Browsing by Subject "ABIOTIC STRESS"

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  • Safronov, Omid; Kreuzwieser, Juergen; Haberer, Georg; Alyousif, Mohamed S.; Schulze, Waltraud; Al-Harbi, Naif; Arab, Leila; Ache, Peter; Stempfl, Thomas; Kruse, Joerg; Mayer, Klaus X.; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko (2017)
    Plants adapt to the environment by either long-term genome evolution or by acclimatization processes where the cellular processes and metabolism of the plant are adjusted within the existing potential in the genome. Here we studied the adaptation strategies in date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, under mild heat, drought and combined heat and drought by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. In transcriptomics data, combined heat and drought resembled heat response, whereas in metabolomics data it was more similar to drought. In both conditions, soluble carbohydrates, such as fucose, and glucose derivatives, were increased, suggesting a switch to carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biogenesis. This result is consistent with the evidence from transcriptomics and cis-motif analysis. In addition, transcriptomics data showed transcriptional activation of genes related to reactive oxygen species in all three conditions (drought, heat, and combined heat and drought), suggesting increased activity of enzymatic antioxidant systems in cytosol, chloroplast and peroxisome. Finally, the genes that were differentially expressed in heat and combined heat and drought stresses were significantly enriched for circadian and diurnal rhythm motifs, suggesting new stress avoidance strategies.
  • Sablok, Gaurav; Powell, Jonathan J.; Kazan, Kemal (2017)
    Plants use a wide range of mechanisms to adapt to different environmental stresses. One of the earliest responses displayed under stress is rapid alterations in stress responsive gene expression that has been extensively analyzed through expression profiling such as microarrays and RNA-sequencing. Recently, expression profiling has been complemented with proteome analyses to establish a link between transcriptional and the corresponding translational changes. However, proteome profiling approaches have their own technical limitations. More recently, ribosome-associated mRNA profiling has emerged as an alternative and a robust way of identifying translating mRNAs, which are a set of mRNAs associated with ribosomes and more likely to contribute to proteome abundance. In this article, we briefly review recent studies that examined the processes affecting the abundance of translating mRNAs, their regulation during plant development and tolerance to stress conditions and plant factors affecting the selection of translating mRNA pools. This review also highlights recent findings revealing differential roles of alternatively spliced mRNAs and their translational control during stress adaptation. Overall, better understanding of processes involved in the regulation of translating mRNAs has obvious implications for improvement of stress tolerance in plants.
  • Cui, Fuqiang; Brosche, Mikael; Shapiguzov, Alexey; He, Xin-Qiang; Vainonen, Julia P.; Leppala, Johanna; Trotta, Andrea; Kangasjarvi, Saijaliisa; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko; Overmyer, Kirk (2019)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signalling intermediates in plant metabolism, defence, and stress adaptation. In plants, both the chloroplast and mitochondria are centres of metabolic control and ROS production, which coordinate stress responses in other cell compartments. The herbicide and experimental tool, methyl viologen (MV) induces ROS generation in the chloroplast under illumination, but is also toxic in non-photosynthetic organisms. We used MV to probe plant ROS signalling in compartments other than the chloroplast. Taking a genetic approach in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we used natural variation, QTL mapping, and mutant studies with MV in the light, but also under dark conditions, when the chloroplast electron transport is inactive. These studies revealed a light-independent MV-induced ROS-signalling pathway, suggesting mitochondrial involvement. Mitochondrial Mn SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE was required for ROS-tolerance and the effect of MV was enhanced by exogenous sugar, providing further evidence for the role of mitochondria. Mutant and hormone feeding assays revealed roles for stress hormones in organellar ROS-responses. The radical-induced cell death1 mutant, which is tolerant to MV-induced ROS and exhibits altered mitochondrial signalling, was used to probe interactions between organelles. Our studies suggest that mitochondria are involved in the response to ROS induced by MV in plants.
