Browsing by Subject "5172 Global Politics"

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  • Kotilainen, Konsta (2022)
    The increasingly influential neochartalist Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) comes with a nation-state-centric framing of politics. The neochartalists argue that many alleged globalisation-related constraints on national economic policy are illusory or seriously overstated. In their view, monetarily sovereign states enjoy substantial autonomy over their fiscal and monetary policy decisions. The neochartalist diagnosis thus seems to undermine cosmopolitan calls for supranational forms of macroeconomic governance. However, this paper argues that if we pay serious attention to a range of subtler obstacles and strategic incentives that apply especially to small currency-issuing states, cosmopolitan aspirations remain well-motivated. Accordingly, the political implications of MMT are reexamined and a case for supranational exercise of monetary sovereignty is made. The paper goes on to demonstrate how the standard state-centric approach to currency privileges can prove counterproductive from the perspective of democratic governance. It is concluded that neochartalism and cosmopolitanism can fruitfully both correct and enrich each other.
  • Kortti, Jukka Petteri; Lounasmeri, Lotta Inari (2020)
    This article examines political campaign films from the point of view of propaganda to explore how this idea fits into the context of a democratic Nordic nation. During the Cold War, Finland was governed by Urho Kekkonen as President for 25 years (1956–81). The authors look at Kekkonen’s campaign films to see how his public image was meticulously planned and systematically shaped to create an almost mythical figure. The political and media context in which these films were presented is also analysed to understand how Eastern and Western influences affected the content and style of persuasion in the films. As a result, they find a bricolage of propagandistic influences from both sides of the Iron Curtain.
  • Lyytikainen, Minna; Yadav, Punam (2022)
    This article explores a narrative of peacebuilding best practice: the national efforts to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Nepal. We demonstrate how the contested realities of post-conflict gender politics are skilfully transformed into internationally transferable policy knowledge. We argue that in order to construct a peacebuilding best practice, policy entrepreneurs draw on their social capital to make claims about policy as simultaneously local and context-specific as well as global and universally applicable. The credibility of the claims is based on the extent to which they can be presented to international policy audiences in formats suitable for their consumption.
  • Kallström, Agneta; Häkkinen , Mikko; al-Abdulla, Orwa; Juusola, Hannu; Kauhanen , Jussi (2021)
    Health care is attacked in many contemporary conflicts despite the Geneva Conventions. The war in Syria has become notorious for targeted violence against health care. This qualitative study describes health care workers’ experi-ences of violence using semi-structured interviews (n = 25) with professionals who have been working in Syria. The participants were selected using a snow-ball sampling method and interviewed in Turkey and Europe between 2016– 2017. Analysis was conducted using content analysis. Results revealed that the most destructive and horrific forms of violence health care workers have experienced were committed mostly by the Government of Syria and the Islamic State. Non-state armed groups and Kurdish Forces have also committed acts of violence against health care, though their scope and scale were con-sidered to have a lower mortality. The nature of violence has evolved during the conflict: starting from verbal threats and eventually leading to hospital bomb-ings. Health care workers were not only providers of health care to injured demonstrators, they also participated in non- violent anti-government actions. The international community has not taken action to protect health care in Syria. For health workers finding safe environments in which to deliver health care has been impossible.
  • Rajan, Vishnu Vardhani; Gadhavi, Shyam; Jauhola, Marjaana (Routledge, 2021)
    Routledge Advances in Art and Visual Studies
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (2020)
    By examining how power is constructed and maintained in Russia with the help of hydrocarbons—oil and gas—this article shows why this system is detrimental to Russia in the context of global environmental, technological, and geopolitical changes. While promoting a hydrocarbon culture as central to national identity, the Kremlin has failed to adapt to the global transition toward renewable energy. But external actors such as the European Union could encourage change from within to develop Russia’s untapped potential as a green power, given its vast endowments of renewable resources.
  • Huotari, Pauli Johannes; Teivainen, Teivo (Bristol University Press, 2022)
    COVID-19 governance is a new field of power that articulates attempts by states and other institutions to control the pandemic crisis. Within the European Union, it includes a bigger role for central banks and suppression of democratic rights and freedoms in various forms, including tightening external and internal border controls. Finland, where we are based, has had one of the most leftist governments in the European Union and imposed some of the strictest border controls of all the member states during the first months of COVID-19 governance. What does the sudden expansion in state-led governance mean for democratic visions and practices? Our main interest is on horizons that could radicalize democracy, the possibility for the people to take equal part in decisions that concern the basic conditions of their lives. On the one hand, radicalized democracy refers to attempts to bring economic institutions such as capitalist corporations and central banks under greater democratic control. These attempts typically rely on an understanding of democracy that regards parliaments and other democratically elected authorities–and sometimes also popular initiatives or referenda–as the most legitimate source of accountability. At least initially, the effects of the COVID-19 on democracy (in the conventional parliamentary sense) might not be very significant (Rapeli and Saikkonen, 2020).
