Browsing by Subject "ACCLIMATION"

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  • Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Sevanto, Sanna; Dal Maso, Miikka; Taipale, Risto; Kajos, Maija; Kolari, Pasi; Back, Jaana (2013)
  • Vesala, Timo; Launiainen, Samuli; Kolari, Pasi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sevanto, S.; Hari, Pertti; Nikinmaa, E.; Kaski, Petteri; Mannila, Heikki; Ukkonen, Esko; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P. (2010)
  • Atherton, Jon; Liu, Weiwei; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2019)
    Solar-induced chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SIF), which is distributed over a relatively broad (similar to 200 nm) spectral range, is a signal intricately connected to the efficiency of photosynthesis and is now observable from space. Variants of the Fraunhofer Line Depth/Discriminator (FLD) method are used as the basis of retrieval algorithms for estimating SIF from space. Although typically unobserved directly, recent advances in FLD-based algorithms now facilitate the prediction (by model inversion) of the canopy emitted fluorescence spectrum from the discrete-feature FLD retrievals. Here we present first canopy scale measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence spectra emitted from Scots pine at two times of year, and also from a lingonberry dominated understory. We used a high power mul-tispectral Light Emitting Diode (LED) array to illuminate the respective canopies at night and measured under standardised conditions using a field spectrometer mounted in the nadir position above the canopy. We refer to the technique, which facilitates the in situ upscaling of a commonly measured leaf scale quantity to the canopy, as nocturnal LED-Induced chlorophyll a Fluorescence (LEDIF). The shape of the LEDIF spectra was dependant on the colour of the excitation light and also on the dominant species. Because we measured pine at two different times of year we were also able to show an increase in the canopy scale apparent quantum yield of fluorescence which was consistent with leaf-level increase in fluorescence yield recorded with a monitoring PAM fluorometer. The automation of the LEDIF technique could be used to estimate seasonal changes in canopy fluorescence spectra and yield from fixed or mobile platforms and provide a window into functional traits across species and architectures. LEDIF could also be used to evaluate FLD and inversion-based retrievals of canopy spectra, as well as different irradiance normalisation schemes typically applied to SIF data to account for the dependence of SIF on ambient light conditions.
  • Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari (2016)
    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light.
  • Xu, Enjun; Tikkanen, Mikko; Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Kangasjaervi, Saijaliisa; Brosche, Mikael (2022)
    Plants live in a world of changing environments, where they are continuously challenged by alternating biotic and abiotic stresses. To transfer information from the environment to appropriate protective responses, plants use many different signaling molecules and pathways. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical signaling molecules in the regulation of plant stress responses, both inside and between cells. In natural environments, plants can experience multiple stresses simultaneously. Laboratory studies on stress interaction and crosstalk at regulation of gene expression, imply that plant responses to multiple stresses are distinctly different from single treatments. We analyzed the expression of selected marker genes and reassessed publicly available datasets to find signaling pathways regulated by ozone, which produces apoplastic ROS, and high light treatment, which produces chloroplastic ROS. Genes related to cell death regulation were differentially regulated by ozone versus high light. In a combined ozone + high light treatment, the light treatment enhanced ozone-induced cell death in leaves. The distinct responses from ozone versus high light treatments show that plants can activate stress signaling pathways in a highly precise manner.
  • Stucki, Dimitri; Freitak, Dalial; Sundstrom, Liselotte (2017)
    Short term variation in environmental conditions requires individuals to adapt via changes in behavior and/or physiology. In particular variation in temperature and humidity are common, and the physiological adaptation to changes in temperature and humidity often involves alterations in gene expression, in particular that of heat-shock proteins. However, not only traits involved in the resistance to environmental stresses, but also other traits, such as immune defenses, may be influenced indirectly by changes in temperature and humidity. Here we investigated the response of the ant F. exsecta to two temperature regimes (20 degrees C & 25 degrees C), and two humidity regimes (50% & 75%), for two populations. We measured the survival and the expression of six metabolism- and immunity-related genes, and furthermore compared the expression levels in each condition with the pre-experiment expression levels. Both populations survived equally well at the two humidities, but one population showed higher mortality at 25 degrees C than 20 degrees, at 50% humidity. Similarly, the two populations showed striking differences in their gene expression before the experiment, and in their responses to the environmental conditions. Surprisingly, instead of converging to similar expression levels in the same environmental conditions, gene expression diverged further apart. This indicates different reaction norms to both temperature and humidity for the two populations. Furthermore, our results suggest that also immune defenses are indirectly affected by environmental conditions.
