Browsing by Subject "ACIDIFICATION"

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  • Peltomaa, Elina; Ojala, Anne; Holopainen, Anna-Liisa; Salonen, Kalevi (2013)
  • Morozov, Sergey; McCairns, R. J. Scott; Merila, Juha (2019)
    FishResp is a user-friendly tool for calculating oxygen uptake of aquatic organisms. The aim of the software is to improve the quality of metabolic rate estimates based on a straightforward pipeline: background respiration correction, detection of mechanical problems, conduction of QC tests, and filtration based on user-defined criteria. Abstract Intermittent-flow respirometry is widely used to measure oxygen uptake rates and subsequently estimate aerobic metabolic rates of aquatic animals. However, the lack of a standard quality-control software to detect technical problems represents a potential impediment to comparisons across studies in the field of evolutionary and conservation physiology. Here, we introduce FishResp', a versatile R package and its graphical implementation for quality-control and filtering of raw respirometry data. Our goal is to provide a straightforward, cross-platform and free software to help improve the quality and comparability of metabolic rate estimates for reducing methodological fragmentation in the field of aquatic respirometry. FishResp accepts data from various respirometry systems, allows users to detect potential mechanical problems which can occur during oxygen uptake measurements (e.g. chamber leaking, poor water circulation), and offers six options to correct raw data for microbial oxygen consumption. The software performs filtering of raw data based on user criteria, and produces accurate and unbiased estimates of absolute and mass-specific metabolic rates. Using data from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), we demonstrate the virtues of FishResp, highlighting the importance of detecting mechanical problems and correcting measurements for background respiration.
  • Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Räike, Antti (2019)
    Increases of riverine organic carbon concentrations have been observed across the northern hemisphere over the past few decades. These increases are the result of multiple environmental drivers, but the relative importance of the drivers is still unclear. We analyzed a dataset of >10 000 observations of riverine total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and associated water chemistry and hydrological observations from 1993 to 2017. The observations span a ~600 km north–south gradient from 30 individual river systems in Finland. Our data show significantly increasing TOC concentrations in 25 out of 30 systems, with an average increase from 12.0 to 15.1 mg l−1. The observed increase in riverine TOC concentrations led to an increase of 0.28 Mt in annual TOC load to the Baltic Sea from 1993 level to 2017 level. We analyzed the role of three putative environmental drivers of the observed TOC trends. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the most common driver was discharge, which alone explained TOC increases in 13 rivers, whereas pH and temperature were less important drivers (sole predictor in one and zero rivers, respectively). Different permutations of these three drivers were also found to be significant; the combination of discharge and pH being the most common (4 rivers). Land use was not in general linked with trends in TOC, except for the proportion of ditched land in the catchment, which was significantly correlated with increases in TOC concentration. Land use showed significant relationships with trends in discharge and pH. We also found that catchment characteristics are regulating the extent of these regional or global environmental changes causing the upward trends of riverine organic carbon.
  • Kylander, Malin E.; Plikk, Anna; Rydberg, Johan; Löwemark, Ludvig; Salonen, J. Sakari; Fernandez-Fernandez, Maria; Helmens, Karin (2018)
    Biological proxies from the Sokli Eemian (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) paleolake sequence from northeast Finland have previously shown that, unlike many postglacial records from boreal sites, the lake becomes increasingly eutrophic over time. Here, principal components (PC) were extracted from a high resolution multi-element XRF core scanning dataset to describe minerogenic input from the wider catchment (PC1), the input of S, Fe, Mn, and Ca-rich detrital material from the surrounding Sokli Carbonatite Massif (PC2), and chemical weathering (PC3). Minerogenic inputs to the lake were elevated early in the record and during two abrupt cooling events when soils and vegetation in the catchment were poor. Chemical weathering in the catchment generally increased over time, coinciding with higher air temperatures, catchment productivity, and the presence of acidic conifer species. Abiotic edaphic processes play a key role in lake ontogeny at this site stemming from the base cation- and nutrient-rich bedrock, which supports lake alkalinity and productivity. The climate history at this site, and its integrated effects on the lake system, appear to override development processes and alters its long-term trajectory.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko Johannes; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2017)
    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is acknowledged to have long-lasting impacts on aquatic environments. Hence, mines have also been detected to pose problems years after closure due to the leaching of toxic drainage initiated by sulfide oxidation. To assess the effects of chronic but relatively low volume acid mine drainage derived from the Haveri copper-gold mine operating between 1938 and 1960 on a freshwater bay in southern Finland, we compared cladoceran assemblages from the pre-mining period with contemporary populations using paleolimnological approaches and multiple sediment cores. The cladoceran community of the pre-mining era differed significantly from the contemporary community of the lake (ANOSIM R = 0.91; p = 0.0001), but closely resembled the contemporary community of a nearby non-polluted reference site. Our results suggest that the differences in species compositions between pre-mining and contemporary samples are most likely caused by eutrophication and not by the AMD impact. Because AMD at our study site is most intense during the spring snowmelt period, cladocerans may avoid seasonal pollution peaks through winter dormancy. Possible pollution peaks resulting from heavy rains during the summer may have negative impacts on the cladoceran community, but such short-term impacts are probably rapidly counteracted by immigration from cleaner areas of the lake.
