Browsing by Subject "5145 Social work"

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  • Outila, Marjo; Kiuru, Hilla (2021)
    Technology has been considered an important means to deliver services in a cost-effective manner in societies that are aging and implementing austerity policies. In this article, we analyze older adults' use of assistive technology, the picturephone, in home care by combining actor-network theory (ANT) and Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA). We also apply Foucault's concepts of technologies of the self, regimen, and resistance. Our research materials consist of interviews with eight Northern Finnish older adults and observation data. According to our results, technological translation takes place when users associate picturephone technology with the discourses on health and safety, connectedness, and/or learning. When the technology discourse collides with or deviates from these discourses, it disrupts the technological translation, and older adults do not include the picturephone technology in their regimen, their daily life. In Finland, care policy favors technology and pursues its adoption in older adults' care. In our case, private companies, care workers, technology advisers, family members, and older adults are recruited to join this effort. Older adults' position in their social-material networks varies strongly in the different phases of the translation, and their technologies of the self have a significant effect on its outcome. This should be considered when designing and utilizing ICT technologies in elderly care.
  • Tarkiainen, Laura (2020)
    This article provides a rhetorical discourse analysis of constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness. Data consist of transcripts from Finnish parliament members debating the ‘Activation Model for Unemployment Security’, from December 2017. In the analysis, three discursive constructions of unemployed people’s deservingness were identified: an ‘effortful citizen lacking control’, a ‘needy citizen deserving the welfare state’s reciprocal acts’ and an ‘undeserving freeloader in need of an attitude adjustment’. Analysis focuses on how deservingness and undeservingness are rhetorically accomplished and treated as factual in parliament members’ accounts. The analysis pays particular attention to the question of how speakers build factuality through the management of categories, extreme case formulations, ‘truth talk’ and maximisation and minimisation strategies. The results reflect the negotiated nature of deservingness as well as varying constructions of unemployed people’s responsibility in the contemporary Nordic welfare state context.
  • Clarke, Kris (2021)
    Despite the many years of reform since the Civil Rights movement, racial justice in the United States has remained elusive because of the endemic nature of racism and anti-Blackness at all levels of American society, including the structures of the welfare state. Using a critical race theory approach, this article examines the evolution of structural social policies from the Great Society of the 1960s to the devolved entrepreneurialism of neoliberalism at the turn of the millennium. If the large-scale social programs of the American welfare state were seen as the only entity with sufficient capacity to collectively change structural racism in the Great Society, neoliberalism brought an austere decentralized vision of social policy that sought to roll back collective security in favor of individual responsibility and risk. Social enterprise emerged in the 1990s as a highly touted method to achieve social justice on the grassroots level amidst the rise of neoliberal ideologies that hollowed out many of the core programs of the American social welfare state. Many extolled the value of social enterprise as a rigorous way to apply efficient business methods to social welfare without taking into account the history of Black enterprise. The neoliberal logic of social enterprise ultimately deters systemic thinking because it focuses on individual abilities and uplift, rather than institutional and structural change. The article ends by reflecting on how the radical imagination of social movements like Black Lives Matter might contribute to achieving racial justice in the United States by re-envisioning collective welfare.
  • Oskarsson, Sofi; Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Andersson, Anneli; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Latvala, Antti; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Raine, Adrian; Patrick, Christopher J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Tuvblad, Catherine (2022)
    Background: We examined associations of adverse perinatal events with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions in men and women. Methods: All singleton births between 1973 and 1995 (n = 1,146,570 men, n = 1,085,217 women) were identified through Swedish population-based registers. Information about adverse perinatal events was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Outcomes were criminal convictions collected from the National Crime Register. We estimated absolute and relative risks of being convicted of criminal convictions using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival analyses for men and women separately. We also tested for differences in magnitudes of associations for men versus women. Results: Several adverse perinatal events were associated with an increased risk of violent and non-violent criminal convictions in both men and women. Associations between low birth weight, smallness relative to gestational age and preterm birth with non-violent criminal convictions were statistically significantly higher for men than for women. There was a dose-dependent association between adverse perinatal events with violent and non-violent criminal convictions for both men and women, indicated by the strengthened magnitude of HR estimates with exposure to an increasing number of adverse perinatal events. Conclusions: Adverse perinatal events are associated with violent and non-violent criminal convictions in men and women, with some differences in risk estimates between sexes. Findings are compatible with theoretical accounts implicating disruption of the neurodevelopment during the perinatal period.
