Browsing by Subject "5-FACTOR MODEL"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenstrom, Tom; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Background. Personality has been associated with alcohol use, but less is known about how alcohol use may influence long-term personality trait change. Methods. The present study examines associations between alcohol use and change in the five major personality traits across two measurement occasions (mean follow-up of 5.6 years). A total of 39 722 participants (54% women) were pooled from six cohort studies for an individual-participant meta-analysis. Alcohol use was measured as (1) average alcohol consumption, (2) frequency of binge drinking, (3) symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and (4) a global indicator of risky alcohol use. Changes in the five major personality traits (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were used as outcomes. Results. Risky alcohol use was associated with increasing extraversion [0.25 T-scores over the mean follow-up of 5.6 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.44] and decreasing emotional stability (-0.28; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.08), agreeableness (-0.67; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.36), and conscientiousness (-0.58; 95% CI -0.79 to -0.38). Except the association between alcohol use and extraversion, these associations were consistent across cohort studies and across different measures of alcohol use. Conclusions. These findings suggest that alcohol use is associated with personality trait changes in adulthood.
  • Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Ystrom, Eivind; Rosenstrom, Tom; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted (2021)
    Public Health Significance Both the amount of caffeine people consume and their response to caffeine is heritable. A modest proportion of the genetic influences underlying caffeine use and response is shared with personality and personality disorder traits. Our main aim was to estimate the extent of overlapping etiology between caffeine consumption and response and normative and pathological personality. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify normative personality domains and personality disorder (PD) traits for inclusion in multivariate twin analyses together with individual caffeine related measures. Data were obtained from Norwegian adult twins in a face-to-face interview conducted in 1999-2004 as part of a population-based study of mental health and through self-report in 2010-2011 and 2015-2017. Personality disorder data was available for 2,793 twins, normative personality for 3,889 twins, and caffeine for 3,862 twins (mean age 43.0 years). Normative personality was assessed using the self-reported Big Five Inventory, PD traits were assessed by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, and caffeine consumption, toxicity, tolerance, and withdrawal were assessed through a self-report questionnaire developed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Caffeine measures were found to be moderately heritable, h(2) = 30.1%-45.0%. All normative personality domains and four PD traits, antisocial, borderline, dependent and paranoid, were significantly associated with at least one caffeine variable. A small proportion of variance in caffeine consumption was attributable to genetic factors shared with normative personality (1.3%) and personality disorders (11.4%). A modest proportion of variance in caffeine tolerance and toxicity was attributable to genetic factors shared with both normative personality (26.9%, 24.8%) and personality disorders (21.0%, 36.0%). The present study found caffeine consumption and response to be heritable and provides evidence that a small to-modest proportion of this genetic etiology is shared with both normative and pathological personality.
  • Koski, Sonja E.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Ash, Hayley; Burkart, Judith M.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Weiss, Alexander (2017)
    Increasing evidence suggests that personality structure differs between species, but the evolutionary reasons for this variation are not fully understood. We built on earlier research on New World monkeys to further elucidate the evolution of personality structure in primates. We therefore examined personality in 100 family-reared adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) from 3 colonies on a 60-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses revealed 5 domains that were largely similar to those found in a previous study on captive, ex-pet, or formerly laboratory-housed marmosets that were housed in a sanctuary. The interrater reliabilities of domain scores were consistent with the interrater reliabilities of domain scores found in other species, including humans. Four domainsdmdash; conscientiousness, agreeableness, inquisitiveness, and assertiveness-resembled personality domains identified in other nonhuman primates. The remaining domain, patience, was specific to common marmosets. We used linear models to test for sex and age differences in the personality domains. Males were lower than females in patience, and this difference was smaller in older marmosets. Older marmosets were lower in inquisitiveness. Finally, older males and younger females had higher scores in agreeableness than younger males and older females. These findings suggest that cooperative breeding may have promoted the evolution of social cognition and influenced the structure of marmoset prosocial personality characteristics.
  • van den Berg, Stephanie M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tonu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K.; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Viktorin, Alexander; Wouda, Jasper; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jueri; Bierut, Laura; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Smith, George Davey; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbera; Fox, Jean-Paul; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Giegling, Ina; Gow, Alan J.; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Iacono, William G.; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Lehtimaki, Terho; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Northstone, Kate; Nutile, Teresa; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pattie, Alison; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Polasek, Ozren; Pulkkinen, Lea; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Seppala, Ilkka; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smyth, David C.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Verhagen, Josine; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Rujescu, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Wilson, James F.; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Costa, Paul T.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Evans, David M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2014)
  • Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri (2017)
    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.
