Browsing by Subject "5202 Economic and Social History"

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  • Peltonen, Matti (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013)
    Studia historica
  • Roikonen, Petri Juhani; Heikkinen, Sakari (2020)
    This study presents the new Gini coefficient and top income share series for Finland in the years 1865–1934 by utilizing Finnish tax statistics, which provide data on a poor country on the threshold of modern economic growth. Income inequality was relatively moderate in 1865, while famine (1867–1868) decreased it further. Income inequality increased substantially during the late nineteenth century, then declined during WWI and its aftermath, followed by another increase in inequality in the late 1920s that was halted by the Great Depression. The rising level of inequality before WWI fits well with the ideas of the Kuznets curve and maximum inequality, whereas the decline in inequality was due to shocks (e.g., civil war).
  • Vuorinen, Marja Helia Elisabet (2018)
    The article deals with a prominent and unusual Finnish nobleman, Nils Henrik Pinello (1802-79), of Italian family origin and active within the Finnish economic, political, cultural and entertainment circles around the middle decades of the 19th century. This extraordinary man of chequered career attempted most of the professions iconic to the 19thcentury economic and societal modernisation. An eventually hapless manor and saw mill owner, a Finnish bachelor of arts with a Swedish doctoral diploma on mining, who occasionally engaged also as civil servant, he successfully re-invented himself in mid-life – as a journalist, author and playwright, restaurant owner and theatre, music and history enthusiast, based in his native town Turku, the one-time capital of Finland. He also landed the membership of the first, 1848-49 planning committee for the Riddarhus (House of Nobility) building project, completed in Helsinki in 1858-62, and represented his family within the noble estate at the first three Four-Estate Diets, in 1863-64, 1867 and 1872. This article is an attempt at biographic research with a micro-historical twist. Juxtaposing Pinello with his political generation – the one that witnessed the gradual process of (re)establishing the Finnish four estate parliament, from 1840s to 1870s – I trace the political ideas of an exceptional nobleman who mainly identified with the flourishing small-town bourgeoisie of his period. I analyse, and contextualise, the occasions when Pinello commented on the projects, debates, politics, future prospects, lifestyles and appearances of the noble estate – by turns incisively, sarcastically, or making gentle fun of what he perceived as the outmoded or otherwise over-pompous aspirations of his fellow noblemen. The overall process that in the 19th century accompanied the retreat of the nobility from direct political power serves as the backdrop for his multiple roles in society, as well as an explanatory device for his ideological choices. Looking at an exceptional character, whose political excesses and flamboyant public style made him stand out among his peers, I bring to the focus not only the deviance of one person but also the prevailing normal patterns he may appear to transgress. Applying this so-called micro-macro link to the 19th-century Finnish nobility, I hope to cast a dual light on the process that eventually led to the abolishing of the four-estate system, nobility included, in favour of a unicameral parliament.
  • Laine, Heidi (2017)
    The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping. The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members. The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness. Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection.
  • University of Helsinki, Economic and Social History; University of Helsinki, Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies; Talvitie, Petri; Granqvist, Juha-Matti; ; (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
  • Eloranta, Jari Antero (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
    This chapter is a review of the many perspectives from history, political science, sociology, and economics that economic historians have applied to the study of war. Here I first review some of the scholarship on the premodern period, especially the formation of European nation states and conflicts. It is fairly clear that Europeans emerged out of this period with a comparative advantage in violence, through technological innovations and repeated warfare. Fiscal innovation and expansion was a key part of this. The period of the revolutions and Napoleonic conflicts represented a change in the nature of warfare and the arrival of total war, as well as the industrial age. The period of the world wars represents perhaps the best represented area of study for economic historians as of late. New data and scholarship has shown the mechanics of mobilization and highlighted the importance of resources in deciding these conflicts. Conversely, the Cold War period has been relatively sparsely studied, at least from the perspective of conflicts or military spending. Given the availability of new data and the opening of many archives, it is highly likely that this state of affairs will change in the near future. Economic historians have clearly made an impact in the study of long-run phenomena such as state formation, empires, and democracy. Cliometrics is well suited to the study of such topics, given the new panel and time series techniques, the rapid development of computing power, and the many new online databases.
  • Kieding Banik, Vibeke; Ekholm, Laura Katarina (Routledge, 2019)
    Routledge Studies in Cultural History
  • Saaritsa, Sakari (2019)
    This article demonstrates empirically how triangulation with other sources can alter the interpretation of oral histories of family strategies. While the interests of oral historians have shifted to postpositivist approaches, basic facts about material context and family events still tend to be drawn from the same narratives. Oral histories of two worker households in early twentieth-century Helsinki are linked with detailed Finnish tax, parish, and poor relief records. The findings point to a number of significant omissions, turn seemingly innocuous factual statements into meaningful strategic representations, and suggest systematic biases in describing livelihoods and sources of income.
