Browsing by Subject "ACTIN-FILAMENT"

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  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Mansuri, Naziha; Mogg, Jasper; Kurki, Samu; Repo, Heli; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2018)
    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. The subgroup can be identified immunohistochemically, by lack of hormone receptor expression combined with expression of basal markers such as CK5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro, several regulators of the actin cytoskeleton are essential for efficient invasion of basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Whether these proteins are expressed in vivo determines the applicability of these findings in clinical settings. The actin-regulating formin protein FHOD1 participates in invasion of the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Here, we measure the expression of FHOD1 protein in clinical triple-negative breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and further characterize the expression of another formin protein, INF2. We report that basal-like breast cancers frequently overexpress formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2. In cell studies using basal-like breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of FHOD1 or INF2 interferes with very similar processes: maintenance of cell shape, migration, invasion, and proliferation. Inhibition of EGFR, PI3K, or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity does not alter the expression of FHOD1 and INF2 in these cell lines. We conclude that the experimental studies on these formins have implications in the clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancer.
  • Hakala, Markku; Kalimeri, Maria; Enkavi, Giray; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Lappalainen, Pekka (2018)
    Membrane phosphoinositides control organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the activities of several key actin-binding proteins. Twinfilin is an evolutionarily conserved protein that contributes to cytoskeletal dynamics by interacting with actin monomers, filaments, and the heterodimeric capping protein. Twinfilin also binds phosphoinositides, which inhibit its interactions with actin, but the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we show that the high-affinity binding site of twinfilin for phosphoinositides is located at the C-terminal tail region, whereas the two actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin-like ADF homology domains of twinfilin bind phosphoinositides only with low affinity. Mutagenesis and biochemical experiments combined with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the C-terminal tail of twinfilin interacts with membranes through a multivalent electrostatic interaction with a preference toward phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P-2), PI(4,5)P-2, and PI(3,4,5)P-3. This initial interaction places the actin-binding ADF homology domains of twinfilin in close proximity to the membrane and subsequently promotes their association with the membrane, thus leading to inhibition of the actin interactions. In support of this model, a twinfilin mutant lacking the C-terminal tail inhibits actin filament assembly in a phosphoinositide-insensitive manner. Our mutagenesis data also reveal that the phosphoinositide-and capping protein-binding sites overlap in the C-terminal tail of twinfilin, suggesting that phosphoinositide binding additionally inhibits the interactions of twinfilin with the heterodimeric capping protein. The results demonstrate that the conserved C-terminal tail of twinfilin is a multifunctional binding motif, which is crucial for interaction with the heterodimeric capping protein and for tethering twinfilin to phosphoinositide-rich membranes.