Browsing by Subject "519 Social and economic geography"

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  • Lempinen, Hanna (Routledge, 2020)
    Routledge Research in Polar Regions
  • Ylipulli, Johanna; Luusua, Aale (ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2019)
    Since 2014, a growing body of critical research has pointed out flaws in smart city development. It has been described as too technology-led and business-oriented, diminishing citizens' agency and causing digital divides. As the agenda keeps spreading, there is an urgent need to develop more participatory, inclusive and bottom-up approaches to balance interests of those currently in strong power positions, such as large corporations. Participatory design (PD) and participatory approaches in general have been suggested as a remedy, but they often tend to be local, small-scale and short-term. Therefore, their impacts are often modest as well. We suggest that we need to start thinking about ways to create scalable approaches that would grow the temporal and spatial impact of actions and practices that intend to increase citizens' understanding and control over new technologies, i.e. their technological agency. Without making sure that more people have adequate knowledge and sufficient control and mastery of technologies, societal discussion and ultimately, political decisions, are left to few experts. We explore the potential of public libraries to act as an ally and cooperation partner in participatory design and technology education in general, with a significant potential to broaden micro-level actions' impact. The paper consists of a broad literature review mapping the central challenges of current smart city development; this is followed with an introduction to the Finnish library system as a democratic project; finally, we present three examples of how libraries are carrying out technological education connected to emerging technologies, particularly to 3D printing, robotics and virtual reality. Our central argument is that there is a need to bridge micro-level actions, such as those connected to participatory design projects, with the macro-level technopolitical development by collaborating with meso-level actors and networks.
  • Koppelmäki, Kari; Eerola, Markus; Albov, Sophia; Kivelä, Jukka; Helenius, Juha; Winquist, Erika; Virkkunen, Elina (2016)
    COMREC Studies in Environment and Development
    What could be a functioning food system model for a food secure and sustainable world. This project studies a pilot case - 'Palopuro Agroecological Symbiosis' (Palopuro AS) - for restructuring the food system in Palopuro village in the Finnish countryside. The project challenges the present linear, globalizing food chain and suggests a global network of localized cyclical systems. A local food cycle highlights reconnection of farmers and consumers, minimizes nutrient loss, and relies on local (bio)energy. This project investigates the cultural, social, political, ecological, and spatial changes in Finnish agricultural landscapes as a result of implementation of an ecological symbiosis . We use the term ‘agro-ecological symbiosis’ to describe the cooperation between producers, processors, other businesses, and consumers in an effort to build an integrated food system.
  • Weckroth, Mikko; Kemppainen, Teemu (2021)
    Prior literature suggests that, among the so-called 'developed economies', residing in urban contexts is associated with lower life satisfaction. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and Eurostat, we contribute to this literature by focusing on three different indicators of urbanity (subjective domicile, population density and living in a dominant urban region) in a multilevel modelling context in order to define where exactly the relatively lower life satisfaction can be found. Moreover, we account for the level of economic development at both regional and national levels. The results show that subjective domicile is strongly associated with life satisfaction, whereas regional gross domestic product (GDP) and other urbanity indicators are insignificant. Our results also highlight the relatively higher life satisfaction in rural surroundings in more developed countries. We conclude by noting that future contributions to the literature on urban-rural life satisfaction differences should utilize panel data, making it possible to address the spatial sorting versus contextual effects debate, and focus on investigating the higher level determinants at the country level that define the existence of urban-rural differences in life satisfaction within a country.
  • Kozlovskaya, E.; Elo, S.; Hjelt, S.-E.; Yliniemi, J.; Pirttijärvi, M.; SVEKALAPKO Seismic Tomography Work (2004)
  • Bergroth, Claudia; Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Manninen, Matti; Toivonen, Tuuli (2022)
    In this article, we present temporally dynamic population distribution data from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland, at the level of 250 m by 250 m statistical grid cells. An hourly population distribution dataset is provided for regular workdays (Mon – Thu), Saturdays and Sundays. The data are based on aggregated mobile phone data collected by the biggest mobile network operator in Finland. Mobile phone data are assigned to statistical grid cells using an advanced dasymetric interpolation method based on ancillary data about land cover, buildings and a time use survey. The dataset is validated by comparing population register data from Statistics Finland for night hours and a daytime workplace registry. The resulting 24-hour population data can be used to reveal the temporal dynamics of the city, and examine population variations relevant to spatial accessibility analyses, crisis management, planning and beyond.