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Lassila, Jussi (Springer, 2022)
    Global Power Shift
    China and Russia are jointly advancing their shared interests in the international arena and increasing their cooperation in the tech sector. Despite far-reaching plans, the asymmetry of cooperation in favour of China is increasingly at odds with Russia’s national goals in digital technology. Differences in resources and standpoints are also reflected in the implementation of digital surveillance. China’s surveillance system is sophisticated and extensive, whereas Russia’s is still largely inconsistent and emerging, as evidenced by the fact that there was virtually no control of the Internet in Russia until 2012. While advanced surveillance in authoritarian countries is worrying, technology in strategic sectors is also a key field of increasingly disconcerting great power competition. As a result of intensifying competition, the world is faced with the risk of technological decoupling, which would contribute to the further fragmentation of the international community and the deepening of existing rivalries.
  • Gonzalez, Nidia; Kröger, Markus (2020)
    Este artículo contrasta dos sistemas de conocimiento: el de las comunidades indígenas habitantes del bosque y el de la gobernanza forestal. Nuestra aproximación parte de un enfoque que pretende trascender los límites de los sujetos y objetos de la investigación forestal clásica, se trata de una reflexión crítica estructurada en tres partes. Luego de la introducción y del apartado metodológico, se ilustran las asimetrías de poder entre estos dos sistemas de conocimiento. Posteriormente, se hace un análisis de las definiciones oficiales de bosque, más frecuentemente utilizadas en el escenario de la gobernanza forestal, y se les compara con aquellas provenientes del sistema de conocimiento indígena. Finalmente, el artículo demuestra que el reduccionismo de la racionalidad de las políticas forestales del último siglo es producto de una falta de apertura hacia concepciones milenarias usadas por las comunidades del bosque. Una gobernanza plural requiere diálogo focalizado en rescatar el impacto político de las prácticas locales y cómo estas pueden representar los primeros pasos hacia la generación de alternativas, en las cuales se aprecie cómo la gestión forestal no solo se relaciona con la reducción de emisiones, sino que también está íntimamente ligada a la seguridad alimentaria, la agroforistería y la protección a la biodiversidad
  • Tuominen, Hanna (2021)
    The thought-provoking book, Europe's Migration Crisis. Border Deaths and Human Dignity analyses EU practices of governing migration, and how these practices create conditions for the deaths and vulnerabilities of people on the move. The book rejects the idea that the EU faced a real 'migration crisis' in 2015-2016. Instead, it argues that the crisis was a foreseeable and preventable outcome of the EU's own long-standing restrictive practices.
  • Malkki, Leena; Saarinen, Juha (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, 2021)
    ICCT Research Paper
  • Kangasluoma, Sohvi (2021)
    The role of emotions within extractive industries has been acknowledged and embraced in recent years, though security studies research on it remains limited. This article argues that to better understand narratives of everyday security, the role of emotions should be acknowledged. I focus on an Arctic locality in northern Norway, and on local experiences and emotions surrounding everyday securities and insecurities of having an oil and gas production site nearby. The Arctic oil and gas industry is important economically for local communities; however, it also accelerates global climate change. The article scrutinizes interviews collected from local people and concludes that security narratives are complex and conflicted, portraying various stories about having the petroleum industry in one's neighbourhood. The narratives express concern and worry for the environment while expressing gratitude to the economic benefits of the industry. The Arctic communities have been tied to the global oil and gas market while being forced to find new means to cope with the change. Contributing to the wider discussion on the local security impacts of extractivist projects, as well as further developing the concept of human security, I argue that the role of emotions cannot be ignored.
  • Durante, Francesco; Kröger, Markus; LaFleur, Will (Routledge, 2021)
    Routledge Studies of the Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development
    This chapter provides an etymological and ontological overview of the roots of extraction and global extractivisms. Since the 2000s, extractivisms have intensified, becoming ever-more global, promulgated by land and resource rushes. Meanwhile, the academic use of the concept of extractivism has expanded from mining to new arenas like agriculture, forestry, finance, and even digital realms. We provide an analysis of the underlying etymologies and ‘onto-logics’ of extractivism to illuminate a mindset and practice that is increasingly pervasive in the operations of extraction and the modern world system. We also highlight some forms of on-the-ground resistance to this onto-logic to emphasize the violence it inheres and the defiance it spurs. The extractivist logic continues to expand into arenas where the extent of the infiltration of extractivist modes of operations has only recently been recognized. We suggest ways forward in the agenda of analyzing extraction, global extractivisms, and violence.
