Browsing by Subject "5202 Economic and Social History"

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  • Peltonen, Matti (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013)
    Studia historica
  • Stark, Eija (2019)
    Until the Interwar period, the majority of the Finnish population lived in small peasant communities in remote parts of the country. Since the growing season was short, much of the country was unsuitable for arable farming, and, in the beginning of the twentieth century, traditional agriculture was not able to employ the increasing population. People moved to towns and industrial centers to seek better economic opportunities and lifestyles and to find employment. In this article, I will analyze the life stories of the common Finnish people, born between 1874 and 1939, who felt compelled to move from their rural family communities. Many of the narrators had integration difficulties in their new environments; for example, living as a tenant in a block of flats was depicted as difficult and, therefore, many of them returned to the rural countryside in order to set up a smallholding of their own. For many, ownership of a small farm and the rural lifestyle it provided represented the cultural norm, and the images of a farmhouse received the typical characteristics of a "key-symbol." The article discusses mobility within a nation-state as a cultural involuntary experience.
  • Roikonen, Petri Juhani; Heikkinen, Sakari (2020)
    This study presents the new Gini coefficient and top income share series for Finland in the years 1865–1934 by utilizing Finnish tax statistics, which provide data on a poor country on the threshold of modern economic growth. Income inequality was relatively moderate in 1865, while famine (1867–1868) decreased it further. Income inequality increased substantially during the late nineteenth century, then declined during WWI and its aftermath, followed by another increase in inequality in the late 1920s that was halted by the Great Depression. The rising level of inequality before WWI fits well with the ideas of the Kuznets curve and maximum inequality, whereas the decline in inequality was due to shocks (e.g., civil war).
  • Vuorinen, Marja Helia Elisabet (2018)
    The article deals with a prominent and unusual Finnish nobleman, Nils Henrik Pinello (1802-79), of Italian family origin and active within the Finnish economic, political, cultural and entertainment circles around the middle decades of the 19th century. This extraordinary man of chequered career attempted most of the professions iconic to the 19thcentury economic and societal modernisation. An eventually hapless manor and saw mill owner, a Finnish bachelor of arts with a Swedish doctoral diploma on mining, who occasionally engaged also as civil servant, he successfully re-invented himself in mid-life – as a journalist, author and playwright, restaurant owner and theatre, music and history enthusiast, based in his native town Turku, the one-time capital of Finland. He also landed the membership of the first, 1848-49 planning committee for the Riddarhus (House of Nobility) building project, completed in Helsinki in 1858-62, and represented his family within the noble estate at the first three Four-Estate Diets, in 1863-64, 1867 and 1872. This article is an attempt at biographic research with a micro-historical twist. Juxtaposing Pinello with his political generation – the one that witnessed the gradual process of (re)establishing the Finnish four estate parliament, from 1840s to 1870s – I trace the political ideas of an exceptional nobleman who mainly identified with the flourishing small-town bourgeoisie of his period. I analyse, and contextualise, the occasions when Pinello commented on the projects, debates, politics, future prospects, lifestyles and appearances of the noble estate – by turns incisively, sarcastically, or making gentle fun of what he perceived as the outmoded or otherwise over-pompous aspirations of his fellow noblemen. The overall process that in the 19th century accompanied the retreat of the nobility from direct political power serves as the backdrop for his multiple roles in society, as well as an explanatory device for his ideological choices. Looking at an exceptional character, whose political excesses and flamboyant public style made him stand out among his peers, I bring to the focus not only the deviance of one person but also the prevailing normal patterns he may appear to transgress. Applying this so-called micro-macro link to the 19th-century Finnish nobility, I hope to cast a dual light on the process that eventually led to the abolishing of the four-estate system, nobility included, in favour of a unicameral parliament.
  • Laine, Heidi (2017)
    The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping. The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members. The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness. Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection.
