Browsing by Subject "5-HT1A RECEPTORS"

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  • Aitta-aho, Teemu; Maksimovic, Milica; Dahl, Kristiina; Sprengel, Rolf; Korpi, Esa R. (2019)
    Gene-targeted mice with deficient AMPA receptor GluA1 subunits (Gria1-/- mice) show robust hyperlocomotion in a novel environment, suggesting them to constitute a model for hyperactivity disorders such as mania, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This behavioral alteration has been associated with increased neuronal activation in the hippocampus, and it can be attenuated by chronic treatment with antimanic drugs, such as lithium, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Now we found that systemic cannabidiol strongly blunted the hyperactivity and the hippocampal c-Fos expression of the Gria1-/- mice, while not affecting the wild-type littermate controls. Acute bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal infusion of cannabidiol partially blocked the hyperactivity of the Gria1-/- mice, but had no effect on wild-types. The activation of the inhibitory DREADD receptor hM4Gi in the dorsal hippocampus by clozapine-N-oxide robustly inhibited the hyperactivity of the Gria1-/- mice, but had no effect on the locomotion of wild-type mice. Our results show that enhanced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus is associated with pronounced novelty-induced hyperactivity of GluA1 subunit-deficient mice. When this enhanced response of hippocampal neurons to novel stimuli is specifically reduced in the hippocampus by pharmacological treatment or by chemogenetic inhibition, Gria1-/- mice recover from behavioral hyperactivity, suggesting a hippocampal dysfunction in hyperactive behaviors that can be treated with cannabidiol.
  • Martikainen, Ilkka K.; Hagelberg, Nora; Jääskelainen, Satu K.; Hietala, Jarmo; Pertovaara, Antti (2018)
    Here we review the literature assessing the roles of the brain dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the modulation of pain as revealed by in vivo human studies using positron emission tomography. In healthy subjects, dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor availability particularly in the striatum and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor availabilities in the cortex predict the subject's response to tonic experimental pain. High availability of dopamine D-2/D-3 or serotonin 5-HT2A receptors is associated with high pain intensity, whereas high availability of 5-HT1A receptors associates with low pain intensity. Chronic neuropathic pain is associated with high striatal dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor availability, for which low endogenous dopamine tone is a plausible explanation, although a compensatory increase in striatal dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor density may also contribute. In contrast, chronic musculoskeletal pain is associated with low baseline availability of striatal dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors. In healthy subjects, brain serotonin 5-HT1A as well as dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor availabilities associate with the subject's response criterion rather than the capacity to discriminate painful thermal stimuli suggesting that these neurotransmitter systems act mainly on non-sensory rather than sensory factors of thermally induced pain experience. Additionally, 5-HT1A receptor availability predicts the subject's discriminative ability but not response criterion for non-painful tactile test stimuli, while no such correlation is observed with dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors. These findings suggest that dopamine acting on striatal dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors and serotonin acting on cortical 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors contribute to top-down pain regulation in humans.
  • Kraus, Christoph; Castrén, Eero; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert (2017)
    Serotonin modulates neuroplasticity, especially during early life, and dysfunctions in both systems likewise contribute to pathophysiology of depression. Recent findings demonstrate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors trigger reactivation of juvenile-like neuroplasticity. How these findings translate to clinical antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder remains unclear. With this review, we link preclinical with clinical work on serotonin and neuroplasticity to bring two pathophysiologic models in clinical depression closer together. Dysfunctional developmental plasticity impacts on later-life cognitive and emotional functions, changes of synaptic serotonin levels and receptor levels are coupled with altered synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients reveals disease-state-specific reductions of gray matter, a marker of neuroplasticity, and reversibility upon selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Translational evidence from magnetic resonance imaging in animals support that reduced densities and sizes of neurons and reduced hippocampal volumes in depressive patients could be attributable to changes of serotonergic neuroplasticity. Since ketamine, physical exercise or learning enhance neuroplasticity, combinatory paradigms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors could enhance clinical treatment of depression. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.