  • Ervasti *, Mari; Kallio *, Johanna; Määttänen *, Ilmari; Mäntyjärvi, Jani; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Background: Excessive stress has a negative impact on many aspects of life for both individuals and societies, from studying and working to health and well-being. Each individual has their unique level of stress-proneness, and positive or negative outcomes of stress may be affected by it. Technology-aided interventions have potential efficacy in the self-management of stress. However, current Web-based or mobile stress management solutions may not reach the individuals that would need them the most, that is, stress-sensitive people. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how personality is associated with stress among Finnish university students and their interest to use apps that help in managing stress. Methods: We used 2 structured online questionnaires (combined, n=1001) that were advertised in the University of Helsinki's mailing lists. The first questionnaire (n=635) was used to investigate intercorrelations between the Big Five personality variables (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and other stress-related background variables. The second questionnaire (n=366) was used to study intercorrelations between the above-mentioned study variables and interest in using stress management apps. Results: The quantitative findings of the first questionnaire showed that higher levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with lower self-reported stress. Neuroticism, in turn, was found to be strongly associated with rumination, anxiety, and depression. The findings of the second questionnaire indicated that individuals characterized by the Big Five personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness were particularly interested to use stress management apps (r=.27, P Conclusions: Our results indicated that personality traits may have an influence on the adoption interest of stress management apps. Individuals with high neuroticism are, according to our results, adaptive in the sense that they are interested in using stress management apps that may benefit them. On the contrary, low agreeableness may lead to lower interest to use the mobile stress management apps. The practical implication is that future mobile stress interventions should meaningfully be adjusted to improve user engagement and support health even among less-motivated users, for instance, to successfully engage individuals with low agreeableness.
  • Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Back, Mitja D.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hennecke, Marie; Jokela, Markus; Kandler, Christian; Lucas, Richard E.; Luhmann, Maike; Orth, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Zimmermann, Johannes (2020)
    The importance of personality for predicting life outcomes in the domains of love, work, and health is well established, as is evidence that personality traits, while relatively stable, can change. However, little is known about the sources and processes that drive changes in personality traits and how such changes might impact important life outcomes. In this paper, we make the case that the research paradigms and methodological approaches commonly used in personality psychology need to be revised to advance our understanding of the sources and processes of personality change. We proposeLongitudinal Experience-Wide Association Studiesas a framework for studying personality change that can address the limitations of current methods, and we discuss strategies for overcoming some of the challenges associated withLongitudinal Experience-Wide Association Studies.
  • van den Berg, Stephanie M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tonu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppala, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jueri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Jokela, Markus; Latvala, Antti; Palotie, Aarno; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Kaprio, Jaakko; Räikkönen, Katri; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Generation Scotland (2016)
    Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA studies for extraversion in 63,030 subjects in 29 cohorts. Extraversion item data from multiple personality inventories were harmonized across inventories and cohorts. No genome-wide significant associations were found at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level but there was one significant hit at the gene level for a long non-coding RNA site (LOC101928162). Genome-wide complex trait analysis in two large cohorts showed that the additive variance explained by common SNPs was not significantly different from zero, but polygenic risk scores, weighted using linkage information, significantly predicted extraversion scores in an independent cohort. These results show that extraversion is a highly polygenic personality trait, with an architecture possibly different from other complex human traits, including other personality traits. Future studies are required to further determine which genetic variants, by what modes of gene action, constitute the heritable nature of extraversion.
  • Terracciano, A.; Esko, T.; Sutin, A. R.; de Moor, M. H. M.; Meirelles, O.; Zhu, G.; Tanaka, T.; Giegling, I.; Nutile, T.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Hansell, N. K.; Wright, M. J.; Montgomery, G. W.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M.; Ruggiero, D.; Sorice, R.; Sanna, S.; Cannas, A.; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Cucca, F.; Krueger, R. F.; Lahti, J.; Luciano, M.; Smoller, J. W.; van Duijn, C. M.; Abecasis, G. R.; Boomsma, D. I.; Ciullo, M.; Costa, P. T.; Ferrucci, L.; Martin, N. G.; Metspalu, A.; Rujescu, D.; Schlessinger, D.; Uda, M. (2011)
  • Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Background: Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N = 2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty. Methods: Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty). Results: Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with patients. Conclusions: The results showed distinctive personality traits to be associated with physicians' career and specialty choices after medical school independent of known confounding factors. Openness was the most consistent personality trait associated with physicians' career choices in terms of employment sector, amount of clinical patient contact, specialty choice and change of specialty. Personality-conscious medical career counseling and career guidance during and after medical education might enhance the person-job fit among physicians.
  • Törnroos, Maria; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice. This study suggests that neuroticism, agreeableness and openness are involved in perceptions of organisational justice and that personality should be considered in research and in practices at the workplace.