  • Rahikainen, Marjatta (Sage, 2020)
  • Talvitie, Petri; Granqvist, Juha-Matti; Economic and Social History; Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
  • Eloranta, Jari Antero (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
    This chapter is a review of the many perspectives from history, political science, sociology, and economics that economic historians have applied to the study of war. Here I first review some of the scholarship on the premodern period, especially the formation of European nation states and conflicts. It is fairly clear that Europeans emerged out of this period with a comparative advantage in violence, through technological innovations and repeated warfare. Fiscal innovation and expansion was a key part of this. The period of the revolutions and Napoleonic conflicts represented a change in the nature of warfare and the arrival of total war, as well as the industrial age. The period of the world wars represents perhaps the best represented area of study for economic historians as of late. New data and scholarship has shown the mechanics of mobilization and highlighted the importance of resources in deciding these conflicts. Conversely, the Cold War period has been relatively sparsely studied, at least from the perspective of conflicts or military spending. Given the availability of new data and the opening of many archives, it is highly likely that this state of affairs will change in the near future. Economic historians have clearly made an impact in the study of long-run phenomena such as state formation, empires, and democracy. Cliometrics is well suited to the study of such topics, given the new panel and time series techniques, the rapid development of computing power, and the many new online databases.
  • Kieding Banik, Vibeke; Ekholm, Laura Katarina (Routledge, 2019)
    Routledge Studies in Cultural History
  • Saaritsa, Sakari (2019)
    This article demonstrates empirically how triangulation with other sources can alter the interpretation of oral histories of family strategies. While the interests of oral historians have shifted to postpositivist approaches, basic facts about material context and family events still tend to be drawn from the same narratives. Oral histories of two worker households in early twentieth-century Helsinki are linked with detailed Finnish tax, parish, and poor relief records. The findings point to a number of significant omissions, turn seemingly innocuous factual statements into meaningful strategic representations, and suggest systematic biases in describing livelihoods and sources of income.
  • Jakosuo, Katri (Future Academy, 2019)
    European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences
    Digitalisation and the platform economy have changed business and consumption patterns. Similarly, ways of working have also changed and become polarised as a result of automation, robots, e -commerce and blockchains bringing new innovations to the markets and changing earnings logic. Lower and middle-class jobs decrease or disappear, and high skilled roles increase. The new digital innovations and the progressive expansion of large platforms, such as Airbnb and Uber, have also placed pressure on the development of legislation, globally. The purpose of this study is to describe how digitalisation and the platform economy affect the service sector in general and how this disruption has implications for service sector companies, blue-collar workers and consumers. This research is based on qualitative content analysis. According to the results, digitalisation and the platform economy have both positive and negative effects. For example, these phenomena are expanding business markets and increasing the choice of consumers and the freedom of employees. On the other hand, the insecurity of employees and competition between local and global companies may increase uncontrollably. (C) 2019 Published by Future Academy
  • Turner, David M.; Blackie, Daniel (2022)
    This article examines disabled people’s political activism in Britain before the emergence of the modern disability rights movement (DRM). Focusing on the campaign for shorter factory working hours in the 1830s and 1840s, it highlights the centrality of so-called ‘factory cripples’ to the reformist cause, both figuratively and as witnesses to the consequences of industrial labour. Drawing on a wide range of sources – from accounts of campaign speeches and gatherings to official reports and the writings and testimonies of impaired workers – the article shows how the factory movement opened spaces for working-class ‘maimed’ and ‘deformed’ people to talk about their experiences in their own words. Self-proclaimed ‘factory cripples’ engaged in the fight for shorter hours in complex and reciprocal ways, with some using it to advance a socio-cultural understanding of ‘disability’. Recognising this reminds us that disabled people engaged in significant forms of political activism long before the twentieth century and suggests that the analysis developed by the DRM was not as pioneering as some studies imply.
  • Epilogue 
    Talvitie, Petri; Granqvist, Juha-Matti (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
  • Saaritsa, Sakari (2017)
    The literature on intrahousehold allocation in European history has typically built on bargaining models originating from Amartya Sen and the South Asian “missing girls” paradigm, testing hypotheses of male earner bias. Often, a 50/50 benchmark has been used, assuming any skew in spending meant discrimination. This study combines external measures of variation in morbidity by age, sex and season with analysis of household health expenditure in Finland in the 1920s. The results suggest that money largely followed sickness rather than gender or earnings. This supports an emerging literature challenging bargaining models and suggesting that significant historical differences may have existed between world regions.
  • Moll, Veera; Kuusi, Hanna (2021)
    Finnish children today enjoy a relatively high level of independent mobility. This article discusses how different urban planning professionals defined children's needs in a post-World War II Helsinki that was undergoing rapid urbanization, and how these discourses relate to childhood memories of the time. The emphasis on family by the planning professionals led to major changes in the city structure, including developed play areas, safer streets and shorter distances to schools. This study suggests that a dominant understanding of the importance of outdoor activities has contributed to the relatively stable level of independent mobility of the children in Helsinki.