  • Rossi, Eeva; Seppänen, Varpu Marjaana; Outila, Marjo (2018)
    The purpose of this article is to identify, analyse and interpret key practices and knowledge in gerontological social work. This article explores social work practices and knowledge in the context of gerontological rehabilitation using data gathered through thematic and dialogical interviews with seven social workers. In those interviews, social workers described their daily work with older adults. Using frame analysis, the data revealed assessment, support and care-taking frames which included many practices. The social work knowledge consist of factual, theoretical, procedural and practical and personal knowledge. Furthermore, clients’ personal knowledge is essential in social work practices of every kind. The study findings identify the importance of support and care-taking practices in gerontological rehabilitation, as well as a need for extensive social work knowledge.
  • Pötzsch, Tobias (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)
    This chapter explores how an anti-oppressive practice (AOP) perspective can inform contested understandings of social inclusion within the LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada) integration program at NorQuest College in Edmonton, Canada. Based on research findings obtained during case study fieldwork, it examines how inclusion is negotiated by program participants and juxtaposes this with anti-oppressive practice principles. In so doing, it offers valuable perspectives for critical and anti-racist discourses in adult education. The data for this studies includes in-depth individual interviews with LINC teachers, administrators and counsellors, group interviews with students and 1.5 months of participant observation. Interview transcripts and observation logs were analysed using inductive content analysis. The empirical findings illustrate the need for educational providers seeking to implement policies of inclusion to transcend their institutional boundaries by adopting structural, cross-sectorial and distinctly political responses. These include creating more egalitarian educational partnerships with all stakeholders comprising teachers, students and community organisations involved in LINC. Responses further entail re-examining institutional procedures, curricular mandates, as well as promoting public education programs and collective political mobilisation to address the structural factors circumscribing the lives of migrant students. A complementary finding in furthering inclusion suggests that components of social criticism and critical citizenship focusing on students’ own experiences should become more entrenched within NorQuest’s integration educations.
  • Grönlund, Henrietta (Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, 2019)
    Studia Fennica Historica
  • Granholm, Camilla (2016)
    This article presents a qualitative study of ICT use among Finnish young people attending training programmes for youth outside employment and education. The data come from six focus group interviews and three individual interviews, as well as a single focus group interview with involved supervisors. The data was analyzed using McQuail's (1983) theory regarding the motives for individual media use. The results show that the young people use ICT primarily for entertainment, but their use is diverse. Young people choose the tools and dimensions for interaction that best fulfill their needs, blending together ingredients from both online and offline sources. Unlike previous research, young people in this study stated that they prefer talking to someone face-to-face about severe (health-related or emotional) problems. If social and youth services want to meet young people on their own terms, both online and offline services are needed.
  • Outila, Marjo; Seppänen, Varpu Marjaana; Lantela, Pilvikki; Vasari, Pekka (Springer, 2019)
    International Perspectives on Aging
    In recent years, Finnish care policy has emphasised that older people should remain at home for as long as possible. Since the final stages of life and death will theoretically happen more often in the home, it is important to identify people’s experiences and needs regarding end-of-life care and dying. The aim of this article is to provide knowledge on these questions from the perspective of the Northern Finnish people (N = 294). Statistical analysis was used with data gathered from a survey of a random sample. People’s wishes for their end-of-life place and carers and their end-of-life plans and concerns, are analysed as part of a social and cultural construction of dying and end-of-life care. The results show that people do have end-of-life concerns and that they consider end-of-life planning important but that few preparations are actually made. In many instances, home is regarded as the best place for end-of-life care and dying, but care institutions are also regarded positively. Reliance on professional care is very strong, even though people hope to receive care from family members as well. The results are discussed in the light of Finnish care policy and end-of-life culture.
  • Kallström, Agneta; Häkkinen , Mikko; al-Abdulla, Orwa; Juusola, Hannu; Kauhanen , Jussi (2021)
    Health care is attacked in many contemporary conflicts despite the Geneva Conventions. The war in Syria has become notorious for targeted violence against health care. This qualitative study describes health care workers’ experi-ences of violence using semi-structured interviews (n = 25) with professionals who have been working in Syria. The participants were selected using a snow-ball sampling method and interviewed in Turkey and Europe between 2016– 2017. Analysis was conducted using content analysis. Results revealed that the most destructive and horrific forms of violence health care workers have experienced were committed mostly by the Government of Syria and the Islamic State. Non-state armed groups and Kurdish Forces have also committed acts of violence against health care, though their scope and scale were con-sidered to have a lower mortality. The nature of violence has evolved during the conflict: starting from verbal threats and eventually leading to hospital bomb-ings. Health care workers were not only providers of health care to injured demonstrators, they also participated in non- violent anti-government actions. The international community has not taken action to protect health care in Syria. For health workers finding safe environments in which to deliver health care has been impossible.