  • Lehtovaara, Anja; Arvola, Lauri; Keskitalo, Jorma; Olin, Mikko; Rask, Martti; Salonen, Kalevi; Sarvala, Jouko; Tulonen, Tiina; Vuorenmaa, Jussi (2014)
  • Hagner, Marleena; Räty, Mari; Nikama, Johanna; Rasa, Kimmo; Peltonen, Sari; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keskinen, Riikka (2021)
    A substantial percentage of manure nitrogen (N) can be lost as gaseous ammonia (NH3) during storage and field spreading. Lowering slurry pH is a simple and accepted method for preserving its N. Efficiency of slow pyrolysis liquid (PL) produced from birch (Betula sp.) as an acidifying agent, and its ability to reduce NH3 emissions following surface application of cattle slurry, was studied in a field experiment. Untreated slurry (US) and slurries acidified with PL and sulfuric acid (SA) were applied to the second harvest of a grass ley. Immediate NH3 emissions, grass biomass, N-yield and possible toxic impacts on soil nematodes and enchytraeids were examined. Furthermore, the effects on soil respiration, nitrogen dynamics and seed germination were studied in subsequent laboratory experiments. In the field, over one third of the water-extractable ammonium-N (NH4-N) applied was lost through NH3 volatilization from US. SA and PL acidified slurries reduced NH3-N emission rate equally from 3.4 to (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Jager, Henriette I; Novello, Rebecca; Dale, Virginia; Villnäs, Anna; Rose, Kenneth (2018)
    Coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide in response to human‐caused changes in global climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this paper, we view anthropogenic trends in coastal hypoxia through the lens of disturbance ecology and complexity theory. Complexity theory provides a framework for describing how estuaries and other coastal aquatic ecosystems respond to hypoxia by understanding feedback loops. Can it also be valuable in understanding how these ecosystems behave under shifting (i.e., unnatural) disturbance regimes? When viewed as a disturbance regime, shifts in the spatial (areal extent and fragmentation) and temporal (frequency and duration of events) characteristics of coastal hypoxia can be used to track changes into a non‐stationary future. Here, we consider options for increasing the resilience of coastal aquatic ecosystems to future, unnatural hypoxic regimes. To start, we define desirable states as ecosystems with long trophic chains and slow nutrient and carbon dynamics that produce many ecosystem services. We then work backward to describe circumstances dominated by positive feedbacks that can lead ecosystems toward an undesirable state (i.e., depauperate communities and chemically reduced sediments). Processes of degradation and recovery can be understood in the context of island biogeography whereby species diversity in habitats fragmented by hypoxia is determined by the balance between rapid local extinction, slow recolonization from the edges of hypoxic patches, and opportunities for ecological succession during between disturbance events. We review potential future changes associated with changing global climate and highlight ways to enhance coastal resilience. In addition to efforts to slow climate change, potential interventions include reduced nutrient and carbon loadings from rivers, restoration of aquatic vegetation, and managing for key species, including those that promote sediment oxygenation, that enhance water clarity, or that promote grazing on epiphytic algae through top‐down control.