Browsing by Subject "515 Psychology"

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  • Sipilä, Pyry; Gulnara, Harrasova; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of holy anorexia, religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country.
  • Matilainen, A.; Pohja-Mykrä, M.; Lähdesmäki, M.; Kurki, S. (2017)
    The use of natural resources often generates conflict among stakeholders. Conflict analysis and management in this sector has traditionally been based on compliance enforcement and/or education. Recently, however, the need for alternative approaches has been increasingly highlighted. In this study, we address the need for in-depth analysis, and introduce the theoretical concept of psychological ownership to improve the understanding and potential management of conflict situations. We suggest that ownership feelings may play a significant role both in successful co-operation, and in conflicts related to the use of natural resources. The study is qualitative in nature. The data consisted of two interview datasets related to nature tourism: nature tourism in private forests and bear watching safaris. We show that the ways the psychological ownership of stakeholder groups is constructed and taken into account in co-operative relationships are of the utmost importance for the sustainability and success of the interplay among stakeholders. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Lindeman, Sari (2021)
    Objective: This study explored how psychological change was experienced and what treatment-related factors or events were perceived as supporting or hindering their process by individuals with borderline personality disorder. Methods: Eight BPD sufferers attended a 40-session psychoeducational group intervention at a community mental health care center. At intervention end, personal experience of meaningful change was explored in an in-depth interview and data were content-analyzed. Change in BPD symptoms was assessed by the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index IV interview. Results: The qualitative content analysis on subjectively perceived meaningful change yielded three core categories: (1) improved ability to observe and understand mental events, (2) decreased disconnection from emotions, emergence of new or adaptive emotional reactions and decrease in maladaptive ones, and (3) a new, more adaptive experience of self and agency. Accordingly, (1) learning and (2) normalizing emerged as the main categories of helpful treatment factors. In turn, treatment-related factors perceived as obstacles were: (1) aggression in the group, and (2) inflexibility. With respect to symptom change, four participants were considered clinically as remitted, and two showed a reliable change. Conclusions: Long-term psychoeducational group therapy seems to enhance mentalization / metacognitive functioning and promote self (or personality) integration in BPD patients.
  • Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael (2016)
    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with femaleonly avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.
  • Voutilainen, Liisa; Koivisto, Aino (2022)
    A recurrent theme that is addressed in psychotherapies is the client’s conflicting emotions. This article discusses discursive practices of working on conflicting emotions during psychodynamic psychotherapy. We focus on a phenomenon that we refer to as a ‘delayed response’ and analyze the client’s uses of interactional means, such as a display of negative experience, to invite affiliation or empathy from the therapist. The therapist, however, does not take a turn in the first possible place after the client’s turn. Recurrently, the therapist’s silence is followed by the client’s new turn that backs down from the emotional experience under discussion. After these retractions, the therapists respond with a turn that is responsive both to the retraction and to the initial display of negative experience that occurred prior to it. We argue that the timing of the therapist’s response in these sequences is in the service of psychotherapeutic work on conflicting emotions.
  • Tadei, Alessandro; Pensar, Johan; Corander, Jukka; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan (2019)
    In assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA) allegations, informative background information is often overlooked or not used properly. We therefore created and tested an instrument that uses accessible background information to calculate the probability of a child being a CSA victim that can be used as a starting point in the following investigation. Studying 903 demographic and socioeconomic variables from over 11,000 Finnish children, we identified 42 features related to CSA. Using Bayesian logic to calculate the probability of abuse, our instrument-the Finnish Investigative Instrument of Child Sexual Abuse (FICSA)-has two separate profiles for boys and girls. A cross-validation procedure suggested excellent diagnostic utility (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.97 for boys and AUC = 0.88 for girls). We conclude that the presented method can be useful in forensic assessments of CSA allegations by adding a reliable statistical approach to considering background information, and to support clinical decision making and guide investigative efforts.
  • Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R. (2018)
    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration. Here, we model memory colour effects using prior knowledge about typical colours as priors for the grey adjustments in a Bayesian model. This simple model does not involve any fitting of free parameters. The Bayesian model roughly captured the magnitude of the measured memory colour effect for photographs of objects. To some extent, the model predicted observed differences in memory colour effects across objects. The model could not account for the differences in memory colour effects across different levels of realism in the object images. The Bayesian model provides a particularly simple account of memory colour effects, capturing some of the multiple sources of variation of these effects.