  • Morales, Luis O.; Shapiguzov, Alexey; Safronov, Omid; Leppälä, Johanna; Vaahtera, Lauri; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael (2021)
    Tropospheric ozone (O-3) is a major air pollutant that decreases yield of important crops worldwide. Despite long-lasting research of its negative effects on plants, there are many gaps in our knowledge on how plants respond to O-3. In this study, we used natural variation in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to characterize molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying O-3 sensitivity. A key parameter in models for O-3 damage is stomatal uptake. Here we show that the extent of O-3 damage in the sensitive Arabidopsis accession Shahdara (Sha) does not correspond with O-3 uptake, pointing toward stomata-independent mechanisms for the development of O-3 damage. We compared tolerant (Col-0) versus sensitive accessions (Sha, Cvi-0) in assays related to photosynthesis, cell death, antioxidants, and transcriptional regulation. Acute O-3 exposure increased cell death, development of lesions in the leaves, and decreased photosynthesis in sensitive accessions. In both Sha and Cvi-0, O-3-induced lesions were associated with decreased maximal chlorophyll fluorescence and low quantum yield of electron transfer from Photosystem II to plastoquinone. However, O-3-induced repression of photosynthesis in these two O-3-sensitive accessions developed in different ways. We demonstrate that O-3 sensitivity in Arabidopsis is influenced by genetic diversity given that Sha and Cvi-0 developed accession-specific transcriptional responses to O-3. Our findings advance the understanding of plant responses to O-3 and set a framework for future studies to characterize molecular and physiological mechanisms allowing plants to respond to high O-3 levels in the atmosphere as a result of high air pollution and climate change.
  • Ortiz Charneco, Guillermo; Parages, Maria L.; Camarena-Gómez, M. Teresa; Jimenez, Carlos (2018)
    The green unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis has the ability to cope with a wide variety of environmental stressful conditions, such as thermal and osmotic shocks, high PAR, UV radiation and nitrogen deficiency. The lack of a rigid cell wall makes D. viridis an excellent model organism to study stress signaling in eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine kinases that convert extracellular stimuli into a wide range of responses at both cellular and nuclear levels. In eukaryotic cells, MAPKs are involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation (ERK pathway) and stress responses (JNK and p38 pathways), through protein kinase cascades. Significantly lesser phosphorylation levels of ERK-like protein were observed in D. viridis cultures acclimated to high salinity (3-4 M NaCl). In contrast, JNK-like and p38-like proteins phosphorylation levels increased in stressed cells. Likewise, the efficacy of specific commercial inhibitors of the phosphorylation of ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) revealed the importance of JNK-like proteins in the maintenance of cell viability, the highlighted participation of p38-like proteins and the non-direct implication of the ERK-like proteins in the acclimatization process. In summary, specific blockade of JNK- and p38-like cascades in stressed cells led to rapid cell death. The behavior of MAPK-like proteins in algae is not known in depth, so the analysis of their mechanism of action, as well as their function in this model microalga, will allow to estimate the fate of unicellular eukaryotic organisms in aquatic ecosystems subjected to environmental stress derived from the conditions prevailing within a framework of global climate change.
  • Wang, Youshi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shurong; Soininen, Janne; Ai, Dexiecuo; Li, Yali; Chu, Chengjin (2013)
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Omidi, Mansoor; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Mehrabi, Ali Ashraf; Poczai, Peter (2020)
    Previous studies have revealed that some wild wheat accessions respond well to water deficit treatments and have a good potential in terms of photosynthetic parameters, root system architecture, and several physiological properties. However, the biochemical responses and molecular mechanisms of antioxidant-encoding genes remain to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the most tolerant accessions fromA. crassa,Ae. tauschii, andAe. cylindricapreviously identified from a core collection in previous studies, along with a control variety of bread wheat (T. aestivumcv. Sirvan) through measuring the shoot fresh and dry biomasses; the activities of antioxidant enzymes (including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and peroxidase (POD)); and the relative expression ofCAT, superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), andGPXandAPXgenes under control and water deficit conditions. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease in the shoot biomasses but resulted in an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes and relative expression of antioxidant enzyme-encoding genes. Principal component analysis showed a strong association between the shoot dry biomass and the activity of CAT, POD, and APX, as well asMnSODgene expression. Thus, these traits can be used as biomarkers to screen the tolerant plant material in the early growth stage. Taken together, our findings exposed the fact thatAe. tauschiiandAe. crassarespond better to water deficit stress thanAe. cylindricaand a control variety. Furthermore, these accessions can be subjected to further molecular investigation.