Browsing by Subject "5144 Social psychology"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 261
  • Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Szabo, Zsolt Peter; Kelemen, Laszlo (2021)
    The authoritarian personality is characterized by unquestionining obedience and respect to authority. System justification theory (SJT) argues that people are motivated to defend, bolster, and justify aspects of existing social, economic, and political systems. Commitment to the status quo is also a key characteristic of the authoritarian personality. It can be argued that the social context matters for how an underlying latent authoritarian character is expressed. This means that authoritarian regimes could be expected to lead to increased authoritarianism and stronger system-justification. We investigated this hypothesis in two representative samples of Hungarians, collected before (2010) and after (2018) 8 years of Fidesz' rule (N = 1,000 in both samples). Moreover, the strong version of SJT argues that members of disadvantaged groups are likely to experience the most cognitive dissonance and that the need to reduce this dissonance makes them the most supportive of the status quo. This argument dovetails nicely with claims made by the political opposition to Fidesz, according to which Fidesz is especially popular among low-status members of society. We found that measures assessing authoritarian tendencies did not change between 2010 and 2018. However, more specific beliefs and attitudes did change, and these effects were especially pronounced among Fidesz supporters. Their belief in a just world and a just system has grown stronger, while their attitudes toward migrants had hardened. Low status was associated with lower levels of system-justifying ideologies. However, low status Fidesz voters justified the system more than high status opposition voters in 2018, lending some support for the strong version of SJT. Our results suggest that beliefs and attitudes of Hungarians have changed between 2010 and 2018, and that political leadership played a crucial role in this.
  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Kellezi, Blerina; Guxholli, Aurora; Stevenson, Clifford; Ruth Helen Wakefield, Juliet; Bowe, Mhairi; Bridger, Kay (2021)
    Although Social Cure research shows the importance of family identification in one's ability to cope with stress, there remains little understanding of family responses to human rights violations. This is the first study to explore the role of family identity in the collective experience of such violations: meanings ascribed to suffering, family coping strategies, and family-based understandings of justice. Semi-structured interviews (N = 27) with Albanian dictatorship survivors were analysed using Social Identity Theory informed thematic analysis. The accounts reveal Social Cure processes at work, whereby family groups facilitated shared meaning-making, uncertainty reduction, continuity, resilience-building, collective self-esteem, and support, enhanced through common fate experiences. As well as being curative, families were contexts for Social Curse processes, as relatives shared suffering and consequences collectively, while also experiencing intergenerational injustice and trauma. Although seeking and achieving justice remain important, the preservation of family identity is one of the triumphs in these stories of suffering.
  • Mietola, Reetta; Vehmas, Simo (2019)
    This paper discusses youth and the significance of age in the lives of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. The analysis is based on an ethnographic research project that explores what makes a good life for this group of people. The findings indicate that whilst the meaning and significance of youth and age were discussed often by care workers and family members, age had very little significance in the lives of our research participants. Youth as a phase of life gets lost in the transition from children's services to adult services: age in the lives of persons with profound intellectual disabilities means merely a move from one service system to another. For the care workers, age provides a way to evaluate and criticize the service system and whether it caters for the individual needs of persons with profound intellectual disabilities.
  • Turjanmaa, Elina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2020)
    In general, parental knowledge is known to support adolescents’ adaptation. Less is known about the role of parental knowledge in psychological (i.e., anxiety) and socio-cultural (i.e., school achievement) adaptation of adolescents with immigrant background, and how parental knowledge and social characteristics (i.e., gender, generational status, immigrant background, and family’ socioeconomic background) of immigrant adolescents jointly influence their adaptation outcomes. This study explores the role of adolescent-reported parental knowledge in explaining adaptation outcomes among first- and second-generation immigrant boys and girls from four different immigrant groups. The study utilizes the national Finnish School Health Promotion survey data (N = 2697, 45% female, M age = 15.6 years, SD = .91) and illustrates the complex relationship between parental knowledge and adolescents’ adaptation.