  • Prokopenko, Inga; Poon, Wenny; Maegi, Reedik; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Salehi, S. Albert; Almgren, Peter; Osmark, Peter; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Wierup, Nils; Fall, Tove; Stancakova, Alena; Barker, Adam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Osmond, Clive; Xie, Weijia; Lahti, Jari; Jackson, Anne U.; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Liu, Jie; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Blomstedt, Paul A.; Fadista, Joao; Alkayyali, Sami; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ahlqvist, Emma; Taneera, Jalal; Lecoeur, Cecile; Kumar, Ashish; Hansson, Ola; Hansson, Karin; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kang, Hyun Min; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Vatin, Vincent; Palotie, Aarno; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Mari, Andrea; Weedon, Michael N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Nilsson, Peter; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Stumvoll, Michael; Widen, Elisabeth; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Tonjes, Anke; Rauramaa, Rainer; Kuusisto, Johanna; Frayling, Timothy M.; Froguel, Philippe; Walker, Mark; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ling, Charlotte; Kovacs, Peter; Ingelsson, Erik; McCarthy, Mark I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silver, Kristi D.; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Lyssenko, Valeriya (2014)
  • Weiste, Elina; Peräkylä, Anssi (2013)
    46(4), 299–321, 2013
  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Nikolaev, Alexandre; Lehtonen, Minna; Higby, Eve; Hyun, JungMoon; Ashaie, Sameer (2018)
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the recognition speed of Finnish nominal base forms varies as a function of their paradigmatic complexity (stem allomorphy) or productivity status. Nikolaev et al. (2014) showed that words with greater stem allomorphy from an unproductive inflectional class arc recognized faster than words with lower stein allomorphy from a productive inflectional class. Productivity of an inflectional paradigm correlates with the number of stem allomorphs in languages like Finnish in that unproductive inflectional classes tend to have higher stem allomorphy. We wanted to distinguish which of these two characteristics provides the benefit to speed of recognition found by Nikolaev et al. (2014). The current study involved a lexical decision task comparing three categories of words: unproductive with three or more stem allomorphs, unproductive with two stem allomorphs, and productive with two stein allomorphs. We observed a facilitation effect for word recognition only for unproductive words with three or more stem allomorphs, but not for unproductive words with two allomorphs. This effect was observed particularly in words of low to moderate familiarity. The findings suggest that high stem allomorphy, rather than productivity of the inflectional class, is driving the facilitation effect in word recognition.
  • Mendes-Santo, Cristina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Santana, Rui; Andersson, Gerhard (2019)
    Background: Internet-delivered interventions can provide remarkable opportunities in addressing breast cancer survivors' unmet support care needs, as they present an effective strategy to improve care coordination and provide access to efficacious, cost-efficient and convenient survivorship care. Nevertheless, research focusing on improving survivors' psychosocial needs using internet-based tools is scarce and its practical implementation is limited. Objectives: To study the acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of iNNOVBC, a 10 weeks guided internet-delivered individually-tailored Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-influenced cognitive behavioural (CBT) intervention developed to improve mild to moderate anxiety and depression in Breast cancer survivors when compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a waiting list control group (WLC). Methods: A two-arm, parallel, open label, multicentre, waiting list randomized controlled trial will be conducted to investigate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of INNOVBC. The primary outcomes in this research will be anxiety and depression. Secondary outcomes will include psychological flexibility, fatigue, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Ethical approval: This study has been reviewed and approved by Comisstio Nacional de Protectio de Dados; Instituto Portuguis de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil; Unidade Local de Satide de Matosinhos, EPE; Centro Hospitalar de Sao Joao and Ordem dos Psicologos ethical committees. Expected results: It is anticipated that iNNOVBC will show to be an efficacious and cost-effective program in improving the outcomes of interest in this study, as opposed to a WLC under TAU. The results of this research will be published in accordance with CONSORT-EHEALTH guidelines. Conclusions: This study will inform on the acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of iNNOVBC, in improving psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer survivors when compared to TAU in a WLC. Its conclusions will contribute to understand the idiosyncrasies of designing and implementing internet-delivered interventions in breast cancer survivors.
