Browsing by Subject "7"

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  • Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2019)
    Dioxins are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants whose background levels are still reason for concern. There is mounting evidence from both epidemiological and experimental studies that paternal exposure to the most potent congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), can lower the male/female ratio of offspring. Moreover, in laboratory rodents and zebrafish, TCDD exposure of parent animals has been reported to result in reduced reproductive performance along with other adverse effects in subsequent generations, foremost through the paternal but also via the maternal germline. These impacts have been accompanied by epigenetic alterations in placenta and/or sperm cells, including changes in methylation patterns of imprinted genes. Here, we review recent key studies in this field with an attempt to provide an up-to-date picture of the present state of knowledge to the reader. These studies provide biological plausibility for the potential of dioxin exposure at a critical time-window to induce epigenetic alterations across multiple generations and the significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in mediating these effects. Currently available data do not allow to accurately estimate the human health implications of these findings, although epidemiological evidence on lowered male/female ratio suggests that this effect may take place at realistic human exposure levels.
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Viluksela, Matti (2020)
    Dioxins and related compounds are common environmental contaminants. Although their levels have gone down, they are still of concern, in particular regarding developmental toxicity. The adverse effects of these compounds are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), whose canonical signaling pathway has been unveiled in fair detail. The alternative (non-genomic) pathways are much more obscure. AHR has also proven to be a master regulator of numerous physiological phenomena, which has led to the search of selective AHR modulators with low toxicity. Papers of this Special Issue address the developmental toxicity of dioxins and related compounds as well as selective modulators of AHR and both its canonical and alternative signaling pathways. In addition, new optical and stereoscopic methods for the detection of dioxins are presented. As a whole, this Special Issue provides an up-to-date view on a wide variety of aspects related to dioxin toxicity mechanisms from both original research articles and reviews.
  • Esteban, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Ismael; Hamscher, Gerd; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Korkalainen, Merja; Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Håkansson, Helen (2021)
    Young adult wild-type and aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout (AHRKO) mice of both sexes and the C57BL/6J background were exposed to 10 weekly oral doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; total dose of 200 ?g/kg bw) to further characterize the observed impacts of AHR as well as TCDD on the retinoid system. Unexposed AHRKO mice harboured heavier kidneys, lighter livers and lower serum all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and retinol (REOH) concentrations than wild-type mice. Results from the present study also point to a role for the murine AHR in the control of circulating REOH and ATRA concentrations. In wild-type mice, TCDD elevated liver weight and reduced thymus weight, and drastically reduced the hepatic concentrations of 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14dihydro-retinoic acid (CORA) and retinyl palmitate (REPA). In female wild-type mice, TCDD increased the hepatic concentration of ATRA as well as the renal and circulating REOH concentrations. Renal CORA concentrations were substantially diminished in wild-type male mice exclusively following TCDD-exposure, with a similar tendency in serum. In contrast, TCDD did not affect any of these toxicity or retinoid system parameters in AHRKO mice. Finally, a distinct sex difference occurred in kidney concentrations of all the analysed retinoid forms. Together, these results strengthen the evidence of a mandatory role of AHR in TCDD-induced retinoid disruption, and suggest that the previously reported accumulation of several retinoid forms in the liver of AHRKO mice is a line-specific phenomenon. Our data further support participation of AHR in the control of liver and kidney development in mice.