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  • Sun, Ren X.; Chong, Lauren C.; Simmons, Trent T.; Houlahan, Kathleen E.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Lensu, Sanna; Lindén, Jere; P'ng, Christine; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2014)
  • Lee, Jamie; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Sun, Ren X.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2015)
    Background: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dixion (TCDD) is the most potent of the dioxin congeners, capable of causing a wide range of toxic effects across numerous animal models. Previous studies have demonstrated that males and females of the same species can display divergent sensitivity phenotypes to TCDD toxicities. Although it is now clear that most TCDD-induced toxic outcomes are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the mechanism of differential responses to TCDD exposure between sexes remains largely unknown. To investigate the differential sensitivities in male and female mice, we profiled the hepatic transcriptomic responses 4 days following exposure to various amounts of TCDD (125, 250, 500 or 1000 mu g/kg) in adult male and female C57BL/6Kuo mice. Results: Several key findings were revealed by our study. 1) Hepatic transcriptomes varied significantly between the sexes at all doses examined. 2) The liver transcriptome of males was more dysregulated by TCDD than that of females. 3) The alteration of " AHR-core" genes was consistent in magnitude, regardless of sex. 4) A subset of genes demonstrated sex-dependent TCDD-induced transcriptional changes, including Fmo3 and Nr1i3, which were significantly induced in livers of male mice only. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to contrast transcriptomic profiles of various organisms and tissues following exposure to equitoxic doses of TCDD. Minimal overlap was observed in the differences between TCDD-sensitive or TCDD-resistant models. Conclusions: Sex-dependent sensitivities to TCDD exposure are associated with a set of sex-specific TCDD-responsive genes. In addition, complex interactions between the aryl hydrocarbon and sex hormone receptors may affect the observable differences in sensitivity phenotypes between the sexes. Further work is necessary to better understand the roles of those genes altered by TCDD in a sex-dependent manner, and their association with changes to sex hormones and receptors.
  • Esteban, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Ismael; Hamscher, Gerd; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Korkalainen, Merja; Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Håkansson, Helen (2021)
    Young adult wild-type and aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout (AHRKO) mice of both sexes and the C57BL/6J background were exposed to 10 weekly oral doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; total dose of 200 ?g/kg bw) to further characterize the observed impacts of AHR as well as TCDD on the retinoid system. Unexposed AHRKO mice harboured heavier kidneys, lighter livers and lower serum all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and retinol (REOH) concentrations than wild-type mice. Results from the present study also point to a role for the murine AHR in the control of circulating REOH and ATRA concentrations. In wild-type mice, TCDD elevated liver weight and reduced thymus weight, and drastically reduced the hepatic concentrations of 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14dihydro-retinoic acid (CORA) and retinyl palmitate (REPA). In female wild-type mice, TCDD increased the hepatic concentration of ATRA as well as the renal and circulating REOH concentrations. Renal CORA concentrations were substantially diminished in wild-type male mice exclusively following TCDD-exposure, with a similar tendency in serum. In contrast, TCDD did not affect any of these toxicity or retinoid system parameters in AHRKO mice. Finally, a distinct sex difference occurred in kidney concentrations of all the analysed retinoid forms. Together, these results strengthen the evidence of a mandatory role of AHR in TCDD-induced retinoid disruption, and suggest that the previously reported accumulation of several retinoid forms in the liver of AHRKO mice is a line-specific phenomenon. Our data further support participation of AHR in the control of liver and kidney development in mice.