Browsing by Subject "A1C"

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  • DCCT EDIC Res Grp; FinnDiane Study Grp; Syreeni, Anna; Sandholm, Niina; Cao, Jingjing; Toppila, Iiro; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J.; Caramori, M. Luiza; Mauer, Michael; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Valo, Erkka; Parkkonen, Maija; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Paterson, Andrew D.; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) is an important measure of glycemia in diabetes. HbA(1c) is influenced by environmental and genetic factors both in people with and in people without diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for HbA(1c) in a Finnish type 1 diabetes (T1D) cohort, FinnDiane. Top results were examined for replication in T1D cohorts DCCT/EDIC, WESDR, CACTI, EDC, and RASS, and a meta-analysis was performed. Three SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 13 near relaxin family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2) were associated with HbA(1c) in FinnDiane at genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)). The minor alleles of rs2085277 and rs1360072 were associated with higher HbA(1c) also in the meta-analysis with RASS (P <5 x 10(-8)), where these variants had minor allele frequencies 1%. Furthermore, these SNPs were associated with HbA(1c) in an East Asian population without diabetes (P 0.013). A weighted genetic risk score created from 55 HbA(1c)-associated variants from the literature was associated with HbA(1c) in FinnDiane but explained only a small amount of variation. Understanding the genetic basis of glycemic control and HbA(1c) may lead to better prevention of diabetes complications.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Inkeri, Jussi; Adeshara, Krishna; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Liebkind, Ron; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Thorn, Lena M.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Shams, Sara; Martola, Juha; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel (2022)
    Aims To determine if medium- and long-term blood glucose control as well as glycemic variability, which are known to be strong predictors of vascular complications, are associated with underlying cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods A total of 189 individuals (47.1% men; median age 40.0, IQR 33.0-45.2 years) with type 1 diabetes (median diabetes duration of 21.7, IQR 18.3-30.7 years) were enrolled in a cross-sectional retrospective study, as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) values were collected over the course of ten years before the visit including a clinical examination, biochemical sampling, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Markers of glycemic control, measured during the visit, included HbA(1c), fructosamine, and glycated albumin. Results Signs of cSVD were present in 66 (34.9%) individuals. Medium- and long-term glucose control and glycemic variability did not differ in individuals with signs of cSVD compared to those without. Further, no difference in any of the blood glucose variables and cSVD stratified for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) or white matter hyperintensities were detected. Neither were numbers of CMBs associated with the studied glucose variables. Additionally, after dividing the studied variables into quartiles, no association with cSVD was observed. Conclusions We observed no association between glycemic control and cSVD in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes. This finding was unexpected considering the large number of signs of cerebrovascular pathology in these people after two decades of chronic hyperglycemia and warrants further studies searching for underlying factors of cSVD.
  • Hanttu, A.; Kauppinen, K. J.; Kivelä, P.; Ollgren, J.; Jousilahti, P.; Liitsola, K.; Koponen, P.; Sutinen, J. (2021)
    Objectives Comparative data on glucose disorders using fasting blood samples between people living with HIV (PLWH) and the general population are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and risk factors of obesity and disturbances in glucose homeostasis between PLWH treated with modern antiretroviral therapy and the general population. Methods Adjusted prevalence of obesity, features of insulin resistance (triglyceride:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and alanine aminotransferase), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM) and combined dysglycaemia (presence of IFG or DM) were determined using fasting blood samples among 1041 PLWH and 7047 subjects representing the general population. Results People living with HIV had a lower prevalence of obesity [18.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 15.1-21.2 vs. 23.9%, 95% CI: 22.4-25.4], but a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and IFG (20.0%, 95% CI: 16.6-23.4 vs. 9.8%, 95% CI: 8.7-10.8) than the general population. Fasting glucose concentration was higher, but glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was lower, among PLWH. Prevalence of dysglycaemia for a given body mass index (BMI) was higher in PLWH than in the general population. The prevalence of DM did not differ between PLWH (13.2%, 95% CI: 10.2-15.9) and the general population (14.5%, 95% CI: 13.6-15.4). Conclusions The prevalence of obesity was lower, but the risk of dysglycaemia for a given BMI was significantly higher, among PLWH, highlighting the importance of prevention and treatment of obesity among HIV-infected subjects. Regardless of the increased prevalence of insulin resistance and IFG, DM was surprisingly not more common among PLWH, raising concern about the under-diagnosis of DM, possibly due to low sensitivity of HbA1c in this patient population.