  • Baryshnikov, Ilya; Joffe, Grigori; Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Aaltonen, Kari; Suominen, Kirsi; Rosenstrom, Tom; Naatanen, Petri; Karpov, Boris; Heikkinen, Martti; Isometsa, Erkki (2017)
    Background: Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. Methods: As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, and multivariate regression (MRA) and mediation analyses were conducted. Results: Spearman's correlations were strong (rho=0.58; p <0.001) between total scores of MSI and S5 Neuroticism and moderate (rho=0.42; p <0.001) between MSI and TADS as well as between MSI and ECR-R Attachment Anxiety. In MRA, young age, S5 Neuroticism and TADS predicted scores of MSI (p <0.001). ECR-R Attachment Anxiety mediated 33% (CI=17-53%) of the relationships between TADS and MSI. Limitations: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Conclusions: We found moderately strong correlations between self-reported BPD features and concurrent high neuroticism, reported childhood traumatic experiences and Attachment Anxiety also among patients with mood disorders. Independent predictors for BPD features include young age, frequency of childhood traumatic experiences and high neuroticism. Insecure attachment may partially mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and borderline features among mood disorder patients.
  • Salonen, Milla; Mikkola, Salla; Hakanen, Emma; Sulkama, Sini; Puurunen, Jenni; Lohi, Hannes (2021)
    Simple Summary Dogs have distinct personalities, meaning differences between individuals that persist throughout their lives. However, it is still unclear what traits are required to define the whole personality of dogs. Personality and unwanted behavior are often studied using behavioral questionnaires, but researchers should ensure that these questionnaires are reliable and valid, meaning that they measure the behavior traits they were intended to measure. In this study, we first examined what traits define a dog's personality. We discovered seven personality traits: Insecurity, Training focus, Energy, Aggressiveness/dominance, Human sociability, Dog sociability and Perseverance. We also studied six unwanted behavior traits: noise sensitivity, fearfulness, aggression (including barking, stranger directed aggression, owner directed aggression and dog directed aggression), fear of surfaces and heights, separation anxiety, and impulsivity/inattention (including hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention). We examined the reliability of these traits by asking some dog owners to answer to the questionnaire twice, several weeks apart, and by asking another family member to answer the questionnaire of the same dog. Furthermore, we studied the validity of these traits by forming predictions based on previous literature. Based on our results, this personality and unwanted behavior questionnaire is a good tool to study dog behavior. Dogs have distinct, consistent personalities, but the structure of dog personality is still unclear. Dog personality and unwanted behavior are often studied with behavioral questionnaires. Even though many questionnaires are reliable and valid measures of behavior, all new questionnaire tools should be extensively validated. Here, we examined the structure of personality and six unwanted behavior questionnaire sections: noise sensitivity, fearfulness, aggression, fear of surfaces and heights, separation anxiety and impulsivity/inattention with factor analyses. Personality consisted of seven factors: Insecurity, Training focus, Energy, Aggressiveness/dominance, Human sociability, Dog sociability and Perseverance. Most unwanted behavior sections included only one factor, but the impulsivity/inattention section divided into two factors (Hyperactivity/impulsivity and Inattention) and the aggression section into four factors (Barking, Stranger directed aggression, Owner directed aggression and Dog directed aggression). We also examined the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability and convergent validity of the 17 personality and unwanted behavior traits and discovered excellent reliability and validity. Finally, we investigated the discriminant validity of the personality traits, which was good. Our findings indicate that this personality and unwanted behavior questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool that can be used to study personality and behavior extensively.
  • Tolonen, Iina; Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Siira, Virva; Kähönen, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    Dispositional compassion has been shown to predict higher well-being and to be associated with lower perceived stress and higher social support. Thus, compassion may be a potential individual factor protecting from job strain. The current study examines (i) whether dispositional compassion predicts job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) or does the predictive relationship run from job strain and ERI to dispositional compassion and (ii) the effect of dispositional compassion on the developmental trajectory of job strain and ERI over a 11-year follow-up. We used data from the Young Finns study (n=723) between 2001 and 2012. The direction of the predictive relationships was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models. Compassion's effect on the trajectories of job strain, ERI, and their components was examined with multilevel models. First, the cross-lagged panel models demonstrated there was no evidence for the predictive pathways between compassion and job strain or its components. However, the predictive pathways from high dispositional compassion to low ERI and high rewards had better fit to the data than the predictive pathways in the opposite direction. In addition, multilevel models showed that high compassion predicted various job characteristics from early adulthood to middle age (lower job strain and higher job control as well as lower ERI and higher reward). Compassion did not predict job demand/effort. The findings were obtained independently of age, gender, and socioeconomic factors in childhood and adulthood. These findings indicate that compassion may be beneficial in work context. Further, compassion might be useful in the management or prevention of some aspects of strain. Our study provides new insight about the role of compassion in work life.
