Browsing by Subject "5201 Political History"

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  • Laine, Veera; Silvan, Kristiina (Routledge, 2021)
    Routledge Borderlands Studies
  • Silvennoinen, Oula (2015)
    This article charts the history of fascism in Finland and looks for the causes of its failure. Like most of its European contemporaries, Finnish nationalism was radicalized in similar processes which produced successful fascist movements elsewhere. After the end of the Great War, Finnish nationalists were engaged first in a bitter civil war, and then in a number of Freikorps-style attempts to expand the borders of the newly-made Finnish state. Like elsewhere, these experiences produced a generation of frustrated and embittered, radicalized nationalists to serve as the cadre of Finnish fascist movements. The article concentrates on the Lapua movement, in which fascist influences and individuals were in a prominent position, even though the movement publicly adopted a predominantly conservative anti-communist outlook centred on the values of home, religion and fatherland.
  • Camenisch, Chantal; Jaume-Santero, Fernando; White, Sam; Pei, Qing; Hand, Ralf; Rohr, Christian; Brönnimann, Stefan (2022)
    Although collaborative efforts have been made to retrieve climate data from instrumental observations and paleoclimate records, there is still a large amount of valuable information in historical archives that has not been utilized for climate reconstruction. Due to the qualitative nature of these datasets, historical texts have been compiled and studied by historians aiming to describe the climate impact in socioeconomic aspects of human societies, but the inclusion of this information in past climate reconstructions remains fairly unexplored. Within this context, we present a novel approach to assimilate climate information contained in chronicles and annals from the 15th century to generate robust temperature and precipitation reconstructions of the Burgundian Low Countries, taking into account uncertainties associated with the descriptions of narrative sources. After data assimilation, our reconstructions present a high seasonal temperature correlation of similar to 0.8 independently of the climate model employed to estimate the background state of the atmosphere. Our study aims to be a first step towards a more quantitative use of available information contained in historical texts, showing how Bayesian inference can help the climate community with this endeavor.
  • Strang, Johan; Marjanen, Jani; Hilson, Mary (De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2021)
    Helsinki Yearbook of Intellectual History
  • Atrocity 
    Kotilainen, Noora (Brill, 2020)
  • Kuldkepp, Mart; Piirimäe, Kaarel; Aunesluoma, Juhana (2022)
    The end of the Cold War was in many ways a formative moment in recent European and global history, but it also had important regional and interregional ramifications. Not least from the Baltic and Nordic perspectives, the events in 1987-1992 marked the definite end of an era, and the beginning of another. As relevant sources from these years have increasingly become available, a research community has emerged to investigate the complexities of international politics in the Baltic-Nordic space during the last years of the Soviet Union and the immediate aftermath of its collapse. This special issue on Nordic and Baltic countries during the end stage of the Cold War is dedicated to furthering research on transnational Nordic-Baltic contacts and perceptions in this period.
  • Haara, Heikki Eerikki; Stuart-Buttle, Tim (2019)
    It is widely accepted that the seventeenth-century natural lawyers constructed the minimal requirement for social coordination between self-seeking individuals animated by the desire for self-preservation. On most interpretations, Grotius and his successors focused on the "perfect" duties (rules of justice) and had little to say about the "imperfect" duties of love and civility. This essay provides an alternative reading of post-Grotian natural law by reconstructing Pufendorf's and Locke's understanding of how the duties of civility and love might be realised in civil society. The essay argues that, for Pufendorf and Locke, the desire for esteem offers an explanation of how people recognize the content of the reciprocal duties of social morality and motivate themselves to act accordingly. The reconstruction of their views on the beneficial effects of esteem-seeking points towards a new interpretation of how, and why, philosophical interest in an economy of esteem and the social nature of the self emerged, prior to their treatment by eighteenth-century authors such as Hume and Smith.
  • Kotilainen, Noora (Brill, 2020)
  • Atanesyan, Arthur; Hakobyan, Anahit; Reynolds, Bradley (2021)
    In this paper, the Spiral of Silence theory (SOS) in the study of mass communications is applied to examine the trends and mechanisms of public opinion in Social Media (SM), using the popular topic of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study includes a secondary analysis of the data on pandemic information consumption obtained through four mass surveys conducted in Armenia. In the period from July 1 to August 30, 2020, we also surveyed Armenian Facebook users by means of Google forms during the highest outbreak of the pandemic in Armenia. In particular, the study demonstrates that although the majority of people are well informed about both public conduct requirements and the sanctions for misconduct during the pandemic, they do not follow the rules but hide their real opinion, preferring to openly agree with the official position while silently breaking the rules (that is, they keep their silence). We have found a correlation between the opinion environment of “friends” and other Facebook users, and a willingness to express their own opinion. Due to the predominance of the self-presentation mode as a communication strategy on Facebook, there is a trend among Armenian users not to risk their reputation, and avoid possible critics by keeping silence, if the discussion goes against their opinion. The findings of the study might be helpful both for the further development of communication theories and its application to the conditions of new pandemic reality, and for a better understanding of communicative behavior mechanisms in SM.
  • Haara, Heikki (Eötvös University Press, 2020)
    Budapest Seminars in Early Modern Philosophy
  • Bergenheim, Sophy Maria Cecilia; Edman, Johan; Kananen, Johannes Kennet; Wessel, Merle (Routledge, 2018)
    Routledge Studies in Public Health
  • Welsh, John W (2022)
    The Gulag Archipelago has been treated consistently as a conservative indictment of the Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union. When subsumed into his later writings, this perception has reinforced amongst progressives an enduring portrait of Solzhenitsyn-the-man as a backward-looking anti-modernist and reactionary. I advocate a return to the text itself in isolation from Solzhenitsyn’s corpus, and in a manner more cognizant of the political practices latent in its prose. In its style and structure, certain specific techniques can be found where the search for formal methodology has left previous commentators on the Left disappointed. The place of Solzhenitsyn’s magnum opus in the history of political thought is here reassessed on the basis of its style, pointing to its potential contribution to critical theory and to its relevance for critical social analysis today.
  • Piirimäe, Kaarel (2020)
    This article is about the Estonian transition from the era of perestroika to the 1990s. It suggests that the Estonian national movement considered the existence of the nation to be threatened. Therefore, it used the window of opportunity presented by perestroika to take control of time and break free of the empire. This essay has the following theoretical premises. First, Estonia was not engaged in “normal politics” but in something that I will conceptualise, following the Copenhagen School, as “existential politics.” Second, the key feature of existential politics is time. I will draw on the distinction, made in the ancient Greek thought, between the gods Chronos and Kairos. By applying these concepts to Estonia, I suggest Kairos presented the opportunity to break the normal flow of time and the decay of Socialism (Chronos) in order to fight for the survival of the Estonian nation. The third starting point is Max Weber’s historical sociology, particularly his notion of “charisma,” developed in Stephen Hanson’s interpretation of the notions of time in Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. Based on this, I will argue that Estonian elites thought they were living in extraordinary times that required the breaking of the normal flow of time, which was thought to be corroding the basis of the nation’s existence.
  • Tervonen, Miika; Pellander, Saara; Yuval-Davis, Nira (2018)