  • MacGregor-Fors, Ian; García-Arroyo, Michelle; Johan Kotze, D.; Ojala, Elina; Setälä, Heikki; Vauramo, Saara (2021)
    In 2020, a small urban center from southern Finland, the City of Lahti, was awarded the 2021 European Green Capital, which recognizes and rewards local efforts that seek to improve the urban environment, together with its economy and the quality of life for its inhabitants, further posing ambitious goals for ecological improvement. In this commentary, we describe some of the key elements that made Lahti the 2021 European Green Capital, as well as some of the future plans for the city. We also highlight the importance of research-based knowledge as the foundation for achieving better outcomes in urban decision making.
  • Wallin, Antti; Leino, Helena; Jokinen, Ari; Laine, Markus; Tuomisaari, Johanna; Backlund, Pia (2018)
    Urban strategies, representing stories of possible futures, often intervene in already established local communities and therefore call for a considerate urban intervention. This article utilises the ideas of Henri Lefebvre's socially produced space and of literature on stories involved in planning. Our empirical example tells a story of urban densification aspirations for an inner-city neighbourhood in Tampere, Finland. By combining the interviews of local people and planners with policy documents, we argue that planners' stories pay too little attention to the place and to local stories. Planners' abstract visions of the future and local stories building on lived experiences both draw meanings from the same place but have very different intentions. In our case, the consultation of the project started out wrong because the planners neglected a neighbourhood thick in symbolic meanings and the local stories' power in resistance. By understanding the place as polyphonic in its foundation, planners could learn about the symbolic elements and reasons for people's place attachment, and thus end up re-writing the place together. Urban interventions such as urban densification should connect to the place as part of its polyphonic historical continuum and acknowledge the residents' place attachments.
  • Sarkis, Joseph; Spens, Karen; Kovacs, Gyöngyi (IGI Global, 2012)
  • Müürisepp, Kerli; Järv, Olle; Tammaru, Tiit; Toivonen, Tuuli (2022)
    The activity space approach is increasingly mobilized in spatial segregation research to broaden its scope from residential neighborhoods to other socio-spatial contexts of people. Activity space segregation research is an emerging field, characterized by quick adaptation of novel data sources and interdisciplinary methodologies. In this article, we present a methodological review of activity space segregation research by identifying approaches, methods and data sources applied. First, our review highlights that the activity space approach enables segregation to be studied from the perspectives of people, places and mobility flows. Second, the results reveal that both traditional data sources and novel big data sources are valuable for studying activity space segregation. While traditional sources provide rich background information on people for examining the social dimension of segregation, big data sources bring opportunities to address temporality, and increase the spatial extent and resolution of analysis. Hence, big data sources have an important role in mediating the conceptual change from a residential neighborhood-based to an activity space-based approach to segregation. Still, scholars should address carefully the challenges and uncertainties that big data entail for segregation studies. Finally, we propose a framework for a three-step methodological workflow for activity space segregation analysis, and outline future research avenues to move toward more conceptual clarity, integrated analysis framework and methodological rigor.
  • Fernandez Bravo, Sergio; Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón; Schifter Aceves, Liliana (2020)
    This work is a historic analysis of the use of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in Mexico since the 1940s and its implications for the then nascent domestic agrochemical industry and the social development programs boosted by the Mexican State. DDT was introduced to Mexico at the beginning of that decade as one of the main technological inputs of the agrarian and health models designed by the Rockefeller Foundation, which identified both malaria and low agricultural production as critical problems for this country. The adoption of these models by the Mexican political and economic system encouraged the creation of public institutions and a national agrochemical industry as well, which allowed the persistent DDT use and production for more than 50 years in Mexico.
  • Jalkanen, Joel; Fabritius, Henna; Vierikko, Kati; Moilanen, Atte; Toivonen, Tuuli (2020)
    Maintaining enough green areas and ensuring fair access to them is a common planning challenge in growing and densifying cities. Evaluations of green area access typically use metrics like population around green areas (within a certain buffer), but these do not fully ensure equitable access. We propose that using systematic and complementarity-driven spatial prioritization, often used in nature conservation planning, could assist in the complex planning challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of spatial prioritization to identify green areas with highest recreational potential based on their type and their accessibility for the residents of the Helsinki Metropolitan area, the capital district of Finland. We calculated travel times from each city district to each green area. Travel times were calculated separately to local green areas using active travel modes (walking and biking), and to large forests (attracting people from near and far) using public transport. We prioritized the green areas using these multimodal travel times from each district and weighting the prioritization with population data with Zonation, conservation prioritization software. Compared to a typical buffer analysis (population within a 500 m buffer from green areas), our approach identified areas of high recreational potential in different parts of the study area. This approach allows systematic integration of travel-time-based accessibility measures into equitable spatial prioritization of recreational green areas. It can help urban planners to identify sets of green areas that best support the recreational needs of the residents across the city.