  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2018)
    The following poem crystallizes some of the core dilemmas and affects I have encountered in my research on the challenging and complex topic of women as perpetrators of violence. It engages, in particular, with the topic of emotions in research (e.g., Dickson-Swift et al. 2009); relations among research topics, theories, and methodologies; the possibilities for fluidity in these relations (see, e.g., Childers 2014); and the dilemmas in researching groups designated as "other" in wide-ranging socio- cultural practices (Kitzinger & Wilkinson 1996). Through the engagements with these issues, the poem also attunes to ambivalent relations between different research paradigms and their epistemological and ontological background assumptions. This attunement takes inspiration from socalled postqualitative approaches (St. Pierre 2011) that are based on questioning the assumptions at the very core of conventional research practices in qualitative inquiry and hence on troubling their taken-forgrantedness. The use of art forms such as poetic writing allows for practicing research in ways that question conventional methodologies by pointing toward a plurality of meanings that exceeds simplistic or reductionist interpretations (Richardson & St. Pierre 2005). It can therefore enhance reflexivity and ethicality in research by laying emphasis on the existence of alternatives in terms of approaches adopted and interpretations made. In line with these thoughts, the following poem aims to engage with the tension between different approaches and in relations between approaches and research areas, without attempting to dissolve it. To ensure anonymity, the descriptions of research encounters in the poem are purposefully vague and not based on any singular encounters but amalgams of various ones.
  • Mäkinen, Viivi; Liebkind, Karmela; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna (2019)
    Existing prejudice-reduction interventions in schools mainly target majority students and are mostly conducted by researchers, which limits their use for anti-discriminatory practices in culturally mixed schools. We tested a teacher-led intervention aiming at prejudice-reduction among both minority and majority adolescents through vicarious contact. The effects of indirect vicarious contact rest on observed ingroup role models of intergroup contact who have positive attitudes towards the outgroup, and vice versa. However, the specific impact of vicarious contact exerted by outgroup role models in comparison with ingroup role models has never been studied in interventions conducted in naturalistic school settings. To fill these gaps, a field experiment was conducted among secondary school students in Finland (N-majority = 437; N-minority = 146). The experiment consisted of two stages, between which the ethnic status of the role models (majority vs minority) in stories read during the intervention sessions was changed. This was done to explore the impact of the in- and outgroup role models after the first stage, and to test the overall effect of the intervention on out-group attitudes and perceived in- and outgroup norms after participants were presented with both majority and minority storytellers after the second stage. The intervention affected the perceived outgroup norms among the minority participants as they perceived norms prevailing in the majority group to be more positive after the intervention. However, the ethnic status of the role models made no difference for any outcome variable. Ways to implement scientific knowledge into practice by providing research-based tools for multicultural education are discussed.
  • Kaaronen, Roope Oskari (2018)
    This article is a comparative study between predictive processing (PP, or predictive coding) and cognitive dissonance (CD) theory. The theory of CD, one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology, is shown to be highly compatible with recent developments in PP. This is particularly evident in the notion that both theories deal with strategies to reduce perceived error signals. However, reasons exist to update the theory of CD to one of “predictive dissonance.” First, the hierarchical PP framework can be helpful in understanding varying nested levels of CD. If dissonance arises from a cascade of downstream and lateral predictions and consequent prediction errors, dissonance can exist at a multitude of scales, all the way up from sensory perception to higher order cognitions. This helps understand the previously problematic dichotomy between “dissonant cognitive relations” and “dissonant psychological states,” which are part of the same perception-action process while still hierarchically distinct. Second, since PP is action-oriented, it can be read to support recent action-based models of CD. Third, PP can potentially help us understand the recently speculated evolutionary origins of CD. Here, the argument is that responses to CD can instill meta-learning which serves to prevent the overfitting of generative models to ephemeral local conditions. This can increase action-oriented ecological rationality and enhanced capabilities to interact with a rich landscape of affordances. The downside is that in today’s world where social institutions such as science a priori separate noise from signal, some reactions to predictive dissonance might propagate ecologically unsound (underfitted, confirmation-biased) mental models such as climate denialism.
  • Seppälä, Tuija; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Lipsanen, Jari Olavi (2012)
    In this article, we present a trust-focused model for understanding leader’s fairness enactment. The model suggests that leaders are motivated to act fairly to gain subordinates’ trust, to show trust in their subordinates, to show that they are worth the subordinates’ trust in them, and because they are willing to be vulnerable to the actions of cooperative subordinates. The mediating role of the leader’s trust in the relationship between a subordinate’s cooperation and the leader’s fairness is also tested.
