Browsing by Subject "5203 Global Development Studies"

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  • Alava, Henni Leena (Brill, 2017)
    Youth in a Globalizing World
    This chapter analyses how the public discourse of ‘lost youth’ in post-war Acholiland manifests and is engaged with, particularly among well-educated Catholic and Protestant youngsters and young adults in the region who considered themselves ‘not lost’. I argue that the discourse of ‘lostness’ emerged in relation to my young informants’ disillusioned views on formal politics and the Ugandan state, and suggest that in distinguishing themselves from those who are ‘lost’, and in suggesting solutions to ‘lostness’, young Catholics and Protestants were expressing a particular kind of political agency: not being lost was seen as a prerequisite to being able to contribute to societal development and, ultimately, to being a politically engaged citizen. Finally, I demonstrate that, although the discourse of ‘lostness’ expressed a moral-panic type concern with the perceived uncontrollability of youth (Diouf 2003), embodying desires for rather conservative societal transformations, the discourse was also employed as a tool of critique against the ruling government.
  • White, Pamela; Devereux, Peter (2018)
    How can we prepare for and motivate ongoing improvements in development practice in the world of universal sustainable development goals? International Development Studies courses are a relatively new phenomenon. Earlier, people entered the field with technical backgrounds and learnt on the job. Similarly, many took the road from long-term international volunteering or Junior Expert/Junior Professional Officer posts, and moved into a career in international development [Baillie Smith, M. and N. Laurie, 2011, ‘International volunteering and development: Global citizenship and neoliberal professionalisation today’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers; Devereux, P., 2008, ‘International volunteering for development and sustainability: Outdated paternalism or a radical response to globalisation?’, Development in Practice, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 357–370; White, P., 2015, ‘The spectrum of motivations, experiences and attitudes in technical development cooperation’, Forum for Development Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 89–112]. More recently, development studies courses have emerged. Are they finding the right balance between critical approaches, history and vocational skills? A difference in motivations and expectations between early and mid-late career Finnish development workers was found from earlier research (White, 2015). With this case study we add a focus on the pre-career stage (via questionnaires and interviews), considering the motivations of Finnish development studies students in first year, postgraduate studies and after graduation. The article acknowledges the range of motivations and experience of those engaged with international development. It also considers the tension between critical theory and vocational skills. Competencies for development practice encompass a combination of theoretical knowledge, technical skills, administrative knowhow and attitudinal factors. We conclude that co-production, combining academic courses and research, including reflective and experiential practice, is a positive step forward.
  • Ingutia, Rose Anyiko; Rezitis, Anthony; Sumelius, John (Nova Science Publishers, 2021)
    How is Africa performing in leaving no child behind in poverty? Disparities exist in child poverty issues across countries: millions of children’s lives are blighted for no other reason than the country, the community, the gender, or the circumstances into which they are born. Due to uneven progress, we compared under-five mortality rates (U5MR), primary school enrolment (PSE), and child underweight (CU) across country clusters of low and middle income, and low U5MR and high U5MR in Africa. Endogeneity issues led to the use of Three Stages Least Squares simultaneous equations, and we applied elasticity to allow direct comparisons between elasticities across country clusters. African countries in low income and high U5MR clusters are far from leaving no child behind. These clusters display common causes of child poverty, including low gender parity index, low PSE, high CU, high numbers of out-of-school children, and poor governance. The estimated elasticities indicate that ethnolinguistic fractionalisation (women’s access to credit) and CU have the greatest effect on U5MR (child poverty), while crop production index (CPI), U5MR and CU have the greatest effect on PSE. CPI and female enrolment in secondary and vocational school have the greatest effect on CU. These findings imply that economic and social policies should consider allocating more resources to low-income and high-U5MR countries. Furthermore, the results tend to point to agriculture as a solution to child poverty issues in Africa. This occurs through an enabling environment for women in agriculture to access productive resources
  • Obeng-Odoom, Franklin (2021)
    Labour migration is, perhaps, the most widely discussed economic issue today. Yet, its underpinning theory and its empirical tests have remained largely Western-centric. In turn, the causes, effects, and policy options for the substantial, but widely neglected, Afro-Chinese labour migration, are poorly understood. By systematising existing data, this article shows that Afro-Chinese labour migration experience is far more complex than what neoclassical economics suggests. Driven, or, at least moulded, not so much by the migrant as a rational utility-maximising individual but by holistic processes of 'circular, combined and cumulation causation', Afro-Chinese migration, and Afro-Chinese relations, more generally, have contributed to economic growth, but at the cost of much socio-spatial displacement, and socio-ecological degradation. Added to these social costs is widespread labour exploitation. So, the insidious attempts by the state, business enterprise, corporate finance, and capital to consider migration as a 'spatial fix' for economic growth are questionable. Seeking to wall out migrants, embarking on widespread surveillance, pursuing migrant scape-goating, and framing migration as a Malthusian problem are, however, not a panacea. The social costs of migration need to be directly redressed, among others, by redesigning the institutions that shape the conditions of labour. Doing so would require leaving behind neoclassical economics theories of migration and exposing their vested interests. Social economics theories and theorising that more comprehensively address the labour migration problematique and strongly emphasise the coupling of migration, economic, and social policy can usefully be considered as alternatives.
