating and controlling costs.
  • Michel, Fabienne; Knaapila, Antti; Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael (2021)
    Within recent years, demand as well as supply of products to replace meat, so called meat alternatives, have increased. For future products, new plant-based protein sources are of high interest. Protein from pea and especially from algae provide huge potential for human nutrition as well as for the environment. To provide insight on consumers' opinions on the development of new meat alternatives, this study investigated consumers' opinions of pea and algae burgers compared to the traditional beef burger in terms of taste, health, and environmental friendliness. It has also explored the influence of factors such as meat commitment, food neophobia, and the attitude towards vegetarians and vegans; it has then compared the findings between three European countries with different culinary backgrounds. The online survey was conducted with meat-eating participants from Germany (N=567), France (N=605), and the United Kingdom (N=562). Participants in all three countries expected pea and algae burgers to be less tasty, but healthier and more environmentally friendly compared to the beef burger. Expectations of taste, health, and environmental friendliness of pea and algae burgers were negatively influenced by higher levels of meat commitment, more negative attitudes towards vegetarian and vegan lifestyles, and higher food neophobia. Although the attitudes towards vegetarian lifestyles were generally negative, pea and algae emerged as promising protein sources because of their favorable health and environmental friendliness expectations. Nevertheless, negative taste expectations and attitudes towards meat-free diets remain a challenge for the adoption of more plant-based diets.
  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Serrano, L. Mariela; Douillard, Francois P.; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M.; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C.; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M.; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert (2015)
    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. Results: We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. Conclusions: A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.
  • Moller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Dragsted, Lars O.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne (2017)
    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope -0.02 +/- 0.01 mmol/mol, p <0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 +/- 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p <0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score.
  • Ahlberg, Sara; Grace, Delia; Kiarie, Gideon; Kirino, Yumi; Lindahl, Johanna (2018)
    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM1 consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM1. Cancer risk caused by AFM1 was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM1 alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM1 consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM1 levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM1 exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM1 levels found in milk could contribute to an average of −0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM1 from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM1.
  • Rodiger, Manika; Moreno-Esteva, Enrique Garcia; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich (2019)
    It is of significant importance in food marketing to know which pieces of information available during shopping are most relevant to consumers. The visual search behaviour of consumers allows inference on the relevance of information based on what information is acquired and when. It is assumed that price is a major barrier to the purchase of organic food. However, little is known about consumers' actual acquisition of information on organic food prices. To examine the information acquisition behaviour of consumers buying organic and consumers buying conventional food, a shopping simulation study was run in which participants (n=189) were invited to choose between different unfamiliar organic and conventional product alternatives while wearing eye-tracking glasses. The data were divided into three visual attention phases: orientation phase, comparison phase, and evaluation phase.The information intake in the phases was investigated comparing organic and conventional consumers. Organic consumers acquired less information on conventional prices in the orientation and evaluation phases. It is concluded that for organic consumers, price information is less relevant to making a purchase decision compared to consumers of conventional food.
  • Azinheiro, Sarah; Kant, Krishna; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Garrido-Maestu, Alejandro; Prado, Marta; Dieguez, Lorena (2020)
    Rapid and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogens in food industry is of high importance in day-to-day practice to ensure safe food. To address this issue, multiple foodborne pathogens are targeted for rapid identification based in DNA amplification. A 3D PDMS sponge was fabricated using salt crystals as scarifying mold and functionalized with a ligand, apolipoprotein-H (ApoH), to test bacterial capturing for both Gram positive (L. monocytogenes) and negative bacteria (Salmonella spp.), in a microfluidic device. Pure culture of both pathogens in a range of ∼10–105 CFU/mL were tested and the application of the developed automated pre-concentration protocol in real samples was verified using spiked surface samples after swab sampling. Bacterial DNA was extracted directly from the sponge and used for Real Time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) detection. The sponges did not show any significant resistance to sample flow and could easily be incorporated in a microfluidic device. A capture efficiency above 70% was observed for both targeted (Gram positive and Gram negative) pathogens and a Limit of Detection (LoD) in the range of 103 and 104 CFU/mL was obtained for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Using this approached, we are able to perform multiplexed (Gram positive and Gram negative) capturing and reduce the enrichment time compared to the gold standard plate culture (over 1-day) method. The use of a 3D sponge for direct capturing of multiplexed pathogen on microfluidic device, followed by qPCR detection is an efficient and versatile method to stratify the presence of bacteria. This approach and methodology has potential to be integrated in full automatized device and used as point of need (PoN) system for foodborne pathogen stratification in food packaging/production industries.