  • Kilpeläinen, Jouni; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Lehto, Tarja (2020)
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants and fungi associate with lower soil organic matter, higher pH, lower phosphorus and higher nitrogen than ectomycorrhizal (EM) ones. However, soil conditions correlate with climatic factors, and we suggest that temperature and humidity have also direct roles in the success of mycorrhiza types. The hypothesis here is that EM perform better at low temperatures than AM, and AM resist drought better than EM. Narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia E. James) forms both AM and EM. We grew seedlings in soil at 14, 20 and 26 °C in factorial combinations with adequate watering and a cyclic mild drought for 4 and 7 weeks. As hypothesized, the percent of EM root tips was largest at 14 °C, while the proportional root length with AM was largest at the two higher temperatures. However, unlike expectations, drought increased EM formation slightly, while the AM colonization was lower in the dry treatment. Plant growth was reduced more by low temperature than drought. Root branching was more prominent at low temperature and root length and mass growth at higher temperatures. Soil nutrient availability did not provide a direct explanation to the results, as both soluble soil N and P were the same in 14 and 20 °C, while the change in mycorrhiza colonization took place between these temperatures. Differences in root morphology (root branching vs length) may affect the proportions of the mycorrhiza types at different temperature regimes. The most likely explanation to the differential colonization is that temperature affects AM and EM fungi in a different way. In nature, temperature and humidity regimes are tightly correlated, and temperature as such may be a stronger determinant for the success of mycorrhiza types than has been previously considered. The poorer performance of AM in low-temperature and drought conditions may reflect stress avoidance rather than stress tolerance by AM fungi.
  • Rousi, Matti; Possen, Boy J. M. H.; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mikola, Juha (2019)
    Silver (Betula pendula) and pubescent birch (B. pubescens) are the two main broad-leaved tree species in boreal forests and Subarctic areas, with great significance for both northern societies and ecosystems. Silver birch has more economical importance as it grows taller, but pubescent birch reaches much further North. The adaptability and genetic diversity of Subarctic birch populations are assumed to derive from inter- and intraspecific hybridization. Southern pollen clouds could in turn increase the adaptability of northern populations to warming climate. In the boreal forest zone of warmer climate, incompatibility reactions may prevent interspecific hybridization and much depends on the synchrony of flowering. Direct in situ observations are, however, mostly lacking and earlier results concerning the spatial and temporal match of flowering phenology between the species are contradictory. Conclusions based on pollen catches may also be biased as the pollen of silver and pubescent birch are notoriously difficult to sort out and the geographical origin of pollen is virtually impossible to determine. Here we employ direct flowering observations and reanalyze old pollen and seed production data, collected along a South-North gradient in Finland, to shed more light on these issues. Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization is an unlikely mechanism of adaptation in silver and pubescent birch as there is no significant overlap in flowering either near Subarctic or in more southern boreal areas (covering latitudes 60-68 degrees N). Long-distance southern gene flow also unlikely has importance in the adaptation of northern populations to a warming climate as heat sum requirements for flowering in northern and southern populations are equal and northern birches are therefore not receptive at the time of southern flowering. Long-term data of pollen and seed production in turn suggest that pubescent birch is more effective in seed production through the whole South North gradient, but increasingly so towards the North. However, it appears that this difference is not due to silver birch flowering and regeneration being more sensitive to interannual variation as earlier suggested. Although there are more factors than reproduction alone that can affect species distributions, these two findings indicate that climate warming may not significantly alter the relative abundances of silver and pubescent birch in Subarctic Fennoscandia.