Browsing by Subject "ACARI"

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  • Rene-Martellet, Magalie; Minard, Guillaume; Massot, Raphael; Van Tran Van; Moro, Claire Valiente; Chabanne, Luc; Mavingui, Patrick (2017)
    Background: Ticks of the group Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) are distributed worldwide and are major pathogen vectors of both dogs and humans. Previous phylogenetic reconstructions have suggested the existence of two main lineages within this group, "Tropical" and "Temperate". Symbiotic interactions contribute to vector development, survival, reproduction and competence. The diversity of microbial communities associated with different populations of R. sanguineus (s.l.) remains poorly characterized, however, this knowledge will aid in future studies of hosts-microbiota-pathogen interactions. To gain insight into the bacterial communities associated with R. sanguineus (s.l.) ticks, 40 specimens from France, Senegal and Arizona were analyzed by high-throughput 16S amplicon sequencing. All tick specimens were taxonomically classified using the mitochondrial 12S rDNA gene, which provides sufficient phylogenetic resolution to discriminate different lineages of R. sanguineus. Results: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) samples from Senegal belonged to the "Tropical" lineage, samples from France belonged to the "Temperate" lineage, whereas both lineages were identified in samples from Arizona. Regardless of origin, each bacterial microbiota was dominated by three genera: Coxiella, Rickettsia and Bacillus. Rickettsia and Coxiella were the two main genera found in females whereas males had a higher proportion of Bacillus. Significant differences of relative abundances were evidenced between specimens from different geographical origins. Conclusions: This study highlights differences in the microbiota composition within R. sanguineus (s.l.) specimens from different genotypes, genders and geographical origins. This knowledge will help in future studies of the symbiotic interactions, biology and vector competence of the R. sanguineus (s.l.) complex.
  • Norte, Ana Claudia; Margos, Gabriele; Becker, Noemie S.; Ramos, Jaime Albino; Nuncio, Maria Sofia; Fingerle, Volker; Araujo, Pedro Miguel; Adamik, Peter; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Barba, Emilio; Barrientos, Rafael; Cauchard, Laure; Csorgo, Tibor; Diakou, Anastasia; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Dubiec, Anna; Eeva, Tapio; Flaisz, Barbara; Grim, Tomas; Hau, Michaela; Heylen, Dieter; Hornok, Sandor; Kazantzidis, Savas; Kovats, David; Krause, Frantisek; Literak, Ivan; Mand, Raivo; Mentesana, Lucia; Morinay, Jennifer; Mutanen, Marko; Neto, Julio Manuel; Novakova, Marketa; Sanz, Juan Jose; da Silva, Luis Pascoal; Sprong, Hein; Tirri, Ina-Sabrina; Török, Janos; Trilar, Tomi; Tyller, Zdenek; Visser, Marcel E.; de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes (2020)
    Birds are hosts for several zoonotic pathogens. Because of their high mobility, especially of longdistance migrants, birds can disperse these pathogens, affecting their distribution and phylogeography. We focused on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which includes the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, as an example for tick-borne pathogens, to address the role of birds as propagation hosts of zoonotic agents at a large geographical scale. We collected ticks from passerine birds in 11 European countries. B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in Ixodes spp. was 37% and increased with latitude. The fieldfare Turdus pilaris and the blackbird T. merula carried ticks with the highest Borrelia prevalence (92 and 58%, respectively), whereas robin Erithacus rubecula ticks were the least infected (3.8%). Borrelia garinii was the most prevalent genospecies (61%), followed by B. valaisiana (24%), B. afzelii (9%), B. turdi (5%) and B. lusitaniae (0.5%). A novel Borrelia genospecies "Candidatus Borrelia aligera" was also detected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of B. garinii isolates together with the global collection of B. garinii genotypes obtained from the Borrelia MLST public database revealed that: (a) there was little overlap among genotypes from different continents, (b) there was no geographical structuring within Europe, and (c) there was no evident association pattern detectable among B. garinii genotypes from ticks feeding on birds, questing ticks or human isolates. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that the population structure and evolutionary biology of tick-borne pathogens are shaped by their host associations and the movement patterns of these hosts.
  • Sormunen, Jani J.; Andersson, Tommi; Aspi, Jouni; Back, Jaana; Cederberg, Tony; Haavisto, Noora; Halonen, Hanna; Hanninen, Jari; Inkinen, Jasmin; Kulha, Niko; Laaksonen, Maija; Loehr, John; Makela, Satu; Makinen, Katja; Norkko, Joanna; Paavola, Riku; Pajala, Pauliina; Petaja, Tuukka; Puisto, Anna; Sippola, Ella; Snickars, Martin; Sundell, Janne; Tanski, Niko; Uotila, Antti; Vesilahti, Ella-Maria; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Vuorenmaa, Silja; Ylonen, Hannu; Ylonen, Jari; Klemola, Tero (2020)
    In 2015 a long-term, nationwide tick and tick-borne pathogen (TBP) monitoring project was started by the Finnish Tick Project and the Finnish Research Station network (RESTAT), with the goal of producing temporally and geographically extensive data regarding exophilic ticks in Finland. In the current study, we present results from the first four years of this collaboration. Ticks were collected by cloth dragging from 11 research stations across Finland in May September 2015-2018 (2012-2018 in Seili). Collected ticks were screened for twelve different pathogens by qPCR: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Altogether 15 067 Ixodes ricinus and 46 Ixodes persulcatus were collected during 68 km of dragging. Field collections revealed different seasonal activity patterns for the two species. The activity of I. persulcatus adults (only one nymph detected) was unimodal, with activity only in May July, whereas Ixodes ricinus was active from May to September, with activity peaks in September (nymphs) or July August (adults). Overall, tick densities were higher during the latter years of the study. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were the most common pathogens detected, with 48.9 +/- 8.4% (95% Cl) of adults and 25.3 +/- 4.4% of nymphs carrying the bacteria. No samples positive for F. tularensis, Bartonella or TBEV were detected. This collaboration project involving the extensive Finnish Research Station network has ensured enduring and spatially extensive, long-term tick data collection to the foreseeable future.