  • Kallio, Galina; Houtbeckers, Eeva (2020)
    We have seen an emergence of transformative food studies as part of sustainability transitions. While some scholars have successfully opened up their experiences of pursuing transformation through scholar-activism, assumptions underlying researchers' choices and how scholars orient to and go about their work often remain implicit. In this article, we bring forth a practice theoretical understanding of knowledge production and advocate that researchers turn to examining their own research practice. We ask how to make our own academic knowledge production/research practice more explicit, and why it is important to do so in the context of transformative food studies. To help scholars to reflect on their own research practice, we mobilize the framework of practical activity (FPA). We draw on our own experiences in academia and use our ethnographic studies on self-reliant food production and procurement to illustrate academic knowledge production. Thus, this article provides conceptual and methodological tools for reflection on academic research practice and knowledge production. We argue that it is important for researchers to turn to and improve their own academic practice because it advances academic knowledge production in the domain of transformative food studies and beyond. While we position ourselves within the qualitative research tradition, we believe that the insights of this article can be applied more broadly in different research fields and across various methodological approaches.
  • Lehtonen, Mari; Kekäläinen, Sonja; Nikkilä, Ida; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Tenkanen, Maija; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2020)
    Transportation and storage of vegetables and fruits, including berries, is increasing to meet growing consumer demand for fresh foods. Ripening and softening of plant tissues may be slowed down by hexanal, a safe volatile compound that also has antimicrobial properties. Thus hexanal could be applied during the food distribution chain to slow down the spoilage of plant-based products and reduce food waste. Nonetheless, due to the rapid evaporation of hexanal, a constant supply is needed. Our aim was to develop a concept to incorporate food-grade sunflower oil in a polysaccharide aerogel matrix for controlled in situ production and release of hexanal. We compared enzyme- and light-catalyzed lipid oxidation reactions, determined the release of hexanal at different conditions, and performed storage stability tests of blueberries and cherry tomatoes. The lipid-loaded aerogels assessed here are a potential novel delivery matrix for controlled hexanal formation to extend the shelf life of plant-based products.
  • Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Lemoine, Pablo D.; Larouche, Richard; Meisel, Jose D.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Naranjo, Melisa; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Holguin, Gustavo A.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T. (2020)
    Walking and biking to school represent a source of regular daily physical activity (PA). The objectives of this paper are to determine the associations of distance to school, crime safety, and socioeconomic variables with active school transport (AST) among children from five culturally and socioeconomically different country sites and to describe the main policies related to AST in those country sites. The analytical sample included 2845 children aged 9-11 years from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations between distance, safety and socioeconomic variables, and the odds of engaging in AST. Greater distance to school and vehicle ownership were associated with a lower likelihood of engaging in AST in sites in upper-middle- and high-income countries. Crime perception was negatively associated to AST only in sites in high-income countries. Our results suggest that distance to school is a consistent correlate of AST in different contexts. Our findings regarding crime perception support a need vs. choice framework, indicating that AST may be the only commuting choice for many children from the study sites in upper-middle-income countries, despite the high perception of crime.
  • Manach, Claudine; Milenkovic, Dragan; Van de Wiele, Tom; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; de Roos, Baukje; Teresa Garcia-Conesa, Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Gibney, Eileen R.; Heinonen, Marina; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco; Morand, Christine (2017)
    Bioactive compounds in plant-based foods have health properties that contribute to the prevention of age-related chronic diseases, particularly cardiometabolic disorders. Conclusive proof and understanding of these benefits in humans is essential in order to provide effective dietary recommendations but, so far, the evidence obtained from human intervention trials is limited and contradictory. This is partly due to differences between individuals in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of bioactive compounds, as well as to heterogeneity in their biological response regarding cardiometabolic health outcomes. Identifying the main factors underlying inter-individual differences, as well as developing new and innovative methodologies to account for such variability constitute an overarching goal to ultimately optimize the beneficial health effects of plant food bioactives for each and every one of us. In this respect, this position paper from the COST Action FA1403-POSITIVe examines the main factors likely to affect the individual responses to consumption of plant food bioactives and presents perspectives for assessment and consideration of inter-individual variability.