  • Moula, Munjur E; Törrönen, Maritta (2016)
    This review presents the life conditions of street children in Bangladesh. These children are portrayed as displaying socially unacceptable attributes which excluded them from the mainstream of society. It is argued that the identification of street children is one of the main barriers in this regard. Meta-synthesis of qualitative approach used for the literature review. Discussions on concepts and categories of street children can give us a holistic picture about how street children are being evaluated in the existing literature. It is also argued that the new criteria to identify street children will help us to develop better understanding of the situation in relation to street children in Bangladesh. This review proposes a set of criteria, in relation to the experiences from the review of the general literature, authors fieldwork experiences, and corroborated with first author’s long term career under social work and children programming.
  • Kääriäinen, Aino; Muurinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    University of Helsinki – Publications of the Faculty of Social Sciences
  • Blomberg-Kroll, Helena; Kroll, Christian; Meeuwisse, Anna; Scaramuzzino, Roberto (Universita degli studi di Genova,, 2020)
  • Snellman, Fredrik Nils Christian; Nygård, Mikael; Jungerstam, Susanna (2013)
  • Waldegrave, Charles; Aartsen, Marja; Lowenstein, Ariela; Seppänen, Marjaana; Niemi, Mia; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Lamura, Giovanni (Springer, 2021)
    International Perspectives on Aging
    This chapter brings together three dimensions of negative social relations as they impinge on and are experienced by older people, which have not been addressed together in previous studies. Each dimension, conflictual relationships, abuse and discrimination, is characterised by demeaning social interactions that are important to address when considering social exclusion in ageing societies. Five national studies were carried out in Norway, Finland, Israel, Italy and New Zealand. The studies in each dimension confirmed many of the findings of earlier research that have identified the negative health and social relations associations with each dimension. The three dimensions that are usually studied within their own boundaries are brought together to demonstrate the similar way each reduces the quality of life and social inclusion of older people. They function as exclusionary mechanisms in comparable ways within the social relations domain and have an important place in a conceptual framework of old-age social exclusion. While previous research has focussed on each dimension separately, this lens on the similarities and interrelationships of the three dimensions has enabled a broader understanding of exclusionary mechanisms. It also enables more comprehensive and effective policy formation, than a focus on one dimension at a time.
  • Törrönen, Lea Maritta (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2018)
    Routledge Advances in Social Work
  • Pötzsch, Tobias (2020)
    This article represents a synopsis of research find-ings obtained during multiple case study field-work in Finland and Canada (2015-2017) exam-ining implementations of critical social inclusion in integration educations, specifically Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) and Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC). Anti-oppressive methodologies (AOP), as well as perspectives inte-grated from Critical Whiteness Studies (CWS) and Critical Migration Studies (CMS) with their ideals of challenging structural racism and working for social change inform critical social inclusion as well as the study’s research design. The empirical findings show that social inclusion within SFI and LINC programs was tangled, episodic, and far from straightforward. Its implementation de-pended upon a number of enabling and disabling factors such as the role ascribed to language ac-quisition and critical citizenship perspectives in curricula, interrogations of civic integrationism and institutional whiteness within programs, as well as the prevailing political climates outside of the classroom. A pivotal conclusion is that if crit-ical perspectives of social inclusion are to become a lived reality for all program participants, then majorities must also be subjected to integration regimes.
  • Eivergård, Kristina; Enmarker, Ingela; Livholts, Mona Birgitta; Aléx, Lena; Hellzén, Ove (2021)
    Aims and objectives To examine how gendered discursive norms and notions of masculinity and femininity were (re)produced in professional conversations about users of long‐term municipality psychiatric care. Focus is on the staff’s use of language in relation to gender constructions. Background Psychiatric care in Sweden has undergone tremendous changes in recent decades from custodian care in large hospitals to a care mainly located in a municipal context. People who need psychiatric care services often live in supporting houses. In municipal psychiatric care, staff conduct weekly professional meetings to discuss daily matters and the users’ needs. Official reports of the Swedish government have shown that staff in municipal care services treat disabled women and men differently. Studies exploring gender in relation to users of long‐term psychiatric care in municipalities have problematised the care and how staff, through language, construct users’ gender. Therefore, language used by staff is a central tool for ascribing different gender identities of users. Design The content of speech derived from audio recordings were analysed using Foucauldian discursive analysis. The COREQ checklist was used in this article. Results The results indicate that by relying on gender discourses, staff create a conditional care related to how the users should demonstrate good conduct. In line with that, an overall discourse was created: Disciplined into good conduct. It was underpinned by three discourses inherent therein: The unreliable drinker and the confession, Threatened dignity, Doing different femininities. Conclusion The community psychiatric context generates a discourse of conduct in which staff, via spoken language (re)produces gendered patterns and power imbalances as a means to manage daily work routines. Such practices of care, in which constant, nearly panoptic, control despite the intention to promote autonomy, urgently require problematising current definitions of good conduct and normality.