  • Jääskeläinen, Jaakko J.; Höysniemi, Sakari Hannu; Syri, Sanna; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (2018)
    Studies on energy security in the context of relations between European Union (EU) and Russia tend to focus on cases, with an open conflict related to supply, such as “hard” energy weapons, or on only one fuel, often natural gas. However, there is a need to understand the long-term impacts that energy relations have politically, economically and physically, and their linkages between resilience, sustainability and security. We analyse the Finnish-Russian energy relations as a case study, as they are characterised by a non-conflictual relationship. To assess this complex relationship, we apply the interdependence framework to analyse both the energy systems and energy strategies of Finland and Russia, and the energy security issues related to the notable import dependence on one supplier. Moreover, we analyse the plausible development of the energy trade between the countries in three different energy policy scenarios until 2040. The findings of the article shed light on how the trends in energy markets, climate change mitigation and broader societal and political trends could influence Russia’s energy trade relations with countries, such as Finland. Our analysis shows that Finland’s dependence on primary energy imports does not pose an acute energy security threat in terms of sheer supply, and the dependence is unlikely to worsen in the future. However, due to the difficulty in anticipating societal, political, and economic trends, there are possible developments that could affect Finland.
  • Foreword 
    Kuusisto, Riikka (Springer International Publishing AG, 2020)
    Perspectives on Development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region
  • Caruso, Giuseppe; Teivainen, Teivo (2020)
    Various social movement debates on organizational design have hinged on the possibility and political usefulness of devising post-representational, a-representational or anti-representational spaces. We analyse organizational options and obstacles that the WSF faces. A denial of representational dynamics may leave internal power and structural imbalances unattended. We raise the question whether the WSF process can intersect the current instances of activism across the planet including the climate justice movement. We explore its changing attitudes toward representational decision-making. Finally, we suggest that the relationship between traditional organization-building and internet-mediated decision-making practices developing at the intersection between the local, the global and the virtual could be debated on the road to the next global WSF, likely to take place in Mexico.
  • Kuosmanen, Sonja (2021)
    The promotion of human rights has faced challenges in recent years in the United States and elsewhere. In this study, human rights discourses are examined in the context of strategic foreign policy rhetoric by the United States. The routine of foreign policy statements is meant to create audiences receptive to U.S. foreign policy aims, but also reveals underlying ideologies and assumptions. The analysis examines U.S. State Department Human Rights Country Reports between 2000 and 2019. The results show that the assumed ideal model of human rights is heavily based on U.S. political tradition. The performance of other countries is evaluated against the 'exceptionalist' U.S. model without consideration of different cultural or societal contexts. Linguistic choices are made to highlight the agency of authorities and events, which can be seen as a strategy of diplomatic face-saving. In some cases, countries are evaluated on an unequal basis based on political expediency.
  • Björklund, Heta; Kmak, Magdalena (Routledge, 2022)
    Studies in Migration and Diaspora
    On a more general level, therefore, the shift in perspective from static to mobile conditions of knowledge production allows us not only to account for the knowledges produced through the experience of displacement, but also, to understand better the structural margins of contemporary institutional academia with its gatekeeping practices, precarity of academic work and the societal role of researchers and lecturers. In the United States, academic, intellectual and aesthetic thought is what it is today because of refugees from the fascism, communism, and other regimes given to the oppression and expulsion of the dissidents. The impact of the experience of displacement on the scholarly changes has been accounted for in the literature, both in the first and the second generation of exile studies, which focused primarily on biographical accounts and the impact the emigres had in their countries of the displacement.
  • Hurtado Hurtado, Joshua (Finland Futures Research Centre, 2022)
    FFRC eBooks
    The study of energy transitions and the assessment of their potential requires a holistic understanding of the context in which they take place, as the political institutions, economic dynamics, social practices, environmental conditions, and cultural frames condition which alternatives and pathways for the transition to take place are deemed as feasible and worthwhile. What makes the case of Cuba particularly relevant for the study of energy transitions is that, due to its 20th-century history and the emerging trends of the island country in the current century, it is uniquely positioned to reach a sustainable state which might be further propelled by undergoing a transition towards intermittent renewable sources at a national scale. This chapter provides an overview of the current Cuban context within which a transition towards renewable, intermittent sources of energy could occur. This is necessary because it helps identify structural challenges that would need to be managed and windows of opportunity that could be exploited to incite such a transition. This overview takes the form of a literature review of Cuban development in the 21st century, although references to previous events will be made when necessary for further contextualization.