Browsing by Subject "612 Languages and Literature"

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  • Garant, Mikel (2009)
    This paper presents a linear study of assessment practices in the English section of the University of Helsinki, Department of Translation Studies. A qualitative methodology involving interviews and open-ended questionnaires was used to gather data in 1997, 2001 and 2008. Results suggest that a paradigm shift in Translation Studies has occurred during this period as exemplified by the generally accepted grading methods. Points-based error focused grading which was the norm has been replaced across the board by holistic grading methods. Further, the current translation instructors tend to see points-based grading systems as suspect while holistic grading tends to be seen to be more related to training future translators for real world tasks.
  • Koskenniemi, Kimmo (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 1984)
    A language independent model for recognition and production of word forms is presented. This "two-level model" is based on a new way of describing morphological alternations. All rules describing the morphophonological variations are parallel and relatively independent of each other. Individual rules are implemented as finite state automata, as in an earlier model due to Martin Kay and Ron Kaplan. The two-level model has been implemented as an operational computer programs in several places. A number of operational two-level descriptions have been written or are in progress (Finnish, English, Japanese, Rumanian, French, Swedish, Old Church Slavonic, Greek, Lappish, Arabic, Icelandic). The model is bidirectional and it is capable of both analyzing and synthesizing word-forms.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (2004)
    FG Conferences
    The paper presents Colored Multiplanar Link Grammars (CMLG). These grammars are reducible to extended right-linear S-grammars (Wartena 2001) where the storage type S is a concatenation of c pushdowns. The number of colors available in these grammars induces a hierarchy of Classes of CMLGs. By fixing also another parameter in CMLGs, namely the bound t for non-projectivity depth, we get c-Colored t-Non-projective Dependency Grammars (CNDG) that generate acyclic dependency graphs. Thus, CNDGs form a two-dimensional hier- archy of dependency grammars. A part of this hierarchy is mildly context-sensitive and non-projective.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (Potsdam University Press,, 2008)
    Nested complementation plays an important role in expressing counter- i.e. star-free and first-order definable languages and their hierarchies. In addition, methods that compile phonological rules into finite-state networks use double-nested complementation or "double negation". This paper reviews how the double-nested complementation extends to a relatively new operation, generalized restriction (GR), coined by the author. ... The paper demonstrates that the GR operation has an interesting potential in expressing regular languages, various kinds of grammars, bimorphisms and relations. This motivates a further study of optimized implementation of the operation.
  • Pirinen, Tommi; Linden, Krister (2010)
    Proceedings of the International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology
    There are numerous formats for writing spellcheckers for open-source systems and there are many descriptions for languages written in these formats. Similarly, for word hyphenation by computer there are TEX rules for many languages. In this paper we demonstrate a method for converting these spell-checking lexicons and hyphenation rule sets into finite-state automata, and present a new finite-state based system for writer’s tools used in current open-source software such as Firefox, OpenOffice.org and enchant via the spell-checking library voikko.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael; Koskenniemi, Kimmo; Linden, Krister (2006)
    Finite-state methods have been adopted widely in computational morphology and related linguistic applications. To enable efficient development of finite-state based linguistic descriptions, these methods should be a freely available resource for academic language research and the language technology industry. The following needs can be identified: (i) a registry that maps the existing approaches, implementations and descriptions, (ii) managing the incompatibilities of the existing tools, (iii) increasing synergy and complementary functionality of the tools, (iv) persistent availability of the tools used to manipulate the archived descriptions, (v) an archive for free finite-state based tools and linguistic descriptions. Addressing these challenges contributes to building a common research infrastructure for advanced language technology.
  • Silfverberg, Miikka; Linden, Krister (2009)
  • Linden, Krister; Tuovila, Jussi (Springer-Verlag, 2009)
    Communications in computer and information science
  • Linden, Krister; Tuovila, Jussi (2009)
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (2003)
    Koskenniemen Äärellistilaisen leikkauskieliopin (FSIG) lauseopilliset rajoitteet ovat loogisesti vähemmän kompleksisia kuin mihin niissä käytetty formalismi vittaisi. Osoittautuukin että vaikka Voutilaisen (1994) englannin kielelle laatima FSIG-kuvaus käyttää useita säännöllisten lausekkeiden laajennuksia, kieliopin kuvaus kokonaisuutenaan palautuu äärelliseen yhdistelmään unionia, komplementtia ja peräkkäinasettelua. Tämä on oleellinen parannus ENGFSIG:n descriptiiviseen kompleksisuuteen. Tulos avaa ovia FSIG-kuvauksen loogisten ominaisuuksien syvemmälle analyysille ja FSIG kuvausten mahdolliselle optimoinnillle. Todistus sisältää uuden kaavan, joka kääntää Koskenniemien rajoiteoperaation ilman markkerimerkkejä.
  • Linden, Krister; Piitulainen, Jussi Olavi (2004)
    Discovering synonyms and other related words among the words in a document collection can be seen as a clustering problem, where we expect the words in a cluster to be closely related to one another. The intuition is that words occurring in similar contexts tend to convey similar meaning. We introduce a way to use translation dictionaries for several languages to evaluate the rate of synonymy found in the word clusters. We also apply the information radius to calculating similarities between words using a full dependency syntactic feature space, and introduce a method for similarity recalculation during clustering as a fast approximation of the high-dimensional feature space. Finally, we show that 69-79% of the words in the clusters we discover are useful for thesaurus construction.
  • Pajusalu, Renate; Vihman, Virve; Klaas, Birute; Pajusalu, Karl (Eesti keele sihtasutus, 2010)
    Eesti Rakenduslingvistika Ühingu aastaraamat