  • Gould, Jeremy; Siitonen, Lauri; Global Development Studies (University of Helsinki, Institute of Development Studies, 2007)
    Interkont books
  • Palonen, Emilia; Sundell, Taavi (Publicacions de la universitat de València, 2019)
  • Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2009)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important functions in plant stress responses and development. In plants, ozone and pathogen infection induce an extracellular oxidative burst that is involved in the regulation of cell death. However, very little is known about how plants can perceive ROS and regulate the initiation and the containment of cell death. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), that is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS. Plants with an insertion in GRI display an ozone-sensitive phenotype. GRI is an Arabidopsis ortholog of the tobacco flower-specific Stig1 gene. The GRI protein appears to be processed in leaves with a release of an N-terminal fragment of the protein. Infiltration of the N-terminal fragment of the GRI protein into leaves caused cell death in a superoxide-and salicylic acid-dependent manner. Analysis of the extracellular GRI protein yields information on how plants can initiate ROS-induced cell death during stress response and development.
  • Cortes-Capano, Gonzalo; Hanley, Nick; Sheremet, Oleg; Hausmann, Anna; Toivonen, Tuuli; Garibotto-Carton, Gustavo; Soutullo, Alvaro; Di Minin, Enrico (2021)
    Private land conservation (PLC) is an increasingly recognized strategy to help address the global biodiversity crisis. Understanding landowners' context-dependent preferences for different PLC policies is key to designing and implementing successful voluntary strategies aiming to foster participation and long-term engagement. However, funding shortfalls and diverse cultural values mean that traditional approaches such as land acquisi-tion or payment for ecosystem services policies may not be the best approaches to increase landowners' participation in PLC. In this study, we examine landowners' preferences for monetary and non-monetary in-centives and how these might increase participation in PLC. We also address a geographical gap in PLC literature by assessing landowners' preferences for voluntary PLC policies in Uruguay, a country located in the Rio de la Plata Grasslands ecoregion (South America), one of the most endangered and least protected biomes worldwide. This case study provides a useful test-bed of non-monetary incentives, since 96% of the land is privately owned and no voluntary PLC strategies are in place yet. Using a choice experiment, we found that landowners were more willing to engage in voluntary PLC if policies align with their values and needs. Non-monetary incentives, such as access to training and technical support, were preferred over monetary payments, highlighting oppor-tunities to develop context-specific policies that would foster environmental stewardship and long-term engagement. Designing policies by including a diverse set of instruments, flexible contract lengths, and inte-grating the context-specific social and cultural characteristics underlying landowners' identities and values, are crucial aspects for increasing participation.
  • Tauran, Tauran (Polo Publishing, Co., Gdansk University Press, 2018)
    The objective of this study is to disclose the agency of kampung residents and their role in the urban process. Based on a case study in Maspati, a kampung, in Surabaya Indonesia, this study demonstrates how the kampung residents transformed their community from a stigmatised neighbourhood to become an attractive tourism destination. This study applies the subaltern urbanism framework to examine what kind of urban process is produced by kampong residents who were socially excluded and without political power. Data for this qualitative research were collected through observation, interviews, and participating in kampung activities. The interviewees included kampung leaders, kampung dwellers, and officials in district government. The results show that Maspati Kampung residents are goal-oriented and creative and they manage their community in flexible and innovative ways. In order to improve their livelihood and social status, they decided to attract tourists to Maspati. Maspati, largely a narrow alley and with a limited amount of historical attractions, did not look interesting enough to attract visitors. The residents, however, came up with a plan that turned out to be a success. This was a kampung tour project, cultural tourism, not a slums tourism. They are offering visitors cultural performances, traditional food, handicrafts, traditional games, and above all hospitality. The program was carried out by the community leader and women who have no job. This program has generated income for the residents; strengthened cohesiveness among the kampung residents; and gives the residents a sense of pride in their kampung. This research provides empirical evidence of the ways subaltern urbanism works and contributes to the urban processes in Indonesian cities.
  • Kujala, Paivi; Virkkala, Seija; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2021)
    This article focuses on rural business support as a policy regime of the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We examine the relationships present in the regime to find out how authorities become enablers in the entrepreneurship promotion process. A rural business support regime is considered as a government policy network, consisting of dynamic collaboration and interaction between the European Commission, policymakers, policy implementers and rural entrepreneurs. Based on 38 interviews of rural development actors in Finland, our case-study identifies four properties in the relationships, namely trust, learning, discretion and creativity that are crucial factors in enabling interactions in the rural business support regime. As a contribution, we develop a model for enabling rural authority. We conclude the article by presenting implications for the legitimacy, coherence and durability of the rural business support regime in Finland and in the EU, as we argue that enabling action affects these policy impacts.
  • Pelsmakers, Sofie; Saarimaa, Sini; Vaattovaara, Mari Kaarina (2021)