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  • Comparat, J.; Merloni, A.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Boller, T.; Georgakakis, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Dwelly, T.; Buchner, J.; Del Moro, A.; Clerc, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Brusa, M.; Krumpe, M.; Liu, T. (2019)
    In the context of the upcoming SRG/eROSITA survey, we present an N-body simulation-based mock catalogue for X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) samples. The model reproduces the observed hard X-ray AGN luminosity function (XLF) and the soft X-ray logN-logS from redshift 0 to 6. The XLF is reproduced to within +/- 5 per cent and the logN-logS to within +/- 20 per cent. We develop a joint X-ray - optical extinction and classification model. We adopt a set of empirical spectral energy distributions to predict observed magnitudes in the UV, optical, and NIR. With the latest eROSITA all sky survey sensitivity model, we create a high-fidelity full-sky mock catalogue of X-ray AGN. It predicts their distributions in right ascension, declination, redshift, and fluxes. Using empirical medium resolution optical spectral templates and an exposure time calculator, we find that 1.1 x 10(6) (4 x 10(5)) fibre-hours are needed to follow-up spectroscopically from the ground the detected X-ray AGN with an optical magnitude 21 <r <22.8 (22.8 <r <25) with a 4-m (8-m) class multiobject spectroscopic facility. We find that future clustering studies will measure the AGN bias to the per cent level at redshift z <1.2 and should discriminate possible scenarios of galaxy-AGN co-evolution. We predict the accuracy to which the baryon acoustic oscillation standard ruler will be measured using X-ray AGN: better than 3 per cent for AGN between redshift 0.5 to 3 and better than 1 per cent using the Ly alpha forest of X-ray QSOs discovered between redshift 2 and 3. eROSITA will provide an outstanding set of targets for future galaxy evolution and cosmological studies.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Blanchard, A.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Kirkpatrick IV, C.C. (2020)
    Aims. The Euclid space telescope will measure the shapes and redshifts of galaxies to reconstruct the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of cosmic structures. The estimation of the expected performance of the experiment, in terms of predicted constraints on cosmological parameters, has so far relied on various individual methodologies and numerical implementations, which were developed for different observational probes and for the combination thereof. In this paper we present validated forecasts, which combine both theoretical and observational ingredients for different cosmological probes. This work is presented to provide the community with reliable numerical codes and methods for Euclid cosmological forecasts.Methods. We describe in detail the methods adopted for Fisher matrix forecasts, which were applied to galaxy clustering, weak lensing, and the combination thereof. We estimated the required accuracy for Euclid forecasts and outline a methodology for their development. We then compare and improve different numerical implementations, reaching uncertainties on the errors of cosmological parameters that are less than the required precision in all cases. Furthermore, we provide details on the validated implementations, some of which are made publicly available, in different programming languages, together with a reference training-set of input and output matrices for a set of specific models. These can be used by the reader to validate their own implementations if required.Results. We present new cosmological forecasts for Euclid. We find that results depend on the specific cosmological model and remaining freedom in each setting, for example flat or non-flat spatial cosmologies, or different cuts at non-linear scales. The numerical implementations are now reliable for these settings. We present the results for an optimistic and a pessimistic choice for these types of settings. We demonstrate that the impact of cross-correlations is particularly relevant for models beyond a cosmological constant and may allow us to increase the dark energy figure of merit by at least a factor of three.
  • Hayes, Laura A.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Dennis, Brian R.; Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew; Morosan, Diana E. (2019)
    Solar flares often display pulsating and oscillatory signatures in the emission, known as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP). QPP are typically identified during the impulsive phase of flares, yet in some cases, their presence is detected late into the decay phase. Here, we report extensive fine structure QPP that are detected throughout the large X8.2 flare from 2017 September 10. Following the analysis of the thermal pulsations observed in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/X-ray sensor and the 131 angstrom channel of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we find a pulsation period of similar to 65 s during the impulsive phase followed by lower amplitude QPP with a period of similar to 150 s in the decay phase, up to three hours after the peak of the flare. We find that during the time of the impulsive QPP, the soft X-ray source observed with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager rapidly rises at a velocity of approximately 17 km s(-1) following the plasmoid/coronal mass ejection eruption. We interpret these QPP in terms of a manifestation of the reconnection dynamics in the eruptive event. During the long-duration decay phase lasting several hours, extended downward contractions of collapsing loops/plasmoids that reach the top of the flare arcade are observed in EUV. We note that the existence of persistent QPP into the decay phase of this flare are most likely related to these features. The QPP during this phase are discussed in terms of magnetohydrodynamic wave modes triggered in the post-flaring loops.