  • Pellikka, Petri; Clark, Barnaby; Gonsamo Gosa, Alemu; Himberg, Nina; Hurskainen, Pekka; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Mwang´ombe, James; Omoro, Loice; Siljander, Mika (North-Holland Pub. Co, 2013)
    Developments in Earth Surface Processes
    The indigenous cloud forests in the Taita Hills have suffered substantial degradation for several centuries due to agricultural expansion. Additionally, climate change imposes an imminent threat for local economy and environmental sustainability. In such circumstances, elaborating tools to conciliate socioeconomic growth and natural resources conservation is an enormous challenge. This chapter describes applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems for assessing land-cover changes in the Taita Hills and its surrounding lowlands. Furthermore, it provides an overall assessment on the consequences of land-cover changes to water resources, biodiversity and livelihoods. The analyses presented in this study were undertaken at multiple spatial scales, using field data, airborne digital images and satellite imagery. Furthermore, a modelling framework was designed to delineate agricultural expansion projections and evaluate the future impacts of agriculture on soil erosion and irrigation water demand.
  • Ollinaho, Ossi; Kröger, Markus (2021)
    This article canvasses the current definitions and framings of “agroforestry” in different academic literature and policies. Three key framings of “agroforestry” are identified in the scholarship and explored for their differences. The findings suggest that the distinct schools of research on “agroforestry” focus on distinct points of departure, and these baseline situations from which transitions to what is called “agroforestry” occur vary in distinct ways from monoculture plantations to primary forests. Political-economic analysis is used to scrutinize three key “agroforestry” transition categories: agroecological, agribusiness, and forest degradation, which the article identifies as agroecoforestry (the good), agrobizforestry (the bad), and agrodeforestry (the ugly) transitions, respectively. Examples of each type are provided based on field research in Brazil, and the results are put into a global perspective. The categories are helpful in identifying the “agroforestry” transitions that are currently marketed as good solutions but might also have negative impacts and in highlighting the agroecological agroforestry transitions that would help simultaneously increase global food production, adapt to and mitigate the climate crisis, and achieve equity and social justice.
  • Pakkasvirta, Jussi; Kanninen, Markku; Koivusalo, Meri; Uusikylä, Petri; Rönkkö, Mika; Moore, Annica; Pasanen, Jouni (2013)
  • Saaristo, Saila-Maria (Universidad nacional autónoma de méxico, 2019)
    Estudios socioambientales
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina; Wayessa, Gutu Olana (2018)
    This article examines the politics of institutional governance of displacements and the intersecting experiences of environmental justice, drawing on case studies of flood disasters and urban displacements in Villahermosa, Mexico, and government-sponsored displacements and resettlements in rural Oromia, Ethiopia. We argue that a fuller understanding of how institutional governance produces multiple marginalisations requires political-ecological and intersectional analyses of residents' experiences of injustices that encompass interlinkages between social position, gender and political power. The analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Mexico and Ethiopia, comprising interviews, participant observation, document analysis and surveys. The study shows similarities and differences in patterns of governance, mechanisms of marginalisation and relations of authority and power concerning differentiated displacements and everyday vulnerabilities in different contexts of the global South. Our analysis enriches theoretical understanding of governance and justice, demonstrating how multiple marginalities are produced, reinforced and contested through political processes imbricated with forms of governance characterised by institutional intrusion and absence.
  • Bonkoungou, Isidore; Haukka, Kaisa; Österblad, Monica; Hakanen, Antti; Traore, Alfred; Barro, Nicolas; Siitonen, Anja (2013)
  • Jungar, Anna Katarina; Oinas, Elina (2011)
    We explore a range of projections that, we argue, are increasingly characterising much applied research on and popular representations of HIV/AIDS, gender and embodiment in Africa. Showing how the image of the victim is being challenged by a growing emphasis on agency, we identify continuities between these approaches. It is argued that both the insistence on victimisation and the celebration of agency naturalise neo-liberal ideas about the autonomous individual. Our paper reflects on our work on the South African Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), focusing on how we have confronted issues such as research design, reflexivity, methodology and ethics. We also show how TAC activists have redefined entrenched ideas about agency and victimisation. In developing a language and politics of activism that radically unsettles conventional understandings of embodied acts in the context of the HIV epidemic, TAC raises challenges for research, writing and media representations of embodiment and social marginalisation in African contexts.
  • Ehrström-Fuentes, Maria; Kröger, Antti Markus (2018)
    This study examines the role of states in developing contemporary extractivism based on recent investments and project plans in industrial forestry in Uruguay. This sheds light on several unanswered questions related to the role of the state and civil society in the governance, politics, and political economy of extractivism. The role played by states in contemporary extractive investments is a topic that requires studies that do more than simply analyse whether that role is strong or weak. Instead the focus should be on how states promote such investments, and on the political and socio-economic consequences thereof. Our analysis shows that the multiple roles of states need to be better understood when explaining the role of states in endorsing and expanding extractivism and its effect on the broader societal governance of business conduct. Our analysis indicates severe and negative developmental and socio-economic outcomes of pulp investments in Uruguay, which are hard if not impossible to transform as corporations can now use the investment protection laws – created by the government to regulate the state conduct – to restrict the possibilities of civil society and state actions.