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenstrom, Tom; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.
  • Greiff, Samuel; Wuestenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, March H. (2015)
    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
  • Henttonen, Pentti; Määttänen, Ilmari; Makkonen, Emilia; Honka, Anita; Seppälä, Vilja; Närväinen, Johanna; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Lahti, Emilia Elisabet (2022)
    Sisu is a Finnish cultural concept that denotes determination and resoluteness in the face of adversity. We propose that sisu will supplement the English-language based research on mental fortitude traits. Sisu has not been the focus of systematic research until very recently. We created a new questionnaire measuring sisu (the Sisu Scale), sought to validate the sisu construct and its sub-factor structure as postulated in a recent qualitative study. We investigated associations of sisu with other measures of mental fortitude and well-being. More generally we aimed to enrichen the cross-cultural understanding of human experience of overcoming adversity across life's challenges. We describe and validate a questionnaire that effectively measures both beneficial and harmful sisu, each comprising three sub-factors. Beneficial sisu was associated with other measures of fortitude, but less with personality dimensions. We also confirmed the existence of an independent harmful sisu factor. Beneficial sisu was associated with higher well-being and lower depressive symptoms, and harmful sisu with lower well-being and higher levels of general stress, work stress and depressive symptoms. Together the two factors were superior compared to pre-existing measures when predicting well-being-related variables. Results suggest that the new Sisu Scale we developed may provide a valuable addition to research on mental fortitude, resilience and their consequences for well-being.
  • Porcu, Eleonora; Medici, Marco; Pistis, Giorgio; Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Bohringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom Johan; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Goegele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia (2013)
  • Hakala, Jussi; Häkkinen, Jukka (2022)
    This article presents a novel method for measuring contact points in human-object interaction. Research in multiple prehension-related fields, e.g., action planning, affordance, motor function, ergonomics, and robotic grasping, benefits from accurate and precise measurements of contact points between a subject's hands and objects. During interaction, the subject's hands occlude the contact points, which poses a major challenge for direct optical measurement methods. Our method solves the occlusion problem by exploiting thermal energy transfer from the subject's hand to the object surface during interaction. After the interaction, we measure the heat emitted by the object surface with four high-resolution infrared cameras surrounding the object. A computer-vision algorithm detects the areas in the infrared images where the subject's fingers have touched the object. A structured light 3D scanner produces a point cloud of the scene, which enables the localization of the object in relation to the infrared cameras. We then use the localization result to project the detected contact points from the infrared camera images to the surface of the 3D model of the object. Data collection with this method is fast, unobtrusive, contactless, markerless, and automated. The method enables accurate measurement of contact points in non-trivially complex objects. Furthermore, the method is extendable to measuring surface contact areas, or patches, instead of contact points. In this article, we present the method and sample grasp measurement results with publicly available objects.
  • Kangaslampi, Samuli; Garoff, Ferdinand; Golden, Shannon; Peltonen, Kirsi (2021)
    We analyzed the network structure of DSM-IV PTSD symptoms among 2792 help-seeking Central and East African refugees in Kenya exposed to multiple, severe traumatic events and on-going stressors. To some extent, our results reproduced structures identified among clinical populations in Europe, including strong links within traditional symptom clusters, such as between avoidance of thoughts and situations, and hypervigilance and startling. However, we found substantial differences in most central symptoms, with detachment and disinterest far less and emotional numbing and concentration problems more central in our analyses. Our networks did not reproduce the common finding of particularly low centrality of amnesia. We further noted substantive similarities in network structure, but also differences, between refugees living in an urban environment and in refugee camps. Concentration problems were most central among mainly Somali refugees at a refugee camp, and associated with amnesia and sense of foreshortened future, while emotional numbing was the most central symptom among majority Congolese refugees in Nairobi. Our findings highlight the importance of contextual and cultural factors for PTSD symptomatology, and are informative for assessment and treatment among help-seeking refugees.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.