  • Modic, David; Palomäki, Jussi; Drosinou, Marianna; Laakasuo, Michael (2018)
    We evaluated how the dark triad (DT) personality traits (Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Narcissism) influence willingness to claim for insurance in an online setting. In two mTurk studies (Ns 344 and 699) we created realistic online insurance claim tasks where participants could file claims for insured household items they had supposedly broken. We predicted “fibbing” (i.e., overclaiming the item values) in these tasks using the DT traits. However, within Study 2, we included monetary incentives and situational factors relating to claiming—that is, whether the items were broken in anger, while drunk, or by sheer accident. In both studies all DT traits predicted fibbing, but the results were weak for psychopathy in Study 1, while in Study 2 psychopathy was the strongest individual predictor of fibbing. Our results help understand why certain people are willing to commit insurance fraud, and provide an opening for further interdisciplinary research on insurance and personality science.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylha, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2014)
  • Middeldorp, C. M.; de Moor, M. H. M.; McGrath, L. M.; Gordon, S. D.; Blackwood, D. H.; Costa, P. T.; Terracciano, A.; Krueger, R. F.; de Geus, E. J. C.; Nyholt, D. R.; Tanaka, T.; Esko, T.; Madden, P. A. F.; Derringer, J.; Amin, N.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Distel, M. A.; Uda, M.; Sanna, S.; Spinhoven, P.; Hartman, C. A.; Ripke, S.; Sullivan, P. F.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Heath, A. C.; Pergadia, M. L.; Agrawal, A.; Lin, P.; Grucza, R. A.; Widen, E.; Cousminer, D. L.; Eriksson, J. G.; Palotie, A.; Barnett, J. H.; Lee, P. H.; Luciano, M.; Tenesa, A.; Davies, G.; Lopez, L. M.; Hansell, N. K.; Medland, S. E.; Ferrucci, L.; Schlessinger, D.; Montgomery, G. W.; Wright, M. J.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.; Oostra, B. A.; Metspalu, A.; Abecasis, G. R.; Deary, I. J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Bierut, L. J.; Martin, N. G.; Wray, N. R.; van Duijn, C. M.; Smoller, J. W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Boomsma, D. I. (2011)
  • Törnroos, Maria; Jokela, Markus; Hakulinen, Christian (2019)
    Research shows that people select themselves and are selected into occupations, partly because of their personality, and this has implications for their person-environment fit. Although it has been shown that personality congruence between the individual and the environment is important to job satisfaction, the effect of personality congruence in occupations on job satisfaction is not well understood. In a sample of 22,787 individuals, nested within 25 occupational groups from the British Household Panel Survey and the UK Household Longitudinal Study, we examined (1) whether average levels of personality vary across occupational groups, and (2) whether there is a cross-level interaction between the occupational mean personality and the individual's personality, with job satisfaction. We found there were modest differences across occupational groups in all FFM traits. Neuroticism and openness interacted with the corresponding mean personality, showing that for these traits the fit between an individual's personality and the average personality of the occupation makes a difference for job satisfaction.
  • Tölli, Pekka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Lehtimäki, Terho; Ravaja, Niklas; Hintsanen, Mirka; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Pahkala, Katja; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Tossavainen, Päivi; Taittonen, Leena; Dobewall, Henrik; Jokinen, Eero; Raitakari, Olli; Cloninger, C. Robert; Rovio, Suvi; Saarinen, Aino (2022)
    We investigated whether temperament modifies an association between polygenic intelligence potential and cognitive test performance in midlife. The participants (n = 1647, born between 1962 and 1977) were derived from the Young Finns Study. Temperament was assessed with Temperament and Character Inventory over a 15-year follow-up (1997, 2001, 2007, 2012). Polygenic intelligence potential was assessed with a polygenic score for intelligence. Cognitive performance (visual memory, reaction time, sustained attention, spatial working memory) was assessed with CANTAB in midlife. The PGSI was significantly associated with the overall cognitive performance and performance in visual memory, sustained attention and working memory tests but not reaction time test. Temperament did not correlate with polygenic score for intelligence and did not modify an association between the polygenic score and cognitive performance, either. High persistence was associated with higher visual memory (B = 0.092; FDR-adj. p = 0.007) and low harm avoidance with higher overall cognitive performance, specifically better reaction time (B = -0.102; FDR-adj; p = 0.007). The subscales of harm avoidance had different associations with cognitive performance: higher "anticipatory worry," higher "fatigability," and lower "shyness with strangers" were associated with lower cognitive performance, while the role of "fear of uncertainty" was subtest-related. In conclusion, temperament does not help or hinder one from realizing their genetic potential for intelligence. The overall modest relationships between temperament and cognitive performance advise caution if utilizing temperament-related information e.g. in working-life recruitments. Cognitive abilities may be influenced by temperament variables, such as the drive for achievement and anxiety about test performance, but they involve distinct systems of learning and memory.