  • Renko, Elina; Knittle, Keegan; Palsola, Minttu Anna Marjukka; Lintunen, Taru; Hankonen, Nelli (2020)
    Background: To achieve real-world impacts, behavior change interventions need to be scaled up and broadly implemented. Implementation is challenging however, and the factors influencing successful implementation are not fully understood. This study describes the nationwide implementation of a complex theory-based program targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in vocational schools (Lets’s Move It; LMI). The implementation primarily involved a systematic and theory-based training and user manual for school staff. We explore how the perceived acceptability of this training (in line with the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability) relates to (un) successful implementation. The study evaluates (1) the experienced acceptability of the training and anticipated acceptability of later delivering the program; (2) reach and implementation, including adaptations and barriers; (3) whether acceptability ratings predict teachers’ intentions for implementation. Methods: Upper secondary school staff from vocational and high schools (n = 194) enrolled in a two-part training, covering implementation of the LMI program and training in motivational interaction styles. One hundred fifty-one participants attended both parts of the training. Participants reported their perceived acceptability of the training and their implementation efforts in online questionnaires at baseline, after training sessions and at long-term follow-up. Qualitative data (open-ended questions) were analysed with content analysis to collate responses. Quantitative data analyses involved correlations and logistic regression. Results: Participants rated the training as highly acceptable on all dimensions (average ratings exceeded 4.0 on a 5-point scale). The implementation reached at least 6100 students and 341 school classes. Most teachers intended to continue program implementation. Acceptability ratings explained 51.7% of teachers’ intentions to implement the student program ( 2 = 30.08; df = 8; p < .001), with affective attitude, perceived effectiveness and self-efficacy the most influential. Teachers commonly reported condensing program content, and reported deficits of time and collegial support as common barriers to implementation. Conclusion: High acceptability and reach of the training indicate strong potential for implementation success. Multiple facets of acceptability seem important to successful implementation. Future research should explore ways to improve acceptability, thereby promoting successful implementation in real-world settings.
  • Liebkind, Karmela; Mähönen, Tuuli Anna Elisa; Varjonen, Sirkku Anneli; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (Cambrigde University Press, 2016)
  • Voutilainen, Liisa; Henttonen, Pentti; Kahri, Mikko; Kivioja, Maari; Ravaja, Niklas; Sams, Mikko; Perakyla, Anssi (2014)
  • Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Gelfand, Michele J.; Crippa, Franca; Suttora, Chiara; Stillwell, Amelia; Asbrock, Frank; Aycan, Zeynep; Bye, Hege H.; Carlsson, Rickard; Bjorklund, Fredrik; Dagher, Munqith; Geller, Armando; Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Latif, Abdel-Hamid Abdel; Mahonen, Tuuli Anna; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Teymoori, Ali (2017)
    A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations (n = 4,344), investigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with intermediate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship between ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereotype ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality-ambivalence relationship.
  • Satchell, Liam Paul; Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Latzman, Robert D. (2021)
    The ecological approach to perception highlights how organisms engage in active perception and that the environment is understood relative to an individual's physical traits. Personality research draws attention to the variability in psychological traits that affect the way individuals differentially explore and anticipate the world. The current paper identifies compatibilities in these fields and suggests that personality both initiates and perpetuates the manner with which individuals engage in active perception. Personality traits both drive and limit perceptual refinement of the world and also lead to the construction of niches to suit personality. Here, we explore the benefits for considering individual differences in perception and active perception in regards to personality theory, comparative psychology, mental health, research methodology, and intervention. We conclude by encouraging both ecological and personality research to consider the benefits of understanding personality traits as mechanisms for initiating or constraining active perception.
  • Menard, Rusten Lyn (2018)
    Modalities are fundamental in building, maintaining and contesting ideological systems. While modalities have been described as resources for constructing both representational and interpersonal aspects of reality and truth, the analytical focus has been on modalities as a relationship between authors, their texts and their audiences, i.e. on their interpersonal functions. Informed by a framework on modalities for discourse analyses of values, Hodge and Kress’s theory on ideological complexes and Fairclough’s three-dimensional conception of discourse, in this paper I develop a method for examining modalities as resources for building dominant and counter discourses. I use example excerpts that come from my research on Finnish equality discourses to build and demonstrate the method. The example texts were written by people who are differently positioned in relation to salient norms and institutions on gender/sex and sociability: people contacted through a national random sample, people diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, and people with transgender experiences. The method allows not only for systematic examinations of how modalities function in ordering power-imbalanced interpersonal relations but also attends to an underexplored dimension dealing with how modalities work in ideological representation.
  • Menard, Rusten (2016)
    This article contributes to the concept of social values by presenting analytical tools that explore how social values are classified, re-presented and interpersonally performed in the construction of identities. I approach social values as classificatory systems of acceptability and desirability that are collectively generated. The meanings of social values are embedded in culture and in power imbalanced social relations; they constantly undergo reformulation in identification processes and are also used to define the social order. I suggest that social values can be analysed in relation to aspects of representation and interpersonal positioning that are also involved in the construction of identities: Value classifications involve compartmentalising moral orders into e.g. good, desirable, important, necessary; value projects are concerned with how value classifications and content occupy roles and become oriented to action; and value positioning is concerned with how narrators align with value classifications and projects as well as with individuals and groups seen to share or reject such classifications and projects.