  • Nygren, Anja (2012)
  • Heim, Anita; Pyhälä, Aili (2020)
    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and conceptualize the present drivers of food choices and preferences of the Khwe San indigenous peoples by considering influences of their historical and cultural contexts. Data were collected in Eastern Bwabwata National Park in Namibia using a range of qualitative methods: semi-structured and structured interviews and free listing. The various drivers of food choices have been clustered into four levels of the ecological conceptual framework. Key factors, found to be driving participants' food choices, were the following: taste, hunger, health, familiarity and body satisfaction at the individual level; culture and food taboos at the social level; access to food and food storage at the physical level, and; cost and seasonality at the macro level. Many of these factors are directly related to food insecurity and previous experiences of hunger. Current preferences towards traditional foods existed but were not prevailing among all the participants. Interviews with the elderly revealed the historical context of the increasing exposure to modern foods and a contested access to traditional foods and traditional knowledge transmission. Our findings exposed some substantial gaps in the nutritional knowledge of the Khwe that need consideration by future health promotion strategies along with the current perceptions of local food choices. Ensuring access and promoting sustainable management of traditional foods would not only contribute to the health of the Khwe people but also help to maintain a nutritional safety net in their current situation of extreme poverty.
  • Katsui, Hisayo; Kazakunova, Gulmira; Mojtahedi, Mina C. (2020)
    The main aim of this paper is to tease out the historical and deeply rooted ethical standards, spirituality, and social values that have long supported the social service system in Kyrgyzstan, which, today, faces pressure to align with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The data are based on an intervention conducted as part of the European Union‐Social Protection Systems programme in Kyrgyzstan between 2017 and 2018 where 30 university lecturers were part of. Interviews both to the Kyrgyz trainers with disabilities and to the trainees of the university lecturers as well as follow‐up survey conducted in 2019 form important part of data for this paper. We first investigate the conventional ethical standards, spiritual explanations, and social values related to disabilities within the Kyrgyz social protection system and social services. We elaborate on the Kyrgyz context of the societal ethics, spirituality, and values around disability in the Kyrgyz university education for social workers. Second, we analyse the transformation of the perception of disability among the university lecturers. We conclude this paper with a discussion on the negotiation between a charity‐based approach that reinforces the stigmatization of disability and a human rights‐based approach that promotes paradigm change, to contribute to global discourse of social change towards disability inclusion.
  • Nygren, Anja; Quesada, Florencia; Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies; Global Development Studies; Helsinki Inequality Initiative (INEQ); Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS); The Global Extractivisms and Alternatives Initiative (Cogitao Press, 2020)
    Urban Planning
  • Heikkinen, Anna (2017)
    Previous studies have shown that climatic changes in the Peruvian Andes pose a threat to lowland communities, mainly through changes in hydrology. This study uses a case study approach and a mixed qualitative-quantitative method to examine the vulnerability of small-scale farmers in the Quillcay River basin to variations in precipitation and enhanced glacier retreat. The findings of the study show partly contradicting results. On one hand, interpretation of semi-structured interviews suggests a strong relation between climate proxies and increased vulnerability of the smallholders. On the other hand, in the quantitative analysis enhanced glacier retreat seemed to have augmented vulnerability solely to some extent whereas precipitation did not show significant impact. The assessment of the socioeconomic dimension revealed that larger market forces, weak political entitlement and lack of social and economic capital fundamentally increased smallholders’ vulnerability. It is, therefore, suggested that a complex cluster of economic, political and social factors are the root causes of small-scale farmers’ vulnerability in the case study region whereas climate-related changes merely act as multiplying factors.
  • Heikkinen, Anna Marjaana (2021)
    The intensifying impacts of climate change pose a serious global threat, particularly for rural populations whose livelihoods are closely tied to natural resources. Yet there is a lack of critical understanding of how asymmetric power dynamics shape the vulnerabilities of such populations under climate change. This article examines the interrelations between smallholders’ climate-related vulnerability experiences and power relations across multiple scales of climate adaptation in the Peruvian Andes, a region susceptible to increasing climatic threats. The analysis draws on a case study conducted in the Mantaro River Valley in Central Peru using qualitative methods: open-ended interviews, participant observation, and document analysis. Findings of the study show that in the context of climate change, the production of vulnerabilities has much to do with larger socio-political structures in which protection of the highland farmers is not prioritized. The impact of the uneven scalar power dynamics in climate adaptation and other overlapping fields of policy have created uneven terms of adaptation among smallholders. This has created marginalization, conflicts, and deepened smallholders’ vulnerabilities under climate change. I argue that to reach a better understanding of the multidimensionality of vulnerabilities, more detailed attention must be paid to place-based climate experiences within context-specific, socio-political processes, and to the ways these are shaped by unequal power relations across multiple scales.