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  • Berg, Mika Erik Anthon; Naams, Jette-Britt; Hautala, Laura; Tolvanen, Tuomas; Ahonen, Jari; Lehtonen, Sanna; Wähälä, Kristiina (2020)
    A series of substituted sulfonanilide analogs were prepared and evaluated as novel potent inhibitors of SH2 domaincontaining inositol polyphosphate 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2). SHIP2 has been shown to be a new attractive target for the treatment of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which can lead to life-threatening diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Amongst the synthesized compounds, the two most promising candidates, 10 and 11, inhibited SHIP2 significantly. Additionally, these compounds induced Akt activation in a dose-dependent manner, increased the presence of glucose transporter 4 at the plasma membrane, and enhanced glucose uptake in cultured myotubes in vitro at lower concentrations than metformin, the most widely used antidiabetic drug. These results show that the novel SHIP2 inhibitors have insulin sensitizing capacity and provide prototypes for further drug development for T2D and DKD.
  • Lehtonen, Sanna (2020)
    SHIP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5 '-phosphatase 2) belongs to the family of 5 '-phosphatases. It regulates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated insulin signalling cascade by dephosphorylating the 5 '-position of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to generate PtdIns(3,4)P2, suppressing the activity of the pathway. SHIP2 mouse models and genetic studies in human propose that increased expression or activity of SHIP2 contributes to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. This has raised great interest to identify SHIP2 inhibitors that could be used to design new treatments for metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the central mechanisms associated with the development of diabetic kidney disease, including the role of insulin resistance, and then moves on to describe the function of SHIP2 as a regulator of metabolism in mouse models. Finally, the identification of SHIP2 inhibitors and their effects on metabolic processes in vitro and in vivo are outlined. One of the newly identified SHIP2 inhibitors is metformin, the first-line medication prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes, further boosting the attraction of SHIP2 as a treatment target to ameliorate metabolic disorders.