  • Jakosuo, Katri (Future Academy, 2019)
    European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences
    Digitalisation and the platform economy have changed business and consumption patterns. Similarly, ways of working have also changed and become polarised as a result of automation, robots, e -commerce and blockchains bringing new innovations to the markets and changing earnings logic. Lower and middle-class jobs decrease or disappear, and high skilled roles increase. The new digital innovations and the progressive expansion of large platforms, such as Airbnb and Uber, have also placed pressure on the development of legislation, globally. The purpose of this study is to describe how digitalisation and the platform economy affect the service sector in general and how this disruption has implications for service sector companies, blue-collar workers and consumers. This research is based on qualitative content analysis. According to the results, digitalisation and the platform economy have both positive and negative effects. For example, these phenomena are expanding business markets and increasing the choice of consumers and the freedom of employees. On the other hand, the insecurity of employees and competition between local and global companies may increase uncontrollably. (C) 2019 Published by Future Academy
  • Epilogue 
    Talvitie, Petri; Granqvist, Juha-Matti (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
  • Saaritsa, Sakari (2017)
    The literature on intrahousehold allocation in European history has typically built on bargaining models originating from Amartya Sen and the South Asian “missing girls” paradigm, testing hypotheses of male earner bias. Often, a 50/50 benchmark has been used, assuming any skew in spending meant discrimination. This study combines external measures of variation in morbidity by age, sex and season with analysis of household health expenditure in Finland in the 1920s. The results suggest that money largely followed sickness rather than gender or earnings. This supports an emerging literature challenging bargaining models and suggesting that significant historical differences may have existed between world regions.
  • Moll, Veera; Kuusi, Hanna (2021)
    Finnish children today enjoy a relatively high level of independent mobility. This article discusses how different urban planning professionals defined children's needs in a post-World War II Helsinki that was undergoing rapid urbanization, and how these discourses relate to childhood memories of the time. The emphasis on family by the planning professionals led to major changes in the city structure, including developed play areas, safer streets and shorter distances to schools. This study suggests that a dominant understanding of the importance of outdoor activities has contributed to the relatively stable level of independent mobility of the children in Helsinki.
  • Roikonen, Petri; Häkkinen, Antti (2019)
    This study analyses social heterogamy in western and southern Finland during the early stages of industrialisation, from 1700 to 1910. Marriage patterns are examined by comparing the social classes of spouses' parents, which can be understood as the social origin of the spouse. The rate of heterogamy within the freeholder class was only 19.8%, whereas it was 71.1% in the upper classes, 59.7% in the tenant class and 76.5% in the labour class. In addition, only roughly 20-30% of grooms whose fathers were landowners married brides from lower social classes. Certain individual- and family-level characteristics increased the odds of a heterogamous marriage: remarrying, age difference, being an illegitimate child or a single mother, and the first marriages of those in the labour class. Regarding macro-level variables, we found that higher rates of emigration and poor-relief recipients, along with having a larger Finnish-speaking population, led to higher levels of heterogamy. Other issues increasing the odds of heterogamy included living in the more urbanised or industrialised regions and moving to different regions. This study identified strict marriage patterns, which did not significantly change with respect to heterogamy. Nevertheless, indications exist that industrialisation and urbanisation began eroding the prevailing traditions.
  • Nakonechnyi, Mikhail (2020)
    В 2017 году в издательстве Йельского университета вышла монография американской исследовательницы Гольфо Алексопулос «Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin’s Gulag». Эта публикация по праву может считаться важной вехой в историографии ГУЛАГа – гигантской системы эксплуатации принудительного труда в СССР 1930–1960 годов. Алексопулос первой за много лет вернулась к ключевым вопросам истории сталинских лагерей, а именно к уточнению числа погибших заключенных и природе институционального насилия самой лагерной системы. Работу Алексопулос невозможно адекватно оценить без учета сложного политизированного историографического контекста проблемы. До открытия архивов в 1989–1991 годах в западной литературе количество жертв в ГУЛАГе оценивалось десятками миллионов. Саму систему образно называли «Освенцимом без печей», где заключенных намеренно уничтожали трудом. Выйти на свободу живым было практически невозможно, и количество освобождений было якобы минимальным (Conquest 1990). Однако, согласно рассекреченным данным центрального аппарата ГУЛАГа, опубликованным в начале 1990-х после распада СССР, из 18 млн человек, прошедших через систему, погибло «только» 1,7 млн, 90% заключенных пережили свое заключение и освободились (Безбородов и Хрусталев 2004; Getty, Rittersporn, and Zemskov 1993). Лишь относительно недавно несколько исследователей (Бердинских 2001; Исупов 2000; Applebaum 2004; Ellman 2002; Khlevniuk 2004) обратили внимание на так называемую «актировку» (досрочное освобождение заключенных по инвалидности) как потенциально значимый фактор в анализе ведомственной статистики освобождений. Согласно мемуарам бывших заключенных, «актирование» позволяло лагерной администрации искусственно снижать коэффициенты смертности в отчетах (Левенштейн 2001). Книга Алексопулос – попытка проанализировать взаимосвязь между «актировкой», освобождением и смертностью более детально.
  • Rahikainen